Date: 19.6.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 777
Essayhelpdeal.grabmyessay.life #Essay and political economy

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Essay and political economy

Essay and political economy

Mar/Sun/2018 | Uncategorized





Essays on political economy

Essay and political economy

Order Essay from Experienced Writers with Ease -
Political Economy Essay | CustomWritings com Blog

A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to turn your creativity and and political your command of the essays written word into great prizes. If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the essay and political economy winner, follow these ten steps for winning essay contests. The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to read the rules thoroughly. Total Assignment! Overlooking one small detail could be the economy difference between winning the contest and wasting a perfectly good essay. Pay special attention to the start and closing dates, the total quality assignment entry frequency, and any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and any other details the essay economy sponsor requires. It might help you to print out the sweepstakes rules and highlight the most important elements, or to thesis thanks, write down notes and keep them close at hand. If you summarize the relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the essay and political economy requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything.

Continue to thesis thanks, 2 of 10 below. And Political Economy! Many people want to jump right into total quality assignment, writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Essay Economy! Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Note Taking Cards In Research! Consider different ways that you can make the contest theme personal, come at it from a different angle, or stand out from all of the other contest entries. Write all of your ideas down, and economy don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Continue to reading, 3 of 10 below. Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over all of your ideas to pick the essay and political economy one you want to develop for your essay contest entry. When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to paper, the essay contest#39;s sponsor.

Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay? Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the first sentence is the most important of all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is time to pick winners. One of my favorite examples of essay and political economy how a good hook can influence judges is the story of expressions essay how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for essay a Day. Continue to 5 of 10 below.

Sign up today and on patient get the latest contests and essay and political economy sweepstakes delivered straight to your inbox, with opportunities to win cash, vacations, cars, and more! Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on paper (or on your computer). Remember that this is biography for 2nd grade, intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about perfect grammar or if you are running over essay, your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and if you are communicating everything you intend to. Another way first drafts are important is that they help you get over your natural reluctance to biography book grade, write. You are not trying to be good yet, you are trying to simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later. In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to and political, help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an quality entry stand out from the rest. In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and coined words were some of the red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to make her entries pop.

While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and and political ad-type contests, the red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out. Note Taking Cards In Research Paper! Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in the judges#39; minds. If your first draft is feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to essay economy, spice up your story. Continue to 7 of 10 below. Once you have written the first draft of your essay contest entry, look over biography book report for 2nd, it to ensure that it flows smoothly.

Is your point well-made and clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to another? Do the and political economy transitions make sense? Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is essays, also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and make sure that you#39;ve come in under the economy word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft – 10%.#34; In other words, the first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. If you#39;d like some tips on how to improve your first draft, check out these tips about how to self-edit. Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of your essay contest entry, put it aside and don#39;t look at essay it for a little while.

If you have time before the contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for a little while. Economy! Many times, people think of just the thing to add to their essay to make it perfect, right after they have hit the submit button. Letting your entry simmer in your mind for a while gives you the time to come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Continue to an argumentative essay, 9 of 10 below. Essay! Now is the time to put the final polish on total quality management, your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to say? Have you made your point? Does the essay economy essay still sound good when you read it out loud? Can you tighten up the prose by making any additional cuts in the word count?

If possible, this is a good time to enlist the help of friends or family members. Read your essay aloud to expressions essay, them and check their reactions. And Political Economy! Did they smile at the right parts? Did it make sense to thesis thanks, them? This is also a good time to ask a friend to double-check your spelling and grammar. Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything.

Make a check list of all of the essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. Essay And Political Economy! And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to your contest, and keep your fingers crossed for the results!

Best Custom Academic Essay Writing Help & Writing Services UK Online -
Bastiat: Selected Essays on Political Economy | Library of Economics

Raspberry Pi Alamode CNC Controller. This is my first attempt at economy, an instructable. I hope it helps someone else. Switches and Lights and fans, oh my. Please read through the comments for useful, more details. I bought a CNC machine some time ago and I was never happy with it. It used a traditional parallel port controller and of course no modern computers have those. So it was always a point of frustration. I used an old Pentium based computer and ran LinuxCNC on it for essay, a while but was still not happy with that.

So I started looking for another solution. I decided that I would try to put together an Arduino based controller and try to quality assignment use USB to communicate with it. After studying that for essay economy, a while I came to realize the Arduino was just not going to be able to do all that needed to be done on its own. The Arduino UNO just does not have enough memory or processing capacity to process a design file by itself. So I modified my solution and started working on thesis thanks using a Raspberry Pi as my host computer. I created a Visio drawing of what I intended to do: It didn't turn out that way and the drawing continued to evolve as I learned more. It kept on essay and political changing until I finally got my project completed. I have now built an biography report for 2nd Arduino based CNC Controller system that uses a Raspberry Pi as its host computer.

The Raspberry Pi processes an nc file that contains a design that is described in GCode commands that can be understood by the Arduino. I have used a few tools on my Windows 8.1 Pro laptop to design a few simple things (like tutorials in makercam here: http://www.makercam.com/). This is a great introduction to designing things for CAD/CAM and it is really easy to use. After creating a design that I wanted to use I wirelessly connected to the Raspberry Pi using WinSCP to essay economy transfer design files to the Raspberry Pi. You can get WinSCP here: http://www.soft-now.com/listing/123823/WinSCP?did=11055pid=1ppd=search,44532390848,winscp20download,e,,c,0. Reading. gclid=CJuIkNHds74CFagWMgodpxMAJw.

Its great, you can just drag a file from one window to the other to move files between systems. You will have to know the essay and political economy, IP address of your Raspberry Pi to connect to it. If you have gone through the initial setup of the Raspberry Pi and setup a network connection you can get the IP address by using the ifconfig command on quality the Raspberry PI. A really helpful tool for getting your IP address and seeing that your Pi is online is a tool called the Advanced IP Scanner here: http://www.advanced-ip-scanner.com/. Another great tool is Wireshark: http://www.wireshark.org/

I then used Remote Desktop Connection (Remote Desktop connection is essay and political, part of Windows and should be on your Windows machine. It can be run by entering mstsc in the Run Open: box) to expressions an argumentative essay connect to my Raspberry Pi. Otherwise you could use VNC or TightVNC: http://www.tightvnc.com/. TightVNC is what you need to put on your Raspberry Pi to allow you to use Remote Desktop Connection from essay and political economy another machine. I can now run the Grbl Controller on the Raspberry Pi which in note taking cards paper, turn connects to an Alamode (an Arduino like board that plugs directly into the GPIO connector on the Raspberry Pi and provides automatic voltage level translation. So that the essay and political, Arduino can communicate with the Raspberry Pi directly. The Alamode also provides Arduino headers to allow for Arduino shields to be plugged directly into it.

So I ended up with a stack of reading, three boards that are tightly integrated due to being plugged directly into and political economy each other. The Alamode (Arduino) processes the GCode commands from the Raspberry Pi into signals that are sent to the CNC Controller shield to run the stepper motors and passes the thesis, various function signals on to the CNC Controller shield too. Essay And Political Economy. They can then be accessed from the external world. Thesis Thanks. All is well so far. But now I have to connect these things to the external world. Step 1: 100% Grbl Compatible CNC Controller. First, I purchased the 100% Grbl compatible CNC Controller shield from: http://blog.protoneer.co.nz/arduino-cnc-shield. Essay And Political Economy. I already had an Arduino and intended to use that with the CNC Controller shield and run something on my laptop to essays on patient control everything. Essay Economy. Then I found out useful expressions an argumentative essay, that the Arduino would not be able to essay and political economy process an entire design file all by itself. This is due to it not having enough memory to handle more than one GCode command at a time.

In fact not all GCode commands are currently completely implemented in the Arduino Grbl software. However, the Arduino does directly interface with the CNC Controller shield and can pass commands to the stepper drivers on book for 2nd the CNC Controller shield without any additional circuitry. The sets of three yellow jumpers that you see in the pictures set the micro stepping for economy, the stepper motors. The one single yellow jumper selects how the limit switches work. Mine are set up so that when the switch closes a ground is detected (the default). The alternative is to sense a hi when Vcc is proof reading, selected. That is to say that the limit switch logic can be set to essay economy sense a hi or lo, your choice. The two yellow jumpers on the left side of the picture are for useful, selecting which axis the A-axis mirrors (two motors on one axis).

I used polarized headers to connect to the stepper drivers so that I would not be able to essay and political plug in my stepper motors backwards - that's pretty important. The 100% Grbl compatible CNC Controller shield does not actually include any stepper motor drivers. It is only a means of integrating the stepper motor drivers into an Arduino shield conveniently and note cards in research paper it works great for that purpose. The CNC Controller shield is designed to use the Pololu type step driver modules like the A4988 stepper motor driver carrier that is shown here: http://www.pololu.com/product/1182. I purchased some from and political China that were about $4.00 each and appear to be exactly the same (we shall see when I actually try to use them). Useful Expressions An Argumentative Essay. They came with some heat sinks too but I decided to and political economy use the ones you see (from Adafruit) instead of the ones that were included instead. You actually only need to populate the X, Y and Z stepper driver carriers on the CNC Controller board (because the Grbl software on the Arduino only taking, knows about three axes). Unless you intend to use the and political economy, A-Axis too (for a second motor on one of the primary axes). The CNC Controller allows you to mirror the biography for 2nd, control signals from X, Y or Z to the A axis by essay and political, using jumpers. Essays On Patient. I am not using the essay and political, fourth axis. I just included the expressions to write an argumentative essay, fourth stepper driver carrier so that I would have a spare in case one of the essay and political economy, others stops working.

Then again who knows what might be in the future? It became clear that I needed some way to process a complete design file and thesis proof reading break it into individual GCode commands that the Arduino could then pass on to the CNC Controller shield. Many articles are available on the internet about running the Grbl Controller software which provides this specific function on a Raspberry Pi. I had a Raspberry Pi that I had played with a bit, some time ago, but it was an older version. I am sure it would have worked but I decided to get a new one and dedicate the new one to being the host in my new CNC Controller system. For more information about essay running the expressions essay, Grbl Controller software on a Raspberry Pi look here: http://zapmaker.org/raspberry-pi/running-grbl-controller-on-raspberry-pi/ Due to reading a lot of those articles that I mentioned I became concerned that the Raspberry Pi would overheat when inside of an enclosure so I put heat sinks on it. Then I had to essay and political trim down the heat sink on the processor as it was too tall. I also came to realize that the Arduino and the Raspberry Pi are slightly, electrically incompatible. The Arduino operates with 5V logic and the Raspberry Pi operates with 3.3 V logic.

So a voltage level translator of some sort is required as an interface between the two environments. I looked around for a solution and found a few. I didn't really like anything that I was finding and it took a while to get to note cards paper what I wanted but I eventually found the Raspberry Pi Alamode board. The Alamode board plugs directly into the GPIO connector on essay the Raspberry Pi and provides the thesis reading, level shifting function that is needed for the Arudino to communicate with it. It also provides Arduino compatible headers so that any standard Arduino shield can be plugged into essay and political economy it too. Including the CNC Controller shield. So it now appeared that I could have a stack of three boards that communicate with each other properly and elegantly - with no additional circuitry required. Some quick features of the Alamode - that I am interested in: The Alamode has a real time clock that is directly available to the Raspberry Pi (with a coin cell battery backup).

The Alamode can be powered from the Raspberry Pi or it can be powered directly through its own micro USB connector. There is thesis thanks, a tiny jumper that allows you to select how you want to power it. The jumper header fell off of my board (probably my own fault). And Political. I looked at it and taking cards decided I just didn't need it as I intended on and political economy powering it through its own micro USB port anyway. The big deal is that the Alamode includes the signal level shifting that is required for an Arduino to communicate with a Raspberry Pi. Once the Alamode is connected to essays on patient the Raspberry PI you can then load the Grbl software onto the Alamode. Essay Economy. The Grbl code is loaded into the Alamode with the Arduino IDE. Essays. You need to load the Arduino IDE onto the Raspberry Pi to load the Grbl code into the Alamode. The Getting Started instructions at the Alamode site are very good and complete: http://wyolum.com/projects/alamode. Refer to and political the User Guide for cards, instructions on how to set up the real time clock.

Let me just say that it works exactly as they say it does. It is a bit of a task to get everything together to and political economy actually use it but once it is set up (mostly on the Raspberry Pi) it works great. So now I have a stack of three boards. With the Raspberry Pi on the bottom, the Alamode in the middle and the CNC Controller shield on the top. Total Management Assignment. All plugged together. One problem for me was that the Alamode does not provide any mounting holes. It does provide a rubber pad that goes on the top of the essay and political, RJ-45 Ethernet connector on essays on patient autonomy the Raspberry Pi and is the right height (must be very carefully positioned on the RJ-45 connector) but there is essay and political, no solid connection point other than the useful expressions to write essay, GPIO connector.

The CNC Controller shield is like most other Arduino shields and essay is very well held in place due to the friction of the header extenders that are on the Arduino. My original Raspberry Pi did not have mounting holes in it either. Total Management Assignment. That is part of the and political, reason why I decided to quality get a new one and use it instead. Later on, I purchased an assortment of essay, nylon standoffs and attached a couple of them to the Raspberry Pi - with a couple of washers to get the assignment, height right. Then I very carefully put a drop of super glue on essay and political the top of each of the nylon standoffs and put the Alamode onto useful to write an argumentative, the Raspberry Pi. I then left it alone for a while. I was later able to economy take the screws out of the bottom of the Raspberry Pi and autonomy take the Alamode off with the and political economy, standoffs attached to the Alamode - it worked! I also attached a standoff between the Alamode and the CNC Controller shield as there was a hole in a place that made that possible on both boards. Thesis Thanks. So now I have all three boards securely connected together.

Early on and political economy I decided to use some sort of enclosure to protect my finished project. So I bought one and then came to realize it was not large enough and had to measure everything and buy another one. The one I used is is nice box but turned out to essays on patient be a challenge anyway. This box is made by Bud and I got through Amazon here: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B005T7ARB6/ref=pe_385040_30332190_TE_M3T1_ST1_dp_1. It is a BUD Industries PN-1339-DG High-Impact ABS NEMA 4x Indoor Box, 6-19/64 Length x 6-19/64 Width x 3-17/32 Height, Dark Gray Finish enclosure. There are some nice brass threaded mounting holes in essay economy, the corners inside of the box and the box comes with screws to secure the top to the bottom with the expressions to write essay, brass threaded holes in essay and political, the outside corners. The box also has a gasket to make it waterproof if you need that. In my case it just makes for a very nicely sealed box.

I came to believe that I needed to have some sort of biography, carrier to mount my stack to inside of the box. So I bought a sheet of acetal from Zoro Tools: http://www.zoro.com/g/Acetal%20Sheet%20Stock/00153128/. Essay And Political Economy. Acetal is supposed to be somewhat ESD safe but I have not studied that out to write an argumentative essay, entirely either. After I got the sheet of acetal I cut a piece that would fit inside of the enclosure with my Dremel tool. It isn't pretty and essay and political this is one of the things I plan to replace when I finally get my milling machine working again. I ended up having to cut cutouts on reading both sides of my initial carrier to provide better access for the wires and cables that connect the essay and political, stack to the external world.

I also felt that it was important to make sure that there is adequate ventilation in the box. So I mounted two 40mm, 12 VDC, exhaust fans on the top and two inlet vents with filters on the bottom. In the pictures you can see that there are a couple of extra holes in the carrier - Oops. I made a 1:1 scale drawings of the openings to be put into the box in Visio and then printed those out on my printer. Then I cut out the printed drawings and taped them to the box and used them as templates. It wasn't perfect, of course, but was pretty good. I started each modification to essays autonomy the box by using an Exacto knife to essay and political economy carefully mark through the templates and then used a Sharpie to make sure I got it right. Then I used my Dremel to cut out the various openings in the box. Not too difficult to do but you have to useful an argumentative be patient and let the Dremel do the essay and political economy, work or you will end up with a lot of melted plastic on your hands and the nib that you are using in note cards in research, the Dremel will try to dig into the material occasionally. My only advice is essay, be patient, take you time, don't press to proof hard, cut in the right direction and essay and political it will all work out acceptably - no one is perfect.

The hardest openings to cut were the ones for the switches and the connectors. Each of the connectors and switches have flat spots on opposite sides. All of my switches and connectors are 16mm. Thesis Thanks. The flat spots keep the switches or connectors from essay turning in the chassis. That is great if you are using chassis punches but I do not know of any of thesis reading, those that are designed to work on plastic. So I had to very carefully cut the holes by hand with my Dremel. I cut them and test fitted each connector one at a time and as soon as I was able to get the switch or connector in the hole I stopped. They are pretty good but a nice CNC machine would have done a better job than I did - maybe next time I will have a working CNC machine and I can try that. So here is the hard part.

Most CNC machines (milling machines, laser cutters, engravers, water jets, etc.) use stepper motors to position the axes. The CNC Controller board provides X, Y and Z axes as well as an A-Axis that can be used to essay supplement one of the other axes if needed with an expressions to write an argumentative essay additional motor or a fourth axis could be implemented (but Grbl only essay and political, knows about three axes right now). My implementation is biography for 2nd grade, only going to use three axes at this time. However, I decided that I needed to bring the A-Axis out because I might someday want to use it. Further, the CNC Controller board provides for the control functions to enable the spindle as well as two other functions. By default they are spindle cooling and spindle direction (alternately these functions can be used to control a laser, a vacuum hold down or a blower / fume extractor and a heating mat for a 3D printer). I did not know what I might want to economy control later on so I decided to bring those signals out thesis thanks, of the economy, box too.

I ended up with five connectors on one side of my box that can be used to connect to the machine that I want to control. I have labelled everything and everything is also color coded. I want to mention that I used expandable sleeving to thesis thanks bundle wires together where ever possible and to reduce the number of unbundled wires in the build. Economy. It helps in a lot of thesis, ways and protects the wires a bit but most importantly it makes it really clear what each of the bundles is for. It also makes the entire project a lot better looking.

Here is one place that you can get expandable sleeving: https://www.parts-express.com/Search.aspx?keyword=expandable%20sleevingsitesearch=true. NTE provides wire and essay and political economy heat shrink tubing assortments that are really useful in building electronics. Other useful things are like these: Crimping Tool to cards put pins onto the ends of wires to be plugged into the various places: http://www.pololu.com/product/1928. This is a really nice tool and works better than a lot of other crimpers that are a lot more expensive. Of course, you need to have pins and essay economy housings to to write complete a connection. You can see that I used many pins and housings in essay, building my CNC Controller. The next thing that had to be done was to connect the inside of the thesis thanks, box to the external world. And Political. Switches to control the system and biography book report grade plugs to get the signals to the stepper motors and the spindle and finally a connection to a power supply.

The switches are all connected to one header that plugs into the CNC Controller shield and another one that plugs into the power distribution board for the LEDs that are in essay and political economy, the switches. So the note taking cards paper, switches have a connection both below the carrier and above the carrier. The switches are E-Stop or Arduino Reset (Red), Abort Reset (Yellow), Pause / Feed Hold (Blue) and essay and political Cycle Start / Resume (Green). Thesis Reading. The Reset, Abort and Hold switches are push-push switches. That is they stay pushed in essay economy, until you push them again. That gives a positive indication of whether or not a button was pushed. The Resume button is a momentary push button and only stays in as long as you hold it in. Each button illuminates so that you can clearly see if it is pushed in or not. As you can see in the pictures I used colored expandable sleeving and shrink tubing of the same color as the button for thesis thanks, each function to and political make it easier for thesis, me to economy keep everything straight.

The connectors on the other side of the box are color coded too. They are X-Axis (Green), Y-Axis (Blue), Z-Axis (Red), A-Axis (Purple) and total assignment Spindle (Yellow). These colors match up with the cables on my milling machine. The X, Y and Z axes contain the wires for the stepper motors and for the limit switches. The A-Axis is only stepper motor wires and and political economy will not be used on my milling machine. The Spindle connector has the Spindle Enable, Spindle Direction and Cooling Enable wires in on patient autonomy, it. Again you can see that I tried to use the same color expandable sleeving and heat shrink tubing as much as possible. I connected the two 12 VDC exhaust fans to a header that eventually connects to the power distribution board. Finally, I used a PowerWerks PowerPole snap-in chassis mount that provides 5 VDC through a red connector and red cable, 12 VDC through a yellow connector and yellow cable and economy a ground for each side through black connectors. The chassis mount holds the PowerPole connector housings in place inside of the snap-in chassis mount with a pin and these connectors are very well made.

More information about the taking, PowerWerks PowerPole connectors can be found here: http://www.powerwerx.com/powerpole-accessories/pow. Externally I am using an ATX power supply that has been slightly modified to essay provide power for my milling machine (it came with my machine). I built a cable with the PowerWerks PowerPole connections on it that match up to my CNC Controller box PowerPole snap-in chassis mount. Later on I added an emergency power off switch to my power supply. You can see the emergency switch here: http://www.sourcingmap.com/red-mushroom-cap-1no-1nc-dpst-emergency-stop-push-button-switch-ac-660v-10a-p-256918.html. Hooking up the switches and the connectors was the note taking paper, most time consuming part of the build. The next issue was how to economy get power to my stack. I decided to build a power distribution board.

I also had an issue with the switches that I used. As you can see they have LEDs inside of them. The LEDs are completely separate from the switches. On top of that the switches just provide a path to ground for the CNC Controller / Alamode. So, to get the LEDs to thesis proof reading light up when the switch is depressed I had to use an inverter (SN7404 Hex Inverter). Essay. The LED power function is most of the circuitry on thesis thanks the prototype board. Power is on the edges with 5 VDC on one edge and economy 12 VDC on thesis thanks the other edge. And Political Economy. The four resistors are current limiting resistors to limit the current going through the for 2nd, LEDs.

The 12 pin header is where the switches plug into the board. The headers provide power for everything in the box. 5 VDC for the Raspberry Pi and the Alamode. 12 VDC for the fans and the 12 VDC circuitry on the CNC Controller shield and for the 12 VDC path through the and political, relays. The black connector on the prototype board is used to provide the grounds for the signals being controlled by the relay stack. Notice that I tied all of the grounds together on the power distribution board. I used a temporary breadboard to figure out how to taking cards paper get the LEDs to work the way I wanted them to work. Then I moved the circuit to an Adafruit Perma-Proto Half-sized Breadboard PCB. It went pretty quickly and easily. There are pull up resistors in the Alamode (Arduino) that pull up the voltage to near Vcc on the Alamode for each of the essay and political economy, functions. A function change of state is biography book, sensed when the voltage is economy, pulled lo or to ground.

The CNC Controller shield provides the function pins and matching ground pins. Shorting the book report, function to essay ground changes the state of the function and is sensed by the Arduino code. I wired up the switches to expressions do just that. Economy. Press the switch and the function is connected to its respective ground pin. Useful Expressions To Write. However, I also ran a wire from each of the switches to one of the four Inverters that I used (two of the inverters in the HEX Inverter chip are not used). Economy. So that when the switch is open a high or Vcc is on the input to taking cards paper the inverter which results in a low is on essay the output and the LED is off.

Pressing the useful expressions essay, switch puts a low or ground on the input to the inverter and and political hence the output of the inverter transitions to a hi and the LED turns on. I looked into connecting a video display to quality management assignment the enclosure but did not have enough USB ports. So I bought a 3-port USB hub. It came in a black plastic housing but that was way too big to and political economy fit into my box. So I took it out of its housing and then used a zip tie to anchor it to my carrier. Now I have four usable USB ports. Thesis Proof Reading. One has a wireless network adapter in and political economy, it.

I also used one with a miniature keyboard but I am not using it now as I am using the Remote Desktop Connection instead. I also looked at biography, adding an LCD display to the box but found that I just do not have enough room in the box. Another of the USB ports would have been used to connect a touch screen to the system. Next I attached the stack to the top side of the carrier and the power distribution board to and political economy the bottom side with nylon standoffs. The last pieces to go onto the carrier were the thesis proof, relays. Essay And Political. There are three relays. Taking Cards Paper. One for the spindle, One for economy, spindle direction and biography book report for 2nd the last one for spindle cooling.

They got put into a stack and mounted on the carrier with nylon standoffs too. After getting all of the pieces mounted on economy the carrier they needed to biography book be connected electrically. I built a small wiring harness to connect the relays to the power distribution board and to the CNC Controller board. Each relay connects to its control pin on the CNC Controller board (the white expandable sleeving bundle). Essay And Political. Then each relay gets connected to the power distribution board for 12 VDC power. On the other side of the relays I made a couple of cables that provide the ground for the signals being controlled by total quality management assignment, the relays and a very small cable to connect the relays to the spindle connector. It is sleeved with yellow on this side as it connects directly to the Spindle connector on essay economy the side of the box. I used inline connections to allow me to more easily disconnect the cables and get the carrier into and out essays on patient, of the box. The relays are controlled directly from the Alamode via the CNC Controller shield. Of course, you could use these three relays to essay and political control the useful an argumentative, functions mentioned but they could also be used to economy control the functions of the print head and expressions to write essay heat pad on a 3D printer or a LASER in a laser engraver along with a fume extractor or whatever.

I plan on being able to move this control system between all of those environments in the future - unless I decide to essay dedicate this one and build more of quality, them for my future machines. It would also be really easy to use the 5 VDC relays to switch 12 VDC and then use that to control a solid state relay or whatever is essay, wanted. I built another small wiring harness to connect 12 VDC from the power distribution board to the CNC Controller shield. Thesis Reading. This 12 VDC is used to essay and political economy power the stepper motors. Now it was time to biography book report grade install the carrier with all of its boards and cables into the enclosure.

The hardest part is connecting the power to the power distribution board. First I plugged in the connector to the LEDs that are in and political, the switches. Next comes the fans and cards paper finally the essay economy, power. On Patient. Everything is color coded because I am notorious for incorrectly connecting things. And Political. The cables that are attached to thesis proof reading the switches and the connectors have to be gently pushed and essay and political economy pulled to get the carrier in the box but once there is sits comfortably. Step 12: Connecting to the External World. After getting the carrier board connected and in place and then screwed down at its corners the thesis thanks, remaining steps are to connect the switches to the CNC Controller shield. Followed by connecting the axes cables to the CNC Controller shield. Finally the last connections are the relays and the ground for essay, the spindle connection. It is tight but there is enough room for everything to fit nicely into the box.

After getting everything hooked up I powered up the box and started testing everything. The switches worked and I was able to control the system as I thought it should work. Next I went to my laptop and used the Remote Desktop Connection to on patient log into my Raspberry Pi. I had already installed the economy, Arduino IDE on the Raspberry Pi and done a lot to prepare to run the on patient, system. It was a learning experience and I did not know what else I might need to do to essay and political economy make everything work. Expressions An Argumentative. So I got the software working before I ever put anything in the box. The biggest difference between my getting the essay and political economy, software working and the current state is that I now have the switches too and can control the system by useful to write essay, pressing those buttons and it all works. I ran the essay and political economy, Grbl Control program on my Raspberry Pi and thesis thanks connected to the Grbl program that is running on the Alamode. I opened a file that I had created (a modified coaster tutorial) and ran the program.

It ran all the way through and essay economy stopped as I expected it to. I checked to make sure that nothing got hot. Now I have to get out my milling machine and essays autonomy get it back together and try to essay economy make something. Thanks for reading my instructable. Let me know what might have done differently.

Maybe I will make another one. I'm Italian. I apoligize about my poor english. Please, do you have further data and some video in which you show the system working with stepper motors. Management. About the data, i talking about precision and repeatability of the tool in flange. I want and i need to build my own CNC machine, and so far your seems to be the best solution.

But i want to be sure i don't waste money to buy what you suggested in essay and political, you post and have just workin stepper motor, without precision. I hope what i wrote is clear for in research, you. Lately I have been working on my 3D printer and I do not currently have a video of my CNC machine working because it has not worked for some time. Essay And Political Economy. We have moved three times in the past three years. I am now working on management assignment getting my CNC machine working again.

Part of the reason that I started building my CNC controller was that I was not happy about the precision and repeatability of my little machine. I bought new lead screws and anti-backlash nuts and started modifying my machine. Economy. It turned out biography for 2nd, that doing the modifications to my machine was more difficult than I had anticipated and took a long time. I am now making good progress finishing those modifications. I have printed some new mounting components on my 3D printer that are allowing me to get things done now that I had a lot of trouble doing previously. Hopefully, I will finish things up in the next week or so. Then I could make a video of my machine working but it is not working right now and economy is in autonomy, many pieces. You concern with precision and repeatability is the essay, most important aspect of a machine tool, in my opinion. I can tell you this.

Leadscrews are more precise than belts, in general, as belts will occasionally slip and result in missed steps. Assignment. However, my CNC machine had cheap threaded rods. So I did not have that problem. I instead I had a problem with precision and repeatability because the threads were not precision cut. Thus, I replaced the threaded rods with precision lead screws. Also, the essay economy, anti-backlash mechanisms were not that good and they were replaced with the leadscrews and matching anti-backlash nuts. Further, my original stepper motors were connected to the threaded rods with plastic tubing that didn't work very well and I replaced the expressions essay, tubing with aluminum couplers. The precision and repeatability is not a big factor of the economy, software, it is very accurate. Precision and thesis proof repeatability is more determined by physical factors of the machine itself. Precision of the leadscrews and anti-backlash nuts, stepping or micro-stepping of the stepper motors, torque and holding capacity of the stepper motors, smoothness of the slide bearings, stability of the machine, orthogonality of the axes, vibration, runout or how much the spindle's bit moves from perfectly straight, etc. Take a look at the new CNC board from Protoneer.

It will make the economy, project a bit cheaper and easier to do (you would not need the Alamode board). If you are interested in the precision and repeatability of the software take a look at the GRBL site on Github. Lastly, read through the comments here. you will find a lot of quality management, great information about CNC machines. this is essay, absolutely fantastic cdtaylor51! thank you very much! I am building my second cnc machine (I am doing all traditionally though - linuxcnc, stepper motors, etc.) and I know what it takes to design and build your own. you've done great job!

Thanks for total quality management, taking a look. Essay. Good luck on building your machine. you left a description and purchase link for almost everything but the 8 pin connectors, both male female, used to connect steppers to the box. please let us know what they are called and where we can buy them. Thanks much! Try this and there is another parts list in thesis thanks, the comments, way back. This link worked a few minutes ago. Worked perfectly.

Thanks much. I've been a maker for 50 of essay and political, my 58 years and an Instructable reader for essays autonomy, as long as they have been around. I can say with certainty that this is one of the best written that I've ever read. Clear, consise, well thought out, well written. if you had entered a contest I would have voted for it! very well done. And Political Economy. you have a future in technical writing should you persue that line of work. Thanks for useful an argumentative, the kind words. I am now 66 and have been tinkering for a long time. I am a disabled Viet Nam veteran and fully retired now. I actually did work as a technical writer for a few years and in my last job, before I retired, I worked as a Test Program Engineer and wrote test plans and test procedures for sophisticated electronic systems. I also designed and built prototype electronic test equipment and fixtures and mentored more junior associates. I don't really think that I ironed out every instance where there could have been some misunderstanding but I think my write up is pretty good. I never thought that it would get as many views as it has.

When I look at essay and political economy, the number of views it always surprises me. I tried to in research enter it in a contest but was not allowed to as I submitted it a couple of essay and political, days before the contest started. I would have really liked to have won a laser engraver but I still feel pretty good about it just due to the number of people who have read it, tried it, and made comments about taking cards it. I recently purchased a 3D printer from a Chinese place and I am enjoying learning about essay and political it. Maybe I will write another instructable about that someday.

Thanks again for reading my 'able and your comments. I too am a disabled vet and I apologize for assuming you were a young person! No problem at all. I thought that it was kind of funny that mentioned that I could be employeed as technical writer, as I had actually been one for many years. Thanks for helping me to feel a bit younger than I am. Can you point me in the direction you used to get LinuxCNC installed and expressions an argumentative running on your RPI, I have everything else working on my setup including talking to and political my alamode board.

Thank you! I am sorry, but I do not use LinuxCNC at all. I am using the Grbl Controller software on my RPi and the Grbl firmware on my Alamode/Arduino. I am not aware that LinuxCNC can be run on a RPi at this time. At least, I have never tried to do that. I am not sure that LinuxCNC would run very well on an RPi either. perhaps someone else has done it and maybe give you more positive feedback. Check out the thesis proof, liinks in my write up and you should be able to get Grbl working pretty quickly (if you are familiar with Linux/Unix).

Good luck. Well that makes more sense! I musta missed that step. Thank you. Great instructable. Thanks for all the essay and political, detail and extensive references. Good photos. Well done! Hi, not found realy 5VDC 12 VDC, please Help. Here is where I got the relays that I used: It was a great help for me.

I am trying to make one. I have a request and a question please. Can I disconnect my PC or Laptop from the RPi after upload the G-Code into the RPi. I don't want to monitor the process but I want to run the machine without allocating a PC for the operation continuously. Can you please provide the necessary codes for the arduino and RPi. Thanks in advance. If you built a system like mine then you should be able to test your theory to see if it works - I am able to connect wirelessly to my RPi, transfer files, start Grbl and connect to the Arduino (Alamode) and thesis thanks then set up the economy, machines and eventually start making the part. Proof. I can disconnect from my RPi at any time and and political reconnect at any time. Your box looks great, inside and outside.

Like a pro, you could sell them! Thank you so much for sharing and for useful an argumentative, giving additional information that I also will need. Very nice instructable! Thanks, I hope you build one too. Thank you for essay and political economy, your quick reply with concern. I think you made it clear what I have needed. Thank you so much. A great write up. Many thanks for taking the time to compile this.

Very helpful. This is a very nice description of all the guts of a CNC controller. But if you want to dodge most of the bits and pieces to assemble this, you can buy a 4 channel CNC controller board from http://synthetos.myshopify.com/products/tinyg. Essays. It sells from their store for $129.00. It has a USB input and can be driven from most any computer using the free Chili Pepper software. You will still need fans, a power supply, case and switches etc, but going this route will result in a much more compact and complete CNC controller. If this idea has been described further down in the comments, I apologize.

In addition I have no connection with Synthetos other that being a very happy customer. Thanks for letting us know about that. There are many solutions out there for building a CNC controller, this certainly is essay and political economy, not the only way to do it. It is how I did it and it works well, and note taking cards I learned a lot doing it. Why not write you own instructible about what you are proposing? I am sure that others would like to see how you did it and what it looks like along the way. Nice work! Can I ask where you got your panel mount cable connectors? . and essay and political buttons while we're at it. You can try the ones that I mentioned in a previous comment: Is it possible to just connect to the arduino through a usb cable on useful to write the pi? I already have the arduino and cnc shield set up and using my PC to control.

The communications between the RPi and the Arduino happens through the UART on the RPi and the UART on the Arduino. In my project this connection is provided by the Alamode boad (including the required voltage translation between the RPi and the Arduino). It doesn't necessarily have to be that way but the software expects it to be that way. Economy. Could you use the USB to communicate between the RPi and the Arduino - I am sure it could be done but you would probably have to write some extensive code to do that. I also believe that you would loose some functionality on the Arduino. Someone else might have better insight into doing that sort of thing than I do. What I did was use the software that I found as easily as possible - I was not interested in trying to invent an alternate way, I was just interested in trying to get everything to essays on patient autonomy work together.

As for the touchscreen monitor to run the machine: I have done that on several occasions. I just connected an economy HDMI touchscreen to the RPi and could control everthing - actually, I never got the book report grade, touchscreen to work correctly with the RPi so I just used a miniature wireless USB keyboard that has a touchpad built in to run everything. I have not tried to get the touchscreen to work in a while. Using the remote desktop is just so much easier that I just have no desire to try to get the touchscreen working any longer. Touchscreens have their own set of economy, problems on top of everything else.

So I just dropped it and went with the remote desktop instead. My HDMI monitor is something like 5 inches wide and the touchscreen was More accurate enough for me to taking use it effectively. If you have a larger screen thenyou might have better results. I hope I answered your questions. Perhaps others might give you different answers. Check out what the essay and political economy, Grbl guys have to say on Github too. Good luck. I meant LESS ACCURATE More More accurate. Auto correct strikes again!

Hello, cdtaylor51 very good job. I work with a CNC in my day to day and want to build one for me to be able to test work that may be made no real scale. I have ordered some stuff, I have a raspberry pi, ordered the shield alamode, and cards paper cnc, lack ordering stepmotors but do not know what type / model to buy, you can provide me a link? Now I have more technical issues in my day to day use the PC to and political economy design and create the G code and send to as the machine is operating the machine with some switches and a touch screen of 15 wanted my cnc could have a screen to show me what you're doing, but more importantly as the grbl only supports 3 axes would be possible to double the system to thesis thanks have 6-axis? X, Y, Z to the movements a and C to swivel and tilt head and an extra lathe with interpolation with the other 5-axis, using either a PC or another raspberry pi to essay and political control the other 2 raspberry pi, or using one raspberry pi but two alamode shells and two cnc, it would be interesting to create a CNC complete the small scale. I believe that I understand your question and I have to say that you are already far beyond my knowledge level about assignment CNC. I would suggest that you get in essay and political, touch with the guys who are working on on patient Grbl on github. As for the stepper motors: you have to and political economy match up the stepper motors with the drivers that you want to use and the motors need to thesis proof reading have enough power to move the axes at essay, the speed you want and enough torque to hold as you need. The most important factors are the maximum current specified for the motors and the maximum voltage and current that the drivers can handle also microstepping is an important feature (as you no doubt already know).

You will need to understand these relationships to quality assignment get everything you work. Otherwise buy a kit that has the motors, matching drivers and the high current power supply included - that is the easiest way to go. If you want to build a controller like mine then you may want to consider the new CNC Controller board from Protoneer (no Alamode board needed). I have a couple of them and I am working on a new version of my controller using that new board (look at some of the other comments for more information about the new board). Essay And Political. I don't work for them or anything but I really like the way these boards are made and work. You can use the total quality, A4988 type plug-in drivers or external drivers that can handle much higher current and essay voltage (meaning larger, more powerful motors). I am not sure if I answered all of management assignment, your questions or not but good luck.

I would really like to see what you come up with. I am still trying to learn about CNC. Maybe I will take a class or something. Thank you for essay and political, your great instruction! I just have a quick question. You were saying an arduino is not able to process itself, and thus u have to include a raspberry pi, is that because you are running the proof, nc file totally without a laptop or a desktop to generate and command the essay, gcode? If I want to use laptop to create, process and command gcode directly to the arduino, do I still need a raspberry pi? Thank you very much!

Your question is interesting. I have discussed it before but maybe not directly as you asked. There are a few reasons for the RPi to be part of the project. The Arduino/Alamode is pretty busy. Essays On Patient Autonomy. It is essay and political economy, taking care of the real time management of the signals that are causing the motion in the CNC machine. It is also monitoring the limit switches continuously. To Write. On the other hand the economy, RPI is not doing very much. It parses the .nc file and sends one gcode statement at a time to the Arduino. In Research Paper. It also keeps track of economy, what has been done and what is useful, yet to be done. The RPi also provides a means to monitor the progress of a design that is being processed. Of course, I monitor that progress on a separate computer that has a monitor as there is no monitor on my controller.

I like being able to just kick off a design and let it go without monitoring it at all. If I want to then I can reconnect to RPi at any time I desire to see how far along it is. Thanks a lot for essay economy, your detailed comment! I quite got the idea now. I'll try do do more research on Grbl! Yes The Raspberry pi is just acting like computer . You can use lap top and arduino + arduino cnc shield for making cnc. Search on google GRBL arduino. Thanks a lot for your comment. I'm very new to this stuffs, but u've made it a lot clearer! hello, really amazing, I'm 13 years old, I built a 3 axis cnc controller with grbl, I would like to build a 5-axis I do not very well understand the note cards in research, links you send me a diagram as much detail as possible? what have you loaded into rasperry more 2? softwere that you use? I would like to economy know as much as possible! thank you so much for your help! my email stefanodimaria03@gmail.com excuse for my English I'm utillizando google translator thanks again.

Okay, I have read your messages. I do not have any information on reading building a 3D printer or any other 5-axis machine. Grbl is and political, limited to 3-axes. Note Taking Cards Paper. You might want to look at the RepRap wiki as it is essentially a 5-axis machine. Grbl is the only thing that I have loaded on the RPi in addition to the operating system. I made this diagram based off of essay and political economy, what I could see from your Instructable, could you tell me if this is wired correctly or not?

I like your diagram. It is biography book report for 2nd grade, pretty much accurate however it appears that there a couple of things that I think may need to be cleared up. Of course, you can do whatever you want to essay do. In my build I used 8-pin aviation connectors and note cards in research the Endstop / Limit switch wires are connected to four of the pins of the essay and political economy, aviation connectors. In your diagram you ran all of the limit switches to a separate 6-pin connector.

That's okay by me but it is not the way that I did it in my build. I also noticed that you tied the limit switches together in your diagram. I did not do that in my build. Each of the switches are completely separate. I don't know that it matters. Thesis Thanks. That would be a question that the would have to be posed to the Grbl guys.

Another thing that I would like to draw your attention to is that the colors for essay and political economy, the axes are not correct. X should be red, Y should be green and Z should be blue. I got it wrong in my build but because of some of the feedback that I got (read the earlier comments for thesis reading, more info about the colors coding of the axes). The purple and yellow were completely arbitrary on my part. There may be some standard for those too but I am not aware of what it might be. It might be more useful if you labelled the USB connectors for essay and political economy, the different things that they go to. Essays On Patient Autonomy. One goes to the Raspberry Pi and the other one goes to essay the Alamode. It might also be useful to thesis thanks label the switches. I got the wires going to the steppers a bit mixed up in essay economy, my photos too. Pin 1 in my build is blue, Pin 2 is red, pin 3 is green and pin 4 is black.

Just in case is was not noticed: There are four current limiting resistors on the power distribution board that are there to limit the current that goes through the LEDs in the switches. I have attached a few pictures to book report for 2nd grade this reply to show some of and political economy, what I have mentioned. Hi, first of all congratulations, you did a very good work. My question is if I don't have the thesis thanks, Alamode shield for and political, raspberry, it's possible to use Arduino UNO, I have seen in new RPI CNC BOARD that just connect 10 pin from thesis thanks RPI, to and political RPI this pins are I2C and UART I think they are the principals. I have your cnc shield (the red one) but I don't have Alamode shield. Thanks, I hope your answer. Sorry for my English. :) Yes, you can use an Arduino UNO if you want to. You will still have to use a voltage translator so that the RPi and the UNO can communicate with each other. Its no big deal but it is thesis reading, required that you provide some way for the +5V on the Arduino UNO to work with the +3.3V on the RPi. Otherwise, you run the risk of destroying either or both of the essay and political economy, boards.

A voltage translator can easily be made with a couple of MOSFETs for each pin that is going to be connected to the other device. You could also use the voltage translators that are provided by Sparkfun or Adafruit or something of your own design. Take a look at these, I think that either one will work. With a local display you could control the system locally. I personally don't see that as very useful. You could also monitor the report for 2nd grade, progress of your project. That might be more useful but definitely not essential. Economy. As I mentioned previously I can completely control and/or monitor my system with my Remote Desktop Connection. I do not have a display on my system locally.

I just use my laptop to do everything. I might someday decide to thesis thanks build a pendant to do things manually. Then a local display might be more advantageous. if i was to add a touch screen would it be wired to and political Pi or to Arduino. It would be easiest to just plug a touch screen LCD into the HDMI port on the Pi. The touch screen itself would actually get plugged into quality management assignment one of the USB ports on the Pi.

I don't think it would be possible to economy run it with the Arduino - it is already very busy controlling the reading, stepper motors and the spindle and at the same time monitoring the buttons and the limit switches. On the other hand the Pi is not very busy. Don't expect very fast response times on a local display and you will need to monitor the temperature on the Pi with a local display running. Those are the concerns that I had that pushed me towards using a Remote Desktop Connection. Hope that helps. I probably would have put a local LCD/Touchscreen on my build if I would have had a bit larger enclosure. 2 questions, one is silly and one serious.

Would you have put an LCD for the cool factor or do you so an actual need? I was curious if the push-buttons can be replaced by touch screen buttons? BTW, thank you for your prompt reply. You rock my friend.

Write my essay for me with Professional Academic Writers -
Essays in Political Economy | Mises Institute

An Analysis of Outcomes of Reconstruction or Amputation after Leg-Threatening Injuries. Michael J. Bosse, M.D., Ellen J. MacKenzie, Ph.D., James F. Essay? Kellam, M.D., Andrew R. Burgess, M.D., Lawrence X. Thesis Proof? Webb, M.D., Marc F. Swiontkowski, M.D., Roy W. And Political Economy? Sanders, M.D., Alan L. Jones, M.D., Mark P. McAndrew, M.D., Brendan M. Patterson, M.D., Melissa L. McCarthy, Sc.D., Thomas G. Travison, Ph.D., and Renan C. Castillo, M.S. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1924-1931 December 12, 2002 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa012604. Limb salvage for severe trauma has replaced amputation as the primary treatment in many trauma centers. However, long-term outcomes after limb reconstruction or amputation have not been fully evaluated. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study to thesis thanks determine the functional outcomes of and political economy, 569 patients with severe leg injuries resulting in reconstruction or amputation. The principal outcome measure was the Sickness Impact Profile, a multidimensional measure of self-reported health status (scores range from 0 to 100; scores for the general population average 2 to assignment 3, and and political economy, scores greater than 10 represent severe disability). Secondary outcomes included limb status and the presence or absence of major complications resulting in rehospitalization. At two years, there was no significant difference in scores for the Sickness Impact Profile between the amputation and reconstruction groups (12.6 vs. 11.8, P=0.53).

After adjustment for the characteristics of the patients and their injuries, patients who underwent amputation had functional outcomes that were similar to those of patients who underwent reconstruction. Predictors of a poorer score for the Sickness Impact Profile included rehospitalization for a major complication, a low educational level, nonwhite race, poverty, lack of private health insurance, poor social-support network, low self-efficacy (the patient's confidence in being able to resume life activities), smoking, and involvement in disability-compensation litigation. Patients who underwent reconstruction were more likely to be rehospitalized than those who underwent amputation (47.6 percent vs. 33.9 percent, P=0.002). Similar proportions of patients who underwent amputation and patients who underwent reconstruction had returned to work by two years (53.0 percent and 49.4 percent, respectively). Patients with limbs at high risk for amputation can be advised that reconstruction typically results in two-year outcomes equivalent to those of useful to write an argumentative, amputation. Medical and and political, surgical advances of the past two decades have improved the ability to reconstruct severely injured legs. 1-3 Limbs that once would have been amputated are now routinely managed with complex reconstruction protocols. Essays On Patient? 4,5 Because most studies evaluating reconstruction have been small and retrospective, the results are not definitive. 2,3,6,7 Although the results are contradictory, some investigators have suggested that functional outcome is economy, often poorer after successful limb reconstruction than after treatment with early amputation and a good prosthesis.

4,6-9 We performed a prospective observational study comparing functional outcomes of a large cohort of patients from eight level I trauma centers who underwent reconstruction or amputation. Our hypothesis was that after adjustment for the severity of the limb injury, the expressions to write essay, presence and severity of other injuries, and other characteristics of patients, those undergoing amputation would have better outcomes than those undergoing reconstruction. Patients 16 to 69 years old who were admitted to eight level I trauma centers for the treatment of high-energy trauma below the distal femur were eligible. 10 High-energy trauma was defined as complicated fractures (Gustilo grade IIIB and IIIC fractures 11 and selected grade IIIA fractures), dysvascular limbs (knee dislocations, closed fractures of the tibia, or penetrating wounds with vascular injury), major soft-tissue injuries (degloving or severe crush or avulsion injury), and severe foot and ankle injuries (Gustilo grade IIIB ankle fractures, all grade III intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia [pilon], 11 and severe hind or midfoot injuries). (The specific types of fractures are defined in Supplementary Appendix 1, available with the full text of this article at http://www.nejm.org.) Excluded were patients with a score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of less than 15, indicating some impairment in consciousness, 21 days after hospitalization or discharge 12 ; patients with a spinal cord deficit, prior amputation, or third-degree burns; patients who were transferred more than 24 hours after the injury; patients who did not speak English or Spanish; patients with a documented psychiatric disorder; and and political, patients who were on active military duty. We enrolled 601 patients between March 1994 and book report for 2nd grade, June 1997. For the present analysis, 32 patients who had bilateral injuries that met the study criteria were excluded. An additional 24 patients were excluded owing to a lack of follow-up (i.e., they were enrolled at the time of hospital discharge but could not subsequently be located). Of the remaining 545 patients, 149 underwent amputation during the initial hospitalization (including 37 traumatic amputations). After the initial hospital discharge, 25 additional patients underwent amputation: 12 by three months, 6 by six months, and essay, 7 after six months.

Most injuries resulted from motor vehicle collisions (29 percent), motorcycle collisions (22 percent), or collisions involving pedestrians and motor vehicles (13 percent). The study was approved by the institutional review board at the coordinating center and each study site. Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. The patients were evaluated at base line (before hospital discharge) and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the injury. Book Grade? At each point, patients were evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon to ascertain limb status and the presence or absence of complications, by a physical therapist to and political economy evaluate the extent of impairment, and by a research nurse to assess the patients' perception of functional outcome. Of the 545 patients, 502 (92.1 percent) were evaluated at 3 months, 503 (92.3 percent) at 6 months, 493 (90.5 percent) at 12 months, and 460 (84.4 percent) at 24 months. All available data on these 545 patients were used in the outcome analysis. Although patients with incomplete follow-up data were more likely to be male, nonwhite, and essays autonomy, without a high-school education than those with complete follow-up data (P0.05 for all comparisons), the and political economy, rates of on patient, follow-up did not differ significantly between the amputation group and the reconstruction group. Essay And Political Economy? Functional outcome was measured with use of the Sickness Impact Profile. 13 The Sickness Impact Profile is a multidimensional measure of self-reported health status, consisting of 136 statements about limitations in 12 categories of function: ambulation, mobility, body care and thesis proof reading, movement, social interaction, alertness, emotional behavior, communication, sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, and recreation.

Respondents are asked to endorse statements that describe their health status on a given day. And Political Economy? Scores are computed for the overall instrument, for each of the 12 categories and for 2 major dimensions of health (physical health, which reflects limitations noted in the first 3 categories, and psychosocial health, which reflects limitations noted in useful expressions an argumentative essay the second 3 categories). The reliability and validity of the Sickness Impact Profile have been well tested, 14 especially with respect to the outcome after injury. 15 The overall scores can range from 0 to 100; scores greater than 10 represent severe disability, and differences in scores of 2 to 3 points reflect meaningful differences in function. 16 Scores average between 2 and 3 points for the general population.

17. Patients were evaluated by the orthopedic surgeon, and the subsequent limb treatment was based on the best clinical judgment of the surgeon and, in some cases, the desires of the patient. 18 Because treatment assignments were not randomized, comparisons of economy, outcomes based on the Sickness Impact Profile were adjusted for potential confounders, including the characteristics of the patients and expressions essay, their injuries. The injuries were prospectively characterized according to the type and essay and political economy, extent of essay, bony damage, the extent of soft-tissue injury, and the initial pulse assessment and plantar sensation (Supplementary Appendix 1). Two orthopedic trauma surgeons who were unaware of the patients' injury classification and eventual treatment reevaluated the case histories by reviewing radiographs, photographs of the wounds, and operative findings. Forty-one (7.5 percent) injuries were reclassified on essay and political economy, the basis of this second evaluation. Amputations were further classified according to the level and type of closure (typical elective skin-flap design or atypical, best-possible skin coverage, including split-thickness skin grafts and free-tissue transfers). Associated injuries were classified with the proof, use of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, 19 the Injury Severity Score, 20 and two scores on the Abbreviated Injury Scale denoting the maximal severity of nonstudy injuries to the contralateral and ipsilateral leg and pelvis. Shock was defined by a systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mm Hg before the initiation of resuscitation. 21 To account for the effect of and political economy, complications on recovery, a variable was constructed to indicate rehospitalization for one or more of the following conditions: late amputation or stump revision, fracture nonunion, hardware failure, flap failure, wound infection, or osteomyelitis. Data collected on the characteristics of the patients that were hypothesized to essays on patient influence the treatment assignment or outcome have previously been described in detail.

10 They included age; sex; race or ethnic group; education; income level 22 and insurance status before the injury; work status, occupation, 23 and essay economy, physical demands of the job before the injury 24 ; personality characteristics, as measured by the Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Openness (NEO) Personality Inventory 25 ; social support, measured with use of a modified version of the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors, which assesses a patient's level of support in terms of tangible assistance, directive guidance and total quality management assignment, emotional support 26,27 and self-efficacy 28 (how confident patients were at the time of hospital discharge in their ability to resume their chief life activities). Additional measures were self-rated health and the presence or absence of chronic conditions before the injury; exercise, smoking, and drinking habits before the injury 29,30 ; and whether compensation was received for the injury and legal services were retained. 31. Longitudinal multivariate regression techniques were used to assess associations between treatment and outcomes over economy a two-year period, after adjustment for characteristics of the patients and taking in research, their injuries. 32 Both additive and multiplicative regression models were considered, but the multiplicative model was chosen because we observed that although scores for the Sickness Impact Profile continually improved, the rate of this improvement declined over time.

Treatment was defined with the use of five categories: amputations above the economy, knee, through the knee, below the knee, or of the biography book report grade, whole or partial foot and reconstruction. The 12 amputations that occurred within the first three months after injury were classified according to the site of the essay and political economy, amputation. The 13 patients who underwent amputation more than three months after injury were considered to have undergone reconstruction. An analysis was performed including and excluding these 13 patients. When included, they were identified as having a major complication. The results of both analyses were similar; therefore, the book report for 2nd, results presented reflect the essay and political economy, inclusion of essays autonomy, these patients. Because the number of variables describing the nature and extent of injuries was large, a summary score, indicating the likelihood of undergoing amputation given a patient's injury profile, was derived with the use of logistic regression that modeled the essay and political, decision to amputate or reconstruct as a function of the characteristics of the injury. 18 Traumatic amputations (for which underlying characteristics of the injury itself were not documented) were assigned a summary score of 1. Multivariate models that included all characteristics of the useful to write, injury as separate covariates yielded results similar to those obtained with the essay economy, use of report, models that included the summary scores; therefore, results based on the more parsimonious model, which used the summary score, are presented. Stepwise modeling techniques were used to construct the final model, which included the essay, treatment variables, the summary score, the occurrence of thesis thanks, a major complication resulting in rehospitalization, and all characteristics of the patients that remained associated with an outcome at a P value of less than 0.10. The extent to which the effect of these variables on the outcome varied according to the time since injury or to treatment was examined, and interaction terms were incorporated where indicated.

There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between patients who underwent reconstruction and those who underwent amputation ( Table 1 Table 1 Base-Line Characteristics of the 545 Patients Who Underwent at essay, Least One Follow-up Evaluation. ). Autonomy? Patients who underwent amputation had more severe injuries, as evidenced by their greater frequencies of bone loss, soft-tissue damage, initial pulse deficit, and lack of and political economy, plantar sensation. Table 2 Table 2 Clinical Status of 460 Patients Evaluated 24 Months after Injury. summarizes the clinical status of patients 24 months after injury. Total Management Assignment? A moderate proportion of patients had not fully recovered, as indicated by the fact that 10.9 percent of essay and political economy, patients who underwent reconstruction had unhealed fractures, 3.9 percent of those who underwent reconstruction and 9.1 percent of those who underwent amputation had unhealed soft-tissue injuries, and 19.1 percent of those who underwent reconstruction and 5.0 percent of those who underwent amputation had an anticipated need for an argumentative essay, additional surgery. The last known status of patients who were followed for less than 24 months (15.6 percent of all patients) was similar to that of patients with complete 24-month follow-up. There were no significant differences between the and political economy, treatment groups in the percentage of cards paper, patients with an unhealed fracture, the percentage with an unhealed soft-tissue injury, or the percentage requiring additional surgery.

More than one third of the patients were rehospitalized at least once for a complication; patients who underwent reconstruction were more likely to have been rehospitalized than those who underwent amputation (47.6 percent vs. 33.9 percent, P=0.002). Mean scores for the Sickness Impact Profile were 14.5 at 12 months and 12.0 at 24 months; at 24 months, 42.0 percent of the patients had scores greater than 10. There were no significant differences in scores between the treatment groups ( Table 3 Table 3 Scores for the Sickness Impact Profile for economy, 493 Patients Evaluated 12 Months after Injury and 460 Patients Evaluated 24 Months after Injury. ). Note In Research? Scores for the work subscale were particularly high. Essay? At 24 months, 53.0 percent of the patients who underwent amputation and 49.4 percent of those who underwent reconstruction had returned to work (P=0.48). Table 4 Table 4 Association between Clinical and Demographic Characteristics and Scores for the Sickness Impact Profile. presents estimates of the magnitude of essays on patient autonomy, change in scores associated with several covariates, including amputations of various types (as compared with reconstruction). The regression analysis confirms the absence of an overall difference in outcomes between groups after adjustment for potential confounders.

Although patients who underwent amputation through the knee had worse scores than patients who underwent other types of procedures, these differences were not statistically significant. To underscore the similarity in and political economy scores after amputation or reconstruction, mean adjusted scores (derived from the final regression model) are presented according to the type of treatment in Table 5 Table 5 Mean Scores for the Sickness Impact Profile for the 460 Patients Who Were Evaluated 24 Months after Injury. Autonomy? . In multivariate analyses, factors that were significant predictors of a poor outcome (as indicated by a high Sickness Impact Profile score) included being rehospitalized for a major complication, having less than a high-school education, having a household income below the federal poverty level, being nonwhite, having no insurance or having Medicaid, having a poor social-support network, having a low level of self-efficacy (confidence in one's ability to and political resume one's chief life activities), smoking, and involving the legal system for injury compensation. Predictors of a poor outcome were the same in both groups. The association between having private insurance and report for 2nd, a disability, however, changed over time; private insurance was associated with the greatest improvement in scores at 6 to 12 months. The characteristics of the injury (according to the summary score) were not significantly correlated with the outcomes measured by the Sickness Impact Profile, nor was the presence or severity of other injuries to ipsilateral and contralateral limbs. After adjustment for the severity of the injury and various other characteristics, patients who underwent amputation had functional outcomes that were similar to those of patients who underwent reconstruction. However, the levels of disability at two years were high in and political both groups: more than 40 percent had a score greater than 10 on the Sickness Impact Profile, reflecting severe disability. Except for the scores for the eating and communication subscales, at 24 months scores for all subscales of the Sickness Impact Profile were substantially higher than published norms for the general population. On Patient Autonomy? 17 Only about half of all patients had returned to work by 24 months. And Political Economy? Except for thesis thanks, the score for the psychosocial-functioning subscale, there were significant improvements in the scores over time in and political both treatment groups. Poor psychosocial outcomes after serious injuries have been reported by other investigators 36,37 and may be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.

38,39. Neither the severity of fracture and soft-tissue injury nor the essays on patient autonomy, presence of associated injuries of the ipsilateral and contralateral leg significantly affected functional outcome. This lack of association may be a reflection of the essay and political, inclusion criteria, in that only patients with the most severe limb injuries were included. These injuries affected the patient's ability to walk and most likely masked the effect on functional outcome of other injuries to the leg and foot. Factors that were not related to useful to write the injury that were associated with a poorer outcome, regardless of the type of injury or treatment, included a low level of education, nonwhite race, poverty, lack of and political economy, private health insurance, smoking, and involvement with disability-compensation litigation. These results suggest that major improvements in outcome might require greater emphasis on nonclinical interventions, such as early evaluation by psychosocial and vocational rehabilitation specialists. Note Cards Paper? Our findings confirm previous research that identified both social support and and political, self-efficacy as important determinants of outcome. 40,41 Interventions aimed at improving patients' perceptions of thesis thanks, self-efficacy, in particular, may benefit those who are facing a challenging recovery. The limitations of our study must be acknowledged.

Patients were not randomly assigned to undergo amputation or reconstruction. Patients who underwent amputation were, on average, more severely injured than those who underwent reconstruction. Although an adjustment was made for these differences in the multivariate analysis, the possibility of residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Although the essay economy, overall rates of follow-up exceeded 80 percent at expressions to write essay, 2 years, the patients who were lost to follow-up (including 24 patients for whom no follow-up data were available and 85 who were followed for less than 24 months) were of lower socioeconomic status than those with complete follow-up. The results may therefore underestimate the overall extent of disability. However, the rate of loss to and political follow-up was similar in the two groups, and in research, all available data on the 545 patients who underwent at essay economy, least one follow-up evaluation were used in the analysis. Also, the cards in research, extent of healing of fractures and soft-tissue wounds at 12 months was similar among those with and those without subsequent follow-up data at 24 months. The generalizability of and political economy, our results beyond level I trauma centers is uncertain. The outcomes may have been influenced by reading the expertise of physicians and other caregivers.

Finally, the results are based on outcomes during the first two years after injury, a period in and political which many patients have not yet completely recovered. Eventual amputation of dysfunctional or chronically painful limbs and the resolution of fractures may ultimately improve function among patients who undergo reconstruction. Taking Cards In Research? Continued modification of the fit of the prosthesis and increasing experience with the device could improve function among patients who undergo amputation. 42 Although not considered in essay this study, the costs of treatment and rehabilitation (including lifetime costs of proof reading, prostheses) will also be important in guiding treatment decisions. Contrary to essay and political our hypothesis, at two years, the outcomes among patients who underwent reconstruction were not significantly different from those among patients who underwent amputation. Thus, patients with limb injuries that put them at in research paper, high risk for amputation can be advised that reconstruction typically results in essay and political economy two-year outcomes equivalent to expressions to write those of amputation. However, reconstruction is and political economy, associated with a higher risk of complications, additional surgeries, and rehospitalization.

Funded by a grant (R01-AR42659) from the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Biography Book Report? Burgess reports having consulted for and political economy, Howmedica; Dr. Proof? Webb reports having consulted for Zimmer, Orthofix, and AO Foundation; and Dr. Essay? Jones reports having consulted for total quality management assignment, Stryker and for Smith, Nephew and Richards. We are indebted to the coprincipal investigators, study coordinators, and essay and political, physical therapists at each of the eight study sites, including Julie Agel, A.T.C., Jennifer Avery, P.T., Denise Bailey, P.T., Wendall Bryan, Debbie Bullard, Carla Carpenter, P.T., Elizabeth Chaparro, R.N., Kate Corbin, M.D., Denise Darnell, R.N., B.S.N., Stephanie Dickason, P.T., Thomas DiPasquale, D.O., Betty Harkin, P.T., Michael Harrington, P.T., Dolfi Herscovici, D.O., Amy Holdren, R.N.C., A.N.P., M.S.N., Linda Howard, P.T., Sarah Hutchings, B.S., Marie Johnson, L.P.N., Melissa Jurewicz, P.T., Donna Lampke, P.T., Karen Lee, R.N., Marianne Mars, P.T., Maxine Mendoza-Welch, P.A., J. Wayne Meredith, M.D., Nan Morris, P.T., Karen Murdock, P.T., Andrew Pollak, M.D., Pat Radey, R.N., Sandy Shelton, P.T., Sherry Simpson, P.T., Steven Sims, M.D., Douglas Smith, M.D., Adam Starr, M.D., Celia Wiegman, R.N., John Wilber, M.D., Stephanie Williams, P.A., Philip Wolinsky, M.D., Mary Woodman, B.A., and taking cards in research paper, Michele Zimmerman, R.N. From the essay and political economy, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, N.C. Taking Paper? (M.J.B., J.F.K.); the Center for Injury Research and Policy, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore (E.J.M., T.G.T., R.C.C.); the essay, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland at book report for 2nd grade, Baltimore, Baltimore (A.R.B.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, N.C. (L.X.W.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle (M.F.S.); the Orthopedic Trauma Service, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, Fla. (R.W.S.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (A.L.J.); the Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville (M.P.M.); the and political, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland (B.M.P.); and Johns Hopkins School of cards, Medicine, Baltimore (M.L.M.). Address reprint requests to Dr.

Bosse at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1000 Blythe Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28203, or at mbosse@carolinas.org. Caudle RJ , Stern PJ . Severe open fractures of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69:801-807. Francel TJ , Vander Kolk CA , Hoopes JE , Manson PN , Yaremchuk MJ . Microvascular soft-tissue transplantation for reconstruction of economy, acute open tibial fractures: timing of coverage and long-term functional results. Plast Reconstr Surg 1992;89:478-487. Godina M . Early microsurgical reconstruction of complex trauma of the extremities. Plast Reconstr Surg 1986;78:285-292.

Hansen ST Jr . The type-IIIC tibial fracture: salvage or amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69:799-800. Lange RH . Limb reconstruction versus amputation decision making in massive lower extremity trauma. Thesis Thanks? Clin Orthop 1989;243:92-99. Francel TJ . Improving reemployment rates after limb salvage of acute severe tibial fractures by microvascular soft-tissue reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 1994;93:1028-1034. Georgiadis GM , Behrens FF , Joyce MJ , Earle AS , Simmons AL . Open tibial fractures with severe soft-tissue loss: limb salvage compared with below-the-knee amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75:1431-1441. Dagum AB , Best AK , Schemitsch EH , Mahoney JL , Mahomed MN , Blight KR . Salvage after severe lower-extremity trauma: are the outcomes worth the means?

Plast Reconstr Surg 1999;103:1212-1220. Fairhurst MJ . The function of below-knee amputee versus the patient with salvaged grade III tibial fracture. Clin Orthop 1994;301:227-232. Essay Economy? MacKenzie EJ , Bosse MJ , Kellam JF , et al. Characterization of patients with high-energy lower extremity trauma. J Orthop Trauma 2000;14:455-466. Thesis Thanks? Gustilo RB , Mendoza RM , Williams DN . Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures. J Trauma 1984;24:742-746. Teasdale G , Jennett B . Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 1974;2:81-84.

Bergner M , Bobbitt RA , Carter WB , Gilson BS . The Sickness Impact Profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Essay And Political Economy? Med Care 1981;19:787-805. de Bruin AF , de Witte LP , Stevens F , Diederiks JP . Sickness Impact Profile: the state of the art of a generic functional status measure. Book Report? Soc Sci Med 1992;35:1003-1014. Jurkovich G , Mock C , MacKenzie E , et al.

The Sickness Impact Profile as a tool to evaluate functional outcome in essay and political economy trauma patients. J Trauma 1995;39:625-631. Thesis? Patrick DL , Deyo RA . Generic and disease-specific measures in assessing health status and and political economy, quality of life. Med Care 1989;27:Suppl:S217-S232. MacKenzie EJ , Burgess AR , McAndrew MP , et al. Patient-oriented functional outcome after unilateral lower extremity fracture. J Orthop Trauma 1993;7:393-401. Swiontkowski MF , MacKenzie EJ , Bosse MJ , Jones AL , Travison T . Thesis Reading? Factors influencing the decision to amputate or reconstruct after high-energy lower extremity trauma. J Trauma 2002;52:641-649. Economy? The Abbreviated Injury Scale: 1990 revision: Update 98. Des Plaines, Ill.: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 1998.

Baker SP , O'Neill B , Haddon W Jr , Long WB . The Injury Severity Score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma 1974;14:187-196. Johansen K , Daines M , Howey T , Helfet D , Hansen ST Jr . Objective criteria accurately predict amputation following lower extremity trauma. J Trauma 1990;30:568-573. Fisher GM . The development and history of the poverty thresholds. Soc Secur Bull 1992;55:3-14. Employment Service.

Dictionary of occupational titles. 4th ed. rev. Washington, D.C.: Department of Labor, Employment and to write an argumentative, Training Administration, 1991. Lando ME, Cutler RR, Gamber E. 1978 Survey of disability and work: data book. Washington, D.C.: Social Security Administration, Office of Policy, Office of Research and Statistics, November 1982. (SSA publication no. 13-11745.) Costa PT Jr, McCrae RR. NEO PI-R: NEO Personality Inventory: item booklet — form R (men).

Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992. Barrera M Jr , Sandler IN , Ramsay TB . Essay Economy? Preliminary development of a scale of social support: studies of for 2nd, college students. Am J Community Psychol 1981;9:435-447. Stokes JP , Wilson DG . The Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors: dimensionality, prediction, and gender differences. And Political Economy? Am J Community Psychol 1984;12:53-69. Bandura A , O'Leary A , Taylor CB , Gauthier J , Gossard D . Reading? Perceived self-efficacy and pain control: opioid and essay and political, nonopioid mechanisms. J Pers Soc Psychol 1987;53:563-571. On Patient? Massey JT, Moore TF, Parsons VL, Tadros W. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 1985-94. Vital and health statistics.

Series 2. No. 10. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, August 1989. (DHHS publication no. (PHS) 89-1384.) Selzer ML , Vinokur A , van Rooijen L . Economy? A self-administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST). J Stud Alcohol 1975;36:117-126. Hensler DR, Marquis MS, Abrahamse AF, et al. Compensation for accidental injuries in the United States.

Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1991. Liang KY , Zeger SL . Regression analysis for correlated data. Annu Rev Public Health 1993;14:43-68. Muller ME, Allgower M, Schneider R, Willenegger H. Manual of internal fixation: techniques recommended by the AO-ASIF Group. 3rd ed. rev.

Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1991. Orthopaedic Trauma Association Committee for Coding and Classification . Fracture and dislocation compendium. J Orthop Trauma 1996;10:Suppl 1:1-154. Suedkamp NP , Barbey N , Veuskens A , et al. The incidence of osteitis in open fractures: an analysis of book, 948 open fractures (a review of the Hannover experience). J Orthop Trauma 1993;7:473-482.

Holbrook TL , Anderson JP , Sieber WJ , Browner D , Hoyt DB . Essay Economy? Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project. J Trauma 1999;46:765-773. Michaels AJ , Michaels CE , Moon CH , et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder after injury: impact on general health outcome and early risk assessment. Useful An Argumentative Essay? J Trauma 1999;47:460-466. Shalev AY , Peri T , Canetti L , Schreiber S . Predictors of PTSD in injured trauma survivors: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:219-225.

Brom D , Kleber RJ , Hofman MC . Victims of traffic accidents: incidence and prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychol 1993;49:131-140. Berkman LF, Glass T. Social integration, social networks, social support, and health. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I, eds. Social epidemiology. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2000:137-73. MacKenzie EJ , Morris JA Jr , Jurkovich GJ , et al.

Return to work following injury: the role of economic, social, and job-related factors. Am J Public Health 1998;88:1630-1637. Matsen SL , Malchow D , Matsen FA III . Correlations with patients' perspectives of the essay and political, result of lower-extremity amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82:1089-1095. Joseph Burris. . 2018.

Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Restoration in Upper Limb Amputation. Braddom's Rehabilitation Care: A Clinical Handbook, 51-56.e4. G. Mattiassich, F. Rittenschober, L. Dorninger, J. Rois, R. Mittermayr, R. Ortmaier, M. Ponschab, K. Katzensteiner, L. Larcher. . (2017) Long-term outcome following upper extremity replantation after major traumatic amputation. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 18 :1. Darnel Murgatroyd, Ian A. Harris, Jian Sheng Chen, Sam Adie, Rajat Mittal, Ian D. Cameron. . (2017) Predictors of seeking financial compensation following motor vehicle trauma: inception cohort with moderate to severe musculoskeletal injuries. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 18 :1. M. Barla, B. Gavanier, M. Mangin, J. Parot, C. Bauer, D. Mainard. . Useful To Write Essay? (2017) L’amputation peut-elle etre un choix therapeutique dans les traumatismes menacant les membres inferieurs ?. Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique 103 :6, 677-681. Daniel J. Stinner, Dafydd Edwards. . (2017) Surgical Management of Musculoskeletal Trauma. Essay Economy? Surgical Clinics of North America 97 :5, 1119-1131.

Philip K. McClure, Hamza M. Alrabai, Janet D. Useful To Write Essay? Conway. And Political Economy? . (2017) Preoperative Evaluation and thesis proof, Optimization for Reconstruction of Segmental Bone Defects of the essay and political economy, Tibia. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S16-S19. Sarah N. Biography? Pierrie, Joseph R. Hsu. . And Political? (2017) Shortening and Angulation Strategies to Address Composite Bone and Soft Tissue Defects. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S32-S35. Andrea J Ikeda, John R Fergason, Jason M Wilken. Thesis Proof? . (2017) Effects of altering heel wedge properties on gait with the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis. Economy? Prosthetics and Orthotics International 20 , 030936461772811. Thesis? Jessica Wise, Alicia White, Daniel J. Essay And Political Economy? Stinner, John R. Fergason. . (2017) A Unique Application of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Used to Facilitate Patient Engagement in the Amputation Recovery Process. Advances in Wound Care 6 :8, 253-260. Lindsay Sposato, Kathleen Yancosek, Josh Lospinoso, Jill Cancio. . (2017) Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Hand Therapy . Pieter-Jan Stiers, Nick van Gastel, Karen Moermans, Ingrid Stockmans, Geert Carmeliet. . (2017) Regulatory elements driving the expression of skeletal lineage reporters differ during bone development and autonomy, adulthood.

Bone . Kevin Tetsworth, Dror Paley, Cengiz Sen, Matthew Jaffe, Dean C. Maar, Vaida Glatt, Erik Hohmann, John E. Essay And Political? Herzenberg. . (2017) Bone transport versus acute shortening for the management of infected tibial non-unions with bone defects. Injury . Biography? M. Barla, B. Gavanier, M. Essay And Political Economy? Mangin, J. Parot, C. Bauer, D. Mainard. . (2017) Is amputation a viable treatment option in lower extremity trauma?. Orthopaedics Traumatology: Surgery Research . Proof Reading? Joseph Borrelli. . (2017) Invited Commentary. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma , 1. Economy? Peter Patka. . (2017) Damage control and intramedullary nailing for expressions to write essay, long bone fractures in polytrauma patients. Injury 48 , S7-S9. A. Hamish Simpson, Jerry S.T Tsang. . (2017) Current treatment of infected non-union after intramedullary nailing. Injury 48 , S82-S90.

Iris A. Seitz, Justine C. Lee, Suela Sulo, Varun Shah, Manoj Shah, Matthew L. Essay Economy? Jimenez, Loren S. An Argumentative Essay? Schechter. . (2017) Common characteristics of functional and adverse outcomes in acute lower-extremity trauma reconstruction. European Journal of Plastic Surgery 40 :3, 235-244. Essay And Political? Wenhao Song, DongSheng Zhou, Jinlei Dong. Management Assignment? . (2017) Predictors of secondary amputation in essay and political patients with grade IIIC lower limb injuries. Medicine 96 :22, e7068. Essays Autonomy? Christopher S. Crowe, Anna Luan, Gordon K. Lee. . (2017) Hospital Transfer of Open Tibial Fractures Requiring Microsurgical Reconstruction Negatively Impacts Clinical Outcomes. Annals of essay, Plastic Surgery 78 , S180-S184.

Jia Xu, Wan-Run Zhong, Liang Cheng, Chun-Yang Wang, Gen Wen, Pei Han, Yi-Min Chai. . (2017) The Combined Use of a Neurocutaneous Flap and the Ilizarov Technique for Reconstruction of note cards paper, Large Soft Tissue Defects and Bone Loss in the Tibia. Annals of Plastic Surgery 78 :5, 543-548. Jinjin Ma, Andrew R. Baker, Anthony Calabro, Kathleen A. Derwin, Atsushi Asakura. Essay Economy? . (2017) Exploratory study on the effect of osteoactivin on muscle regeneration in a rat volumetric muscle loss model. PLOS ONE 12 :4, e0175853. Miguel A. Fernandez, Jagdeep Nanchahal, Matthew L. Costa. . (2017) Open tibial fractures. Orthopaedics and Trauma 31 :2, 125-132.

Joseph L. Petfield, Garry T. Hayeck, David L. Kopperdahl, Leon J. Nesti, Tony M. Keaveny, Joseph R. Hsu, . Reading? . Economy? (2017) Virtual stress testing of fracture stability in paper soldiers with severely comminuted tibial fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 35 :4, 805-811. Jin Bo Tang, Luis Landin, Pedro C. Cavadas, Alessandro Thione, Jing Chen, Gemma Pons, Jaume Masia. . (2017) Unique Techniques or Approaches in Microvascular and Microlymphatic Surgery. Clinics in Plastic Surgery 44 :2, 403-414. Essay? (2017) Section 1. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S2. Michael J. Bosse, Clinton K. Murray, Anthony R. Thesis? Carlini, Reza Firoozabadi, Theodore Manson, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Joseph C. Wenke, Mary Zadnik, Renan C. Castillo. . (2017) Assessment of Severe Extremity Wound Bioburden at the Time of Definitive Wound Closure or Coverage.

Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S3-S9. Robert V. O?Toole, Joshua L. Essay And Political Economy? Gary, Lisa Reider, Michael J. Bosse, Wade T. Gordon, James Hutson, Stephen M. Thesis Thanks? Quinnan, Renan C. Castillo, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Ellen J. MacKenzie. . (2017) A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Fixation Strategies for Severe Open Tibia Fractures. And Political Economy? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S10-S17. In Research? William T. Obremskey, Andrew H. Schmidt, Robert V. Essay And Political Economy? O?Toole, Jennifer DeSanto, Saam Morshed, Paul Tornetta, Clinton K. Murray, Clifford B. Jones, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Tara J. Taylor, Anthony R. An Argumentative Essay? Carlini, Renan C. Castillo. . (2017) A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Oral Versus Intravenous Antibiotics for the Treatment of Postoperative Wound Infection After Extremity Fractures (POvIV Study). Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S32-S38. (2017) Section 2. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S39. Michael J. Bosse, David Teague, Lisa Reider, Joshua L. Gary, Saam Morshed, Rachel B. Seymour, James Toledano, Lisa K. And Political Economy? Cannada, Barbara Steverson, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Jason Luly, Ellen J. MacKenzie. . Biography Book? (2017) Outcomes After Severe Distal Tibia, Ankle, and/or Foot Trauma. Journal of essay economy, Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S48-S55.

Joseph R. Hsu, Johnny G. Owens, Jennifer DeSanto, John R. Fergason, Kevin M. Kuhn, Benjamin K. Potter, Daniel J. Thesis Thanks? Stinner, Robert G. Sheu, Sandra L. Waggoner, Jason M. Wilken, Yanjie Huang, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Ellen J. MacKenzie. . (2017) Patient Response to an Integrated Orthotic and Rehabilitation Initiative for Traumatic Injuries. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S56-S62. Michael J. Bosse, Saam Morshed, Lisa Reider, William Ertl, James Toledano, Reeza Firoozabadi, Rachel B. Seymour, Eben Carroll, Daniel O. Essay And Political Economy? Scharfstein, Barbara Steverson, Ellen J. MacKenzie. . (2017) Transtibial Amputation Outcomes Study (TAOS). Biography Book Report? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S63-S69. Renan C. Castillo, Srinivasa N. Raja, Katherine P. Frey, Heather A. Essay Economy? Vallier, Paul Tornetta, Todd Jaeblon, Brandon J. Goff, Allan Gottschalk, Daniel O. Scharfstein, Robert V. O?Toole. . (2017) Improving Pain Management and Long-Term Outcomes Following High-Energy Orthopaedic Trauma (Pain Study). Proof Reading? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S71-S77.

Tim Schepers, Stefan Rammelt. . Essay And Political? (2017) Complex Foot Injury. Foot and Ankle Clinics 22 :1, 193-213. Maganizo B. Chagomerana, Jared Tomlinson, Sven Young, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Leonard Banza, Clara N. Lee. . Expressions To Write An Argumentative Essay? (2017) High morbidity and mortality after lower extremity injuries in Malawi: A prospective cohort study of 905 patients. International Journal of Surgery 39 , 23-29. Linda Resnik, Matthew Borgia, Benjamin Silver. . (2017) Measuring Community Integration in Persons With Limb Trauma and Amputation: A Systematic Review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 98 :3, 561-580.e8. Essay? Eric Edison Low, Elizabeth Inkellis, Saam Morshed. . (2017) Complications and revision amputation following trauma-related lower limb loss. Injury 48 :2, 364-370. Ted Melcer, Jay Walker, Vibha Bhatnagar, Erin Richard, V. Cards Paper? Franklin Sechriest, Michael Galarneau, Steven Allen Gard. . (2017) A Comparison of Four-Year Health Outcomes following Combat Amputation and Limb Salvage.

PLOS ONE 12 :1, e0170569. Cyrus E. Essay And Political Economy? Taghavi, Nelson F. SooHoo, Areti Tillou. . 2017. Penetrating Trauma: Amputations. Penetrating Trauma, 473-481. Herb A. Phelan. Thesis Proof? . 2017. Crush Injuries. Penetrating Trauma, 531-539. Aaron P. Turner, Rhonda M. Williams, Dawn M. Ehde. . 2017.

Amputation. Practical Psychology in Medical Rehabilitation, 163-171. Weizong Weng, Wei Nie, Qirong Zhou, Xiaojun Zhou, Liehu Cao, Fang Ji, Jin Cui, Chuanglong He, Jiacan Su. . (2017) Controlled release of vancomycin from essay, 3D porous graphene-based composites for dual-purpose treatment of infected bone defects. RSC Adv. 7 :5, 2753-2765. Roman Pfeifer, Christian Fang. . 2017. Late Outcome After Severe Fractures.

Damage Control Management in the Polytrauma Patient, 325-331. S.D. Zoller, L.A. Cao, R.A. Smith, W. Sheppard, E.L. Lord, C.D. Hamad, J.H.

Ghodasra, C. Lee, D. Jeffcoat. . (2017) Staged reconstruction of total assignment, diaphyseal fractures with segmental defects: Surgical and patient-reported outcomes. Injury . Alexandre L. Godoy-Santos, Daniel T. Amodio, Andre Pires, Ana L. M. Lima, Teng H. Wei, Cesar de Cesar-Netto, David G. Armstrong. . (2017) Diabetic limb salvage procedure with bone allograft and free flap transfer: a case report. Diabetic Foot Ankle 8 :1, 1270076. David Polonet, Michael I. Rose, D. J. And Political Economy? Brown. . 2017. Amputation Versus Limb Salvage of the Lower Extremity. Rehabilitative Surgery, 217-232. Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. . 2017. Limb Amputation Versus Limb Salvage. Note Taking Cards? Full Stride, 153-166.

Darnel F. Murgatroyd, Ian A. Harris, Yvonne Tran, Ian D. Cameron. . (2016) Predictors of return to work following motor vehicle related orthopaedic trauma. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 17 :1. Darnel F. Murgatroyd, Ian A. Essay? Harris, Yvonne Tran, Ian D. Cameron. . (2016) The association between seeking financial compensation and injury recovery following motor vehicle related orthopaedic trauma. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 17 :1. Denis Gumbel, Gerrit Matthes, Matthias Napp, Jorn Lange, Peter Hinz, Romy Spitzmuller, Axel Ekkernkamp. . (2016) Current management of open fractures: results from an online survey. Reading? Archives of essay, Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 136 :12, 1663-1672. Renan C. Castillo, Kristin R. Taking In Research? Archer, Anna Bradford Newcomb, Stephen T. Wegener. . (2016) Pain and Psychological Distress Following Orthopedic Trauma. Essay? Techniques in Orthopaedics 31 :4, 228-234.

Yu Chen, Lei Liu. . (2016) Clinical analysis of 54 cases of large area soft tissue avulsion in thesis thanks the lower limb. Chinese Journal of Traumatology 19 :6, 337-341. Oskar C. Aszmann, Ivan Vujaklija, Aidan D. Roche, Stefan Salminger, Malvina Herceg, Agnes Sturma, Laura A. Essay? Hruby, Anna Pittermann, Christian Hofer, Sebastian Amsuess, Dario Farina. . (2016) Elective amputation and bionic substitution restore functional hand use after critical soft tissue injuries. Scientific Reports 6 :1. Katharine I. Useful Essay? Mangan, Trevor D. Kingsbury, Brittney N. Mazzone, Marilynn P. Wyatt, Kevin M. Kuhn. . (2016) Limb Salvage With Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis Versus Transtibial Amputation. Journal of essay economy, Orthopaedic Trauma 30 :12, e390-e395. Peter Ladlow, Rhodri Phillip, Russell Coppack, John Etherington, James Bilzon, M. Polly McGuigan, Alexander N. Bennett. . (2016) Influence of Immediate and Delayed Lower-Limb Amputation Compared with Lower-Limb Salvage on Functional and Mental Health Outcomes Post-Rehabilitation in the U.K. Military. The Journal of taking cards in research, Bone and Joint Surgery 98 :23, 1996-2005. K. Essay? Bernhoff, M. Bjorck, J. Larsson, E. Jangland. . Essays On Patient? (2016) Patient Experiences of Life Years After Severe Civilian Lower Extremity Trauma With Vascular Injury. Essay? European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 52 :5, 690-695.

Andrew J. Sheean, David J. Tennent, Johnny G. Owens, Jason M. Wilken, Joseph R. Thesis Thanks? Hsu, Daniel J. Stinner, . . (2016) Effect of Custom Orthosis and Rehabilitation Program on economy, Outcomes Following Ankle and Subtalar Fusions. Foot Ankle International 37 :11, 1205-1210. Daniele Bollero, Kiran Degano, Ezio N Gangemi, Domenico Aloj, Valeria Malvasio, Maurizio Stella. . Assignment? (2016) Long-term follow-up of essay, negative pressure wound therapy with instillation: a limb salvage procedure?. International Wound Journal 13 :5, 768-773. L. Rayner, A. Simpson, F. Quality Assignment? Matcham, S. Economy? Shetty, O. Lahoti, G. Groom, M. Hotopf. . (2016) Mental disorder in limb reconstruction: Prevalence, associations and impact on book report for 2nd grade, work disability. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 89 , 53-60. Benjamin T. Corona, Sarah M. Essay And Political Economy? Greising. . Thesis Thanks? (2016) Challenges to acellular biological scaffold mediated skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Biomaterials 104 , 238-246. A. Fochtmann, H. Binder, G. Rettl, J. Starlinger, O. Aszmann, K. Sarahrudi, S. Hajdu. . (2016) Third degree open fractures and traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity: Outcome and relevance of the essay economy, Mangled Extremity Severity Score.

Orthopaedics Traumatology: Surgery Research 102 :6, 785-790. Jessica C. Rivera, Joseph C. Book For 2nd? Wenke, Mary Jo Pugh. . (2016) Open Fracture Care During War. JBJS Reviews 4 :10, 1. Economy? James A. Blair, Emmanuel D. Eisenstein, Sarah N. Pierrie, Wade Gordon, Johnny G. Owens, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2016) Lower Extremity Limb Salvage. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 30 , S11-S15. Jennifer M. Sabino, Julia Slater, Ian L. Valerio. . (2016) Plastic Surgery Challenges in War Wounded I: Flap-Based Extremity Reconstruction. Advances in Wound Care 5 :9, 403-411. Emrah Sisli, Ali Aycan Kavala, Mustafa Mavi, Osman Nejat Sar?osmanoglu, Oztekin Oto. . On Patient? (2016) Single centre experience of combat-related vascular injury in victims of Syrian conflict: Retrospective evaluation of risk factors associated with amputation. Injury 47 :9, 1945-1950. Jennifer M. Aldridge Whitehead, Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Jason M. Wilken. . (2016) Stair ascent and descent biomechanical adaptations while using a custom ankle–foot orthosis.

Journal of Biomechanics 49 :13, 2899-2908. Graeme E. Glass, Robert M.T. Staruch, Jonathan Simmons, Graham Lawton, Jagdeep Nanchahal, Abhilash Jain, Shehan P. Hettiaratchy. . (2016) Managing missed lower extremity compartment syndrome in the physiologically stable patient. Essay Economy? Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 81 :2, 380-387. Biography Report? Lana van der Merwe, Franz Birkholtz, Kevin Tetsworth, Erik Hohmann. . (2016) Functional and psychological outcomes of delayed lower limb amputation following failed lower limb reconstruction. Injury 47 :8, 1756-1760. G. Reith, H. Wyen, A. Wafaisade, T. Paffrath, S. Flohe, B. Bouillon, M. Essay? Maegele, C. Probst. . (2016) Realitat initialer Versorgung offener Frakturen in deutschen Notaufnahmen. Der Unfallchirurg 119 :8, 642-647. Paul E. Matuszewski, Timothy Costales, Timothy Zerhusen, Max Coale, Samir Mehta, Andrew N. Essays On Patient? Pollak, Robert V. O?Toole. . (2016) Is the Digital Divide for Orthopaedic Trauma Patients a Myth? Prospective Cohort Study on Use of a Custom Internet Site.

Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 30 :7, e246-e251. Adam L. Bingham, Lawrence M. Fallat. . (2016) Empty Toe Phenomenon: A Rare Presentation of Closed Degloving Injury of the Foot. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 55 :4, 842-849. C. W. Muller, C. Krettek, S. Decker, S. Hankemeier, N. And Political Economy? Hawi. . Thesis Proof? (2016) Gliedma?enerhalt oder Amputation nach schwerem Trauma der unteren Extremitat. And Political Economy? Der Unfallchirurg 119 :5, 400-407. Book For 2nd? C. Krettek, A. Lerner, P. Giannoudis, C. Willy, C. W. Muller. . (2016) Extremitatenerhalt und Amputation nach Trauma.

Der Unfallchirurg 119 :5, 358-373. C. Krettek, C. Willy. . Economy? (2016) Extremitatenerhalt versus Amputation. Der Unfallchirurg 119 :5, 356-357. Jessica Keeley, Matthew Koopmann, Huan Yan, Christian DeVirgilio, Brant Putnam, Dennis Y. Kim, David Plurad. . (2016) Factors Associated with Amputation after Popliteal Vascular Injuries. Thesis Reading? Annals of Vascular Surgery 33 , 83-87. Christopher J. Dy, Joseph M. Lane, Ting Jung Pan, Michael L. Parks, Stephen Lyman. . (2016) Racial and and political economy, Socioeconomic Disparities in Hip Fracture Care. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 98 :10, 858-865. Cards In Research Paper? Benjamin F. Essay And Political Economy? Plucknette, Chad A. Krueger, Jessica C. Rivera, Joseph C. Wenke. Thesis Thanks? . (2016) Combat-related bridge synostosis versus traditional transtibial amputation: comparison of military-specific outcomes. Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction 11 , 5-11. And Political? Avery B. Nathens. . Total Quality? (2016) Life After Discharge Following Major Injury. Annals of Surgery 263 :4, 633-635.

Ben Antebi, Longze Zhang, Dmitriy Sheyn, Gadi Pelled, Xinping Zhang, Zulma Gazit, Edward Schwarz, Dan Gazit. . (2016) Controlling Arteriogenesis and Mast Cells Are Central to Bioengineering Solutions for essay and political economy, Critical Bone Defect Repair Using Allografts. In Research Paper? Bioengineering 3 , 6. M. Napp, R. Spitzmuller, D. And Political Economy? Gumbel, P. Hinz. . (2016) Weichteilmanagement offener Frakturen. Trauma und Berufskrankheit 18 , 16-21. Andrew T. Chen, Heather A. Vallier. . (2016) Noncontiguous and open fractures of the useful to write, lower extremity: Epidemiology, complications, and unplanned procedures. Injury 47 :3, 742-747. Essay And Political? Jess Bonnan-White, Jewelry Yep, Melanie D. Hetzel-Riggin. . Useful An Argumentative Essay? (2016) Voices from the past: Mental and essay and political economy, physical outcomes described by American Civil War amputees. Journal of note taking cards in research paper, Trauma Dissociation 17 , 13-34. S. Fernando, M. McEnery, S.A. Guelcher. . 2016.

Polyurethanes for bone tissue engineering. Advances in Polyurethane Biomaterials, 481-501. Jesse Alan Slade Shantz, Juan de Dios Robinson, Ralph Richard Coughlin. . 2016. Foot Injuries in the Austere Environment. Orthopaedic Trauma in the Austere Environment, 613-623. Essay And Political Economy? Boris A. Zelle. . 2016.

Outcome After Extremity Injuries. Useful? The Poly-Traumatized Patient with Fractures, 407-418. Mark L. Prasarn, Peter Kloen, David L. Helfet. . 2016. Mangled Extremity: Management in Isolated Extremity Injuries and in essay Polytrauma. The Poly-Traumatized Patient with Fractures, 169-186. Roman Pfeifer, Bilal M. Book Report For 2nd? Barkatali, Thomas Dienstknecht, Hans-Christoph Pape. . 2016. Clinical Outcome of Pelvic and Spinal Fractures. And Political Economy? The Poly-Traumatized Patient with Fractures, 419-425. Lena M. Napolitano. . 2016.

Acute Soft Tissue and Bone Infections. The Poly-Traumatized Patient with Fractures, 351-370. William W. Cross, Marc F. Swiontkowski. . 2016. Outcome and Management of Primary Amputations, Subtotal Amputation Injuries, and Severe Open Fractures with Nerve Injuries. The Poly-Traumatized Patient with Fractures, 307-327. Efthymios Papasoulis, Charalampos G. Zalavras, Michael J. Cards? Patzakis. . Economy? 2016. Prevention of Infection in Open Fractures in Mass Disasters. Orthopedics in Disasters, 217-224. Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, S. Raja Sabapathy. . 2016.

Management of Mangled Extremities. Orthopedics in expressions Disasters, 305-320. Xiaohua Wang, Fuda Wei, Fei Luo, Ke Huang, Zhao Xie. . (2015) Induction of essay economy, granulation tissue for the secretion of growth factors and the promotion of bone defect repair. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 10 . Keerat Singh, Jennifer M. Bauer, Gregory Y. Thesis Thanks? LaChaud, Jesse E. Bible, Hassan R. Mir. . (2015) Surgical site infection in high-energy peri-articular tibia fractures with intra-wound vancomycin powder: a retrospective pilot study. Journal of Orthopaedics and and political economy, Traumatology 16 , 287-291. Adeyiza O. Momoh, Senthil Kumaran, Daniel Lyons, Hari Venkatramani, Sanjai Ramkumar, Kevin C. Chung, S. Raja Sabapathy. . (2015) An Argument for Salvage in total quality management Severe Lower Extremity Trauma with Posterior Tibial Nerve Injury. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 136 , 1337-1352. Rafael A. Essay And Political? Couto, Raffi Gurunluoglu. . Autonomy? (2015) Discussion. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 136 , 1353-1355. Giuseppe Rosario Schiro, Sergio Sessa, Andrea Piccioli, Giulio Maccauro. Essay Economy? . (2015) Primary amputation vs limb salvage in mangled extremity: a systematic review of the thesis proof reading, current scoring system. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 16 . Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Harmony S. Choi, Johnny G. Owens, Ryan V. Blanck, Jason M. Wilken. . (2015) Biomechanical response to ankle–foot orthosis stiffness during running.

Clinical Biomechanics 30 :10, 1125-1132. Teresa M. Bell, Junling Wang, Robert Nolly, Esra Ozdenerol, George Relyea, Ben L. Zarzaur. Essay And Political Economy? . (2015) Predictors of functional limitation trajectories after injury in a nationally representative U.S. older adult population. Thesis Thanks? Annals of Epidemiology 25 :12, 894-900. Paula K Shireman, Todd E Rasmussen, Carlos A Jaramillo, Mary Jo Pugh. . (2015) VA Vascular Injury Study (VAVIS): VA-DoD extremity injury outcomes collaboration. BMC Surgery 15 :1. Elizabeth M. Polfer, Benjamin K. Potter. Essay? . Reading? (2015) Turn-up Plasty for Salvage of Transtibial Amputations. JBJS Case Connector 5 :4, e116. Kristin R. Archer, Christine M. Abraham, William T. Obremskey. . (2015) Psychosocial Factors Predict Pain and and political economy, Physical Health After Lower Extremity Trauma. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 473 , 3519-3526.

Andrew J. Harmata, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mathilde Granke, Scott A. Useful To Write An Argumentative? Guelcher, Jeffry S. Nyman. . Essay Economy? (2015) Compressive fatigue and fracture toughness behavior of injectable, settable bone cements. Thesis Thanks? Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 51 , 345-355. Michael J. Voor. . (2015) Exploring an Anabolic Approach to Address Nonunion After Bone Fracture. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 97 :22, e75. B. C. C. Essay? Rand, J. Useful? G. Penn-Barwell, J. C. Wenke. . (2015) Combined local and essay economy, systemic antibiotic delivery improves eradication of wound contamination: An animal experimental model of contaminated fracture.. The Bone Joint Journal 97-B , 1423-1427. Essays On Patient Autonomy? C.C. Kovoor, V.V.

George, R. Jayakumar, A.J. Guild, D. Bhaskar, A. Cyriac. . (2015) Total and subtotal amputation of lower limbs treated by acute shortening, revascularization and early limb lengthening with ilizarov ring fixation – A retrospective study. Injury 46 :10, 1964-1968. David W. Lowenberg, Michael Githens. . (2015) Complex Limb Reconstruction With Simultaneous Muscle Transfer and Circular External Fixation. Techniques in Orthopaedics 30 , 156-160. Essay? Michael Karns, Steven K. Dailey, Michael T. Archdeacon. . (2015) Treatment of proof reading, Calcaneal Fracture With Severe Soft Tissue Injury and Osteomyelitis: A Case Report.

The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 54 :5, 973-977. Catherine A. Guenther, Zhen Wang, Emma Li, Misha C. Tran, Catriona Y. And Political? Logan, Roel Nusse, Luiz Pantalena-Filho, George P. Yang, David M. Note In Research? Kingsley. . (2015) A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury. Bone 77 , 31-41. COL Romney C. Andersen, Andrew H. Essay? Schmidt, CAPT Brian T. Biography For 2nd Grade? Fitzgerald, LCDR Scott M. Tintle, MAJ Melvin D. Helgeson, LTC Ronald A. Lehman, COL Jeffrey N. Davila, Benjamin K. Essay? Potter, MAJ Travis C. Burns, Marc F Swiontkowski, COL James R. Total Quality Management? Ficke. . (2015) Extremity War Injuries IX. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 23 , e13-e26. And Political? Chad A. Krueger, Jessica C. Rivera, David J. Tennent, Andrew J. Sheean, Daniel J. Thesis Reading? Stinner, Joseph C. And Political? Wenke. . (2015) Late amputation may not reduce complications or improve mental health in combat-related, lower extremity limb salvage patients. Thesis Thanks? Injury 46 :8, 1527-1532. Margaret J. Starnes-Roubaud, Mirna Peric, Farshad Chowdry, Joanna T. Nguyen, Wesley Schooler, Randolph Sherman, Joseph N. Essay? Carey. . (2015) Microsurgical Lower Extremity Reconstruction in the Subacute Period. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open 3 , e449. I. L. Millar, R. A. McGinnes, O. Williamson, F. Lind, K.-A. Jansson, M. Hajek, D. Smart, T. Fernandes, R. Miller, P. Myles, P. Cameron. . (2015) Hyperbaric Oxygen in Lower Limb Trauma (HOLLT); protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 5 , e008381-e008381. Z. B. Perkins, B. Note Cards Paper? Yet, S. And Political? Glasgow, E. Cole, W. Marsh, K. Brohi, T. E. Rasmussen, N. R. M. Tai. For 2nd? . (2015) Meta-analysis of prognostic factors for amputation following surgical repair of lower extremity vascular trauma. British Journal of Surgery 102 :10.1002/bjs.2015.102.issue-5, 436-450. D.R. Dickson, E. Moulder, Y. Hadland, P.V.

Giannoudis, H.K. Sharma. . (2015) Grade 3 open tibial shaft fractures treated with a circular frame, functional outcome and systematic review of literature. Injury 46 , 751-758. Essay? Gerald Eliot Wozasek. Essays Autonomy? . (2015) Limb salvage in a partially amputated distal femur with extensive segmental bone loss using the nailing after lengthening technique: a case report. Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction 10 , 59-63. Vickas Khanna, Daniel M. Essay And Political Economy? Tushinski, Leslie J. Note Taking Cards In Research Paper? Soever, Alex D. Economy? Vincent, David J. Backstein. . (2015) Above Knee Amputation Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: When Enough Is Enough. The Journal of Arthroplasty 30 , 658-662. James K. Chan, Matthew D. Gardiner, Michael Pearse, Jagdeep Nanchahal. . Taking Cards In Research? 2015. Lower limb reconstruction.

Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 607-627. Mayur B. Patel, Kathleen M. Essay Economy? Richter, Shahid Shafi. . (2015) Mangled Extremity: Amputation Versus Salvage. Current Trauma Reports 1 , 45-49. Benjamin W. Hoyt, Gabriel J. Management? Pavey, Paul F. Pasquina, Benjamin K. Potter. . (2015) Rehabilitation of essay and political, Lower Extremity Trauma: a Review of Principles and Military Perspective on thesis thanks, Future Directions. Current Trauma Reports 1 , 50-60. Johnathon M. Aho, Milan K. Sen, Michel Saint-Cyr. . (2015) Free and pedicle flaps in lower extremity trauma. European Journal of Plastic Surgery . Darnel F. Murgatroyd, Petrina P. Casey, Ian D. Cameron, Ian A. Harris, Michele Sterling. And Political? . (2015) The Effect of Financial Compensation on Health Outcomes following Musculoskeletal Injury: Systematic Review. PLOS ONE 10 :2, e0117597. Douglas W. In Research? Lundy, Julie Agel, J. Lawrence Marsh, Debra L. Sietsema, Clifford B. Jones, Andrew R. Evans, James F. Kellam. . (2015) Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Outcomes Scores Over Time for and political, Tibial Plafond (OTA/AO 43) and Proximal Humeral (OTA/AO 11) Fractures.

Journal of total quality assignment, Orthopaedic Trauma 29 , e60-e64. Petrina P. Casey, Anne Marie Feyer, Ian D. Cameron. . Essay And Political? (2015) Associations with legal representation in total quality management a compensation setting 12 months after injury. Injury . Ki Chul Park, Hyun Joong Cho. . (2015) Mangled Extremity: Salvage versus Amputation. Essay? Journal of the Korean Fracture Society 28 , 198. Biography Report Grade? Carrie Teicher, Nancy L. Foote, Ali M.K. Al Ani, Majd S. Alras, Sufyan I. Alqassab, Emmanuel Baron, Khalid Ahmed, Patrick Herard, Rasheed M. Fakhri. . (2014) The short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA) score amongst surgical patients with reconstructive lower limb injuries in economy war wounded civilians. Injury 45 , 1996-2001. Ulrika Tampe, Rudiger J Weiss, Birgit Stark, Pehr Sommar, Zewar Al Dabbagh, Karl-Ake Jansson. Quality Assignment? . (2014) Lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction and amputation rates in patients with open tibial fractures in essay and political Sweden during 1998–2010. BMC Surgery 14 :1. Andrew J. Sheean, Chad A. Krueger, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2014) Return to Duty and Disability After Combat-Related Hindfoot Injury. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 28 , e258-e262.

Romney C. Andersen, Kevin W. Wilson, John A. Bojescul, Timothy J. Total Quality? Mickel, Wade T. Gordon, Benjamin K. Potter. . (2014) Open, Combat-Related Loss, or Disruption of the essay, Knee Extensor Mechanism. Total Quality Assignment? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 28 , e250-e257. Paul F. And Political Economy? Pasquina, Matthew Miller, A. J. Carvalho, Michael Corcoran, James Vandersea, Elizabeth Johnson, Yin-Ting Chen. . (2014) Special Considerations for Multiple Limb Amputation. Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports . Adam J. Bevevino, Jonathan F. Dickens, Benjamin K. Potter, Theodora Dworak, Wade Gordon, Jonathan A. Forsberg. . (2014) A Model to Predict Limb Salvage in Severe Combat-related Open Calcaneus Fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 472 , 3002-3009.

, Katherine M. Bedigrew, Jeanne C. Patzkowski, Jason M. Wilken, Johnny G. Owens, Ryan V. Blanck, Daniel J. Stinner, Kevin L. Kirk, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2014) Can an Integrated Orthotic and Rehabilitation Program Decrease Pain and Improve Function After Lower Extremity Trauma?. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 472 , 3017-3025. Matthew A. Napierala, Jessica C. Rivera, Travis C. Burns, Clinton K. Murray, Joseph C. Wenke, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2014) Infection reduces return-to-duty rates for soldiers with Type III open tibia fractures. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 77 , S194-S197. Assignment? Shuangyan Lei, Matthew C. Economy? Frank, Donald D. Quality Management? Anderson, Thomas D. Brown. . (2014) A method to represent heterogeneous materials for rapid prototyping: the Matryoshka approach. Rapid Prototyping Journal 20 :5, 390-402. (2014) Proximal humerus fractures: Is there more than one way to skin a cat?. Injury 45 :8, 1133-1134. Brent A. Uhrig, Isaac P. Clements, Joel D. Boerckel, Nathaniel Huebsch, Ravi V. Bellamkonda, Robert E. Guldberg. . (2014) Characterization of a composite injury model of severe lower limb bone and nerve trauma.

Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 8 :10.1002/term.v8.6, 432-441. Heather A. Doty, Megan R. Leedy, Harry S. Essay Economy? Courtney, Warren O. Haggard, Joel D. Bumgardner. . (2014) Composite chitosan and calcium sulfate scaffold for dual delivery of vancomycin and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 25 , 1449-1459. N.D. Rossiter, T.F. Higgins, I. Pallister. . (2014) (ii) The mangled extremity: limb salvage versus amputation.

Orthopaedics and Trauma 28 , 137-140. S. P. Ryan, V. Pugliano. . (2014) Controversies in note taking Initial Management of and political economy, Open Fractures. Scandinavian Journal of taking cards paper, Surgery 103 :2, 132-137. Jean-Claude G. D’Alleyrand, Theodore T. Manson, Lindsay Dancy, Renan C. Castillo, J. Bradford H. Essay And Political Economy? Bertumen, Thomas Meskey, Robert V. O’Toole. . Management Assignment? (2014) Is Time to Flap Coverage of Open Tibial Fractures an Independent Predictor of Flap-Related Complications?. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 28 , 288-293. Essay And Political? James A. Thesis Thanks? Blair, Jeanne C. Patzkowski, Ryan V. Blanck, Johnny G. Essay? Owens, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2014) Return to Duty After Integrated Orthotic and Rehabilitation Initiative.

Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 28 , e70-e74. Thesis Reading? Alexandra Fochtmann, Martina Mittlbock, Harald Binder, Julia Kottstorfer, Stefan Hajdu. . (2014) Potential prognostic factors predicting secondary amputation in third-degree open lower limb fractures. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 76 , 1076-1081. Economy? Chad A. Total Quality Management? Krueger, Joseph C. Wenke, Mickey S. Cho, Joseph R. Hsu. And Political Economy? . (2014) Common Factors and book report for 2nd grade, Outcome in Late Upper Extremity Amputations After Military Injury. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 28 , 227-231. E. Pantera, C. Pourtier-Piotte, L. Bensoussan, E. Economy? Coudeyre. . (2014) Patient education after amputation: Systematic review and experts’ opinions. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 57 , 143-158. ZHAOXIN ZHANG, LEI LV, MASUT MAMAT, ZHAO CHEN, LIHUA LIU, ZHIZHONG WANG. . (2014) Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix is useful for the wound healing of severely damaged extremities. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 7 :3, 621-624.

Kohei Nishitani, Edward M. Schwarz. . (2014) Regenerative medicine: Cartilage transplants hold promise for challenging bone defects. To Write An Argumentative Essay? Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10 , 129-130. Michael J. Essay And Political Economy? Beltran, James A. Blair, Christopher R. Rathbone, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2014) The Gradual Expansion Muscle Flap. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 28 , e15-e20. Ketan M. Patel, James M. Economides, Brenton Franklin, Michael Sosin, Christopher Attinger, Ivica Ducic. . (2014) Correlating patient-reported outcomes and ambulation success following microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction in comorbid patients. Report For 2nd? Microsurgery 34 :10.1002/micr.v34.1, 1-4. Anahita Dua, Sapan S. Desai, Jaecel O. Shah, Robert E. Lasky, Kristofer M. Charlton-Ouw, Ali Azizzadeh, Anthony L. Estrera, Hazim J. Safi, Sheila M. Essay And Political Economy? Coogan. . (2014) Outcome Predictors of Limb Salvage in Traumatic Popliteal Artery Injury. Annals of useful to write essay, Vascular Surgery 28 , 108-114. Hani A. Awad, Regis J. O’Keefe, Chang H. Lee, Jeremy J. Mao. . 2014. Bone Tissue Engineering. Principles of and political, Tissue Engineering, 1733-1743.

Daniel J. Scott, Zachary M. Arthurs, Adam Stannard, Howard M. Monroe, W. Darrin Clouse, Todd E. Rasmussen. . (2014) Patient-based outcomes and quality of life after salvageable wartime extremity vascular injury. Note Taking Cards Paper? Journal of and political economy, Vascular Surgery 59 , 173-179.e1. Vijay Langer. . (2014) Management of Major Limb Injuries. The Scientific World Journal 2014 , 1-13. Keith Avin, Stephen Badylak, Fabrisia Ambrosio. . 2014.

Neuromuscular Tissue Engineering. Applications of Regenerative Medicine to Orthopaedic Physical Therapy, 1-24. Hassan Khan, Nasir Hussain, Mohit Bhandari. . (2013) The Influence of Large Clinical Trials in note cards in research paper Orthopedic Trauma. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 27 , e268-e274. Renan C. Castillo, Stephen T. Wegener, Sara E. Heins, Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. . And Political? (2013) Longitudinal relationships between anxiety, depression, and taking cards, pain: Results from a two-year cohort study of lower extremity trauma patients.

PAIN® 154 , 2860-2866. Emanuele Cigna, Michele Maruccia, Valentina Sorvillo, Paola Parisi, Francesca Palumbo, Maria Giuseppina Onesti. . (2013) The use of negative pressure therapy and hyaluronic acid for economy, the management of post-traumatic lower limb injury. International Wound Journal 10 :10.1111/iwj.2013.10.issue-5, 534-538. Reading? Bruce Reider. . (2013) Salvage Operation. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 41 :9, 1995-1997.

Ted Melcer, Vernon Franklin Sechriest, Jay Walker, Michael Galarneau. Essay? . (2013) A comparison of health outcomes for book report, combat amputee and limb salvage patients injured in and political economy Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 75 , S247-S254. Jeffery G. Belisle, Joseph C. Wenke, Chad A. Krueger. . (2013) Return-to-duty rates among US military combat-related amputees in the global war on terror. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 75 :2, 279-286. Dipender Gill, David J. Bruce, Mark J. Ponsford, James Cranley, Timothy E. Goodacre. . (2013) Long-term follow-up of patients undergoing free tissue transfer to the lower limb following trauma. European Journal of Plastic Surgery 36 , 431-442. Renan C. Total Assignment? Castillo, Stephen T. Wegener, Mary Zadnik Newell, Anthony R. Carlini, Anna N. Bradford, Sara E. Heins, Elizabeth Wysocki, Andrew N. Pollak, Harry Teter, Ellen J. MacKenzie. . (2013) Improving outcomes at and political, Level I trauma centers.

Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 , 1534-1540. Abhilash Jain, Graeme E. Quality Assignment? Glass, Hootan Ahmadi, Simon Mackey, Jon Simmons, Shehan Hettiaratchy, Michael Pearse, Jagdeep Nanchahal. . And Political? (2013) Delayed amputation following trauma increases residual lower limb infection. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive Aesthetic Surgery 66 , 531-537. Nick J. Willett, Mon-Tzu A. Li, Brent A. Uhrig, Joel David Boerckel, Nathaniel Huebsch, Taran S. Lundgren, Gordon L. Warren, Robert E. Guldberg. . (2013) Attenuated Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2–Mediated Bone Regeneration in a Rat Model of thesis, Composite Bone and Muscle Injury. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 19 , 316-325. Adeyiza O. And Political Economy? Momoh, Kevin C. Chung. . (2013) Measuring Outcomes in Lower Limb Surgery. Clinics in Plastic Surgery 40 , 323-329. Robinder S Dhillon, Chao Xie, Wakenda Tyler, Laura M Calvi, Hani A Awad, Michael J Zuscik, Regis J O'Keefe, Edward M Schwarz. . (2013) PTH-enhanced structural allograft healing is associated with decreased angiopoietin-2-mediated arteriogenesis, mast cell accumulation, and fibrosis. Thesis Thanks? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28 , 586-597.

Shimpei Ono, Sandeep J. Essay And Political Economy? Sebastin, Kevin C. Chung. . (2013) Evidence on Prognosis. Useful To Write An Argumentative Essay? Plastic and essay economy, Reconstructive Surgery 131 , 655-665. CPT (P) Jonathan F Dickens, CPT Kelly G Kilcoyne, CPT Matthew W Kluk, Lt. In Research? Col. Wade T Gordon, LTC Scott B Shawen, MAJ Benjamin K Potter. . Economy? (2013) Risk Factors for Infection and Amputation Following Open, Combat-Related Calcaneal Fractures. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 95 :5, e24-1-8. Proof? Aik H Lim, Damon Thomas, Kerr H Graham. . (2013) Cross-sectional study to investigate the health-related quality of life in children with severe lower limb trauma in Victoria. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 49 :10.1111/jpc.2013.49.issue-2, 131-137. Essay And Political Economy? Charles de Mestral, Sunjay Sharma, Barbara Haas, David Gomez, Avery B. Nathens. . (2013) A contemporary analysis of the management of the mangled lower extremity.

Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 , 597-603. Matthew J. Biography Book Grade? Carty, Ronald Zuker, Pedro Cavadas, Julian J. Pribaz, Simon G. Talbot, Bohdan Pomahac. Essay? . (2013) The Case for Lower Extremity Allotransplantation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , 1. Mario Ronga, Alessandro Fagetti, Gianluca Canton, Elia Paiusco, Michele Francesco Surace, Paolo Cherubino. . (2013) Clinical applications of growth factors in bone injuries: Experience with BMPs. Injury 44 , S34-S39. Matthew I. Rudloff. . 2013.

Fractures of the Lower Extremity. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 2617-2724.e13. J. Kent Ellington, Michael J. Bosse, Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. Thesis Thanks? MacKenzie. . (2013) The Mangled Foot and Ankle. Essay? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 27 , 43-48. Joanne P. Elston, Jay Pyo, Sophia E. Deben. . (2013) Reconstructive and prosthetic options for the wounded warrior. Current Orthopaedic Practice 24 , 114-119.

Michael S Pinzur. . (2013) The Dark Side of Amputation Rehabilitation. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 95 :2, e12-1-2. Aleksandra Krajewski, Rajiv Y. Chandawarkar. . Autonomy? (2012) Decision Making in Limb Salvage. Techniques in Orthopaedics 27 , 250-253. Michael J. Beltran, Travis C. Burns, Tobin T. Eckel, Benjamin K. Potter, Joseph C. Wenke, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2012) Fate of Combat Nerve Injury. Journal of essay, Orthopaedic Trauma 26 , e198-e203. On Patient? Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Peter V. Giannoudis. . Essay And Political? (2012) Open injuries of the thesis thanks, lower extremity: Issues and unknown frontiers. Injury 43 , 1783-1784. Milomir Ninkovic, Sebastian Voigt, Ulf Dornseifer, Sarah Lorenz, Marina Ninkovic. . (2012) Microsurgical Advances in Extremity Salvage. Clinics in Plastic Surgery 39 , 491-505. Antonia F. Chen, Nicholas C. Essay Economy? Kinback, Alma E. Heyl, Edward J. McClain, Brian A. Klatt. . (2012) Better Function for Fusions Versus Above-the-knee Amputations for Recurrent Periprosthetic Knee Infection.

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 470 , 2737-2745. Thesis Thanks? Paul Logan Weygandt, Lia I. Losonczy, Eric B. Schneider, Mehreen T. Kisat, Lauren K. Licatino, Edward E. Essay? Cornwell, Elliot R. Thesis Reading? Haut, David T. And Political? Efron, Adil H. Thesis Thanks? Haider. . (2012) Disparities in mortality after blunt injury: Does insurance type matter?. Journal of Surgical Research 177 , 288-294. Essay? David A. Stewart, Christopher J. Coombs, H. Kerr Graham. . (2012) Application of lower extremity injury severity scores in in research children. Essay And Political Economy? Journal of Children's Orthopaedics 6 :5, 427-431. Marko Bumbasirevic, Milan Stevanovic, Aleksandar Lesic, Henry D. E. Thesis Reading? Atkinson. . (2012) Current management of the and political, mangled upper extremity. Reading? International Orthopaedics . E. Stuebing, H. And Political? Lieberman, T. Vu, F. N. Mazzini, L. Gregorio, A. Gigena, E. Iglesias, R. Gonzalo, A. Thesis Thanks? J. Perez-Alonso, J. A. Asensio. . And Political? (2012) Shank vessel injuries: the autonomy, forgotten vascular injuries. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 38 , 393-401. Essay And Political? Robert M. Rush, Edward D. Arrington, Joseph R. Thesis Thanks? Hsu. . (2012) Management of Complex Extremity Injuries. Surgical Clinics of North America 92 , 987-1007. Mark L. Prasarn, David L. And Political? Helfet, Peter Kloen. . (2012) Management of the mangled extremity.

Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction 7 , 57-66. Hasu D.L. Patel, Steven Dryden, Amit Gupta, Swee Chai Ang. . (2012) Pattern and mechanism of traumatic limb amputations after explosive blast. Journal of useful expressions an argumentative essay, Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 73 , 276-281. R.W. Trickett, Elizabeth Mudge, Patricia Price, Ian Pallister. . (2012) A qualitative approach to recovery after open tibial fracture: The road to a novel, patient-derived recovery scale. Injury 43 , 1071-1078. Marc F Swiontkowski, Julie Agel. And Political Economy? . (2012) Lessons Learned from Benchmark Orthopaedic Trials. Biography Book For 2nd Grade? The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 94 :Suppl 1, 11-14. Gerard P Slobogean, Sheila Sprague, Mohit Bhandari. . (2012) The Tactics of Large Randomized Trials.

The Journal of Bone and economy, Joint Surgery-American Volume 94 :Suppl 1, 19-23. Renan C Castillo, Daniel O Scharfstein, Ellen J MacKenzie. . (2012) Observational Studies in thesis the Era of Randomized Trials. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 94 :Suppl 1, 112-117. David A. Stewart, Christopher J. Coombs, H. Essay And Political Economy? Kerr Graham. Total Management Assignment? . (2012) Functional Outcome of and political, Replantation of the total quality, Leg in and political an Infant. JBJS Case Connector 2 :3, e38. Thesis Reading? Jeanne C Patzkowski, Ryan V Blanck, Johnny G Owens, Jason M Wilken, Kevin L Kirk, Joseph C Wenke, Joseph R Hsu. . (2012) Comparative Effect of and political economy, Orthosis Design on Functional Performance. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 94 :6, 507-515. A.-C. Masquelet, J. Sales de Gauzy, T. Thesis Thanks? Bauer, A. Fabre, F. Essay And Political? Fitoussi, D. Essays On Patient Autonomy? Hannouche, J.-L.

Jouve, C. Karger, D. Le Nen, H. Mathevon, P. Merloz, L. Obert, A. And Political? Poichotte, S. Rigal. . (2012) Reconstruction des pertes de substance osseuse diaphysaires d’origine traumatique. Note Taking In Research Paper? Strategies, recommandations, perspectives. Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique 98 , 94-103. Roman Pfeifer, Boris A. And Political? Zelle, Philipp Kobbe, Matthias Knobe, Robert L. Garrison, Simon Ohm, Nicola-Alexander Sittaro, Christian Probst, Hans-Christoph Pape. . (2012) Impact of isolated acetabular and lower extremity fractures on for 2nd, long-term outcome. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 72 :2, 467-472.

Kristin R. Essay Economy? Archer, Christine M. Abraham, Yanna Song, William T. Obremskey. . (2012) Cognitive-behavioral determinants of pain and disability two years after traumatic injury. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 72 :2, 473-479. Scott M Tintle, Michael A Donohue, Scott Shawen, Jonathan A Forsberg, Benjamin K Potter. . Cards In Research? (2012) Proximal Sural Traction Neurectomy During Transtibial Amputations. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 26 :2, 123-126. Ivan Golubovic, Goran Stevanovic, Predrag Stojiljkovic, Zoran Golubovic, Danilo Stojiljkovic, Aleksandar Visnjic, Stevo Najman, Vera Bascarevic, Milan Grubor. . (2012) Lower Leg Severe Open Fracture Caused by Traffic Accident - Treatment by External Skeletal Fixation: Case Report. Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis 29 , 103-109. Rasheed M Fakri, Ali M K Al Ani, Angela M C Rose, Majd S Alras, Laurent Daumas, Emmanuel Baron, Sinan Khaddaj, Patrick Herard. . (2012) Reconstruction of Nonunion Tibial Fractures in and political War-Wounded Iraqi Civilians, 2006–2008: Better Late Than Never. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma , 1. Z. B. Thesis Proof? Perkins, H. D. Essay? De'Ath, G. Sharp, N. R. M. Tai. Note Cards? . (2012) Factors affecting outcome after traumatic limb amputation. British Journal of essay, Surgery 99 :10.1002/bjs.v99.1s, 75-86. Masahiko Takahata, Edward M Schwarz, Tony Chen, Regis J O'Keefe, Hani A Awad. Thesis Thanks? . (2012) Delayed short-course treatment with teriparatide (PTH 1-34 ) improves femoral allograft healing by enhancing intramembranous bone formation at the graft-host junction. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 27 , 26-37.

Robert H. Brophy, Matthew V. Smith, Christian Latterman, Morgan H. Jones, Emily K. Reinke, David C. Flanigan, Rick W. Wright, Brian R. Wolf. . (2012) Multi-investigator collaboration in orthopedic surgery research compared to other medical fields. Journal of Orthopaedic Research , n/a-n/a. Kristin R. Archer, Renan C. Castillo, Stephen T. Wegener, Christine M. Abraham, William T. And Political Economy? Obremskey. . (2012) Pain and satisfaction in hospitalized trauma patients. The Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and autonomy, Critical Care 72 :4, 1068. Joseph R. Hsu, Michael J. Bosse. . (2012) Challenges in essay Severe Lower Limb Injury Rehabilitation. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 20 , S39-S41. Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Biography For 2nd? Bosse. . (2012) Measurement of economy, Functional Outcomes in the Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium (METRC).

Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 20 , S59-S63. Note Cards In Research Paper? Jessica D Cross, Daniel J Stinner, Travis C Burns, Joseph C Wenke, Joseph R Hsu. Essay And Political? . (2012) Return to taking in research Duty After Type III Open Tibia Fracture. And Political Economy? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 26 :1, 43-47. Paper? Barri L. Schnall, LT Scott C. Essay Economy? Wagner, Jenna D. Montgomery, Marilynn Wyatt, MAJ Benjamin K. Potter. Cards In Research Paper? . (2012) Functional Gait Analysis Before and and political economy, After Delayed Military Trauma-Related Amputation. JBJS Case Connector 2 :1, e2. Taking Cards Paper? Joseph C Wenke, Scott A Guelcher. . (2011) Dual delivery of an antibiotic and a growth factor addresses both the microbiological and biological challenges of contaminated bone fractures.

Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 8 , 1555-1569. Ryan E. Will, Mark E. Fleming, Paul M. Lafferty, James W. Fletcher, Peter A. Cole. . (2011) Low Complication Rate Associated With Raising Mature Flap for Tibial Nonunion Reconstruction. And Political? The Journal of thesis thanks, Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 71 :6, 1709-1714. Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. . (2011) Orthopaedic Trauma Clinical Research: Is 2-Year Follow-Up Necessary? Results From a Longitudinal Study of essay economy, Severe Lower Extremity Trauma. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and useful expressions to write, Critical Care 71 :6, 1726-1731. Maheswara Akula, Sreenadh Gella, C.J.

Shaw, Phil McShane, A.M. Mohsen. . (2011) A meta-analysis of amputation versus limb salvage in mangled lower limb injuries—The patient perspective. Injury 42 , 1194-1197. Deanna L Quon, Nancy L Dudek, Meridith Marks, Michael Boutet, Lara Varpio. . (2011) A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing the Decision to Have an essay Elective Amputation. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 93 :22, 2087-2092. Ted V. Proof Reading? Tufescu. . 2011. Mangled Extremity. Evidence-Based Orthopedics, 655-660. David E Gwinn, Scott M Tintle, Anand R Kumar, Romney C Andersen, John J Keeling. . (2011) Blast-Induced Lower Extremity Fractures With Arterial Injury: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Amputation After Initial Limb-Preserving Treatment. And Political? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 25 :9, 543-548.

Aaron Nauth, Michael D McKee, Thomas A Einhorn, J Tracy Watson, Ru Li, Emil H Schemitsch. . (2011) Managing Bone Defects. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 25 , 462-466. Cemal Yazici, Masahiko Takahata, David G Reynolds, Chao Xie, R Jude Samulski, Jade Samulski, E Jeffrey Beecham, Arthur A Gertzman, Mark Spilker, Xinping Zhang, Regis J O'Keefe, Hani A Awad, Edward M Schwarz. . (2011) Self-complementary AAV2.5-BMP2-coated Femoral Allografts Mediated Superior Bone Healing Versus Live Autografts in Mice With Equivalent Biomechanics to Unfractured Femur. Molecular Therapy 19 :8, 1416-1425. Brendan D. Masini, Brett D. Owens, Joseph R. Hsu, Joseph C. Wenke. . Proof Reading? (2011) Rehospitalization After Combat Injury. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 71 , S98-S102. Johnny G. Owens, James A. Blair, Jeanne C. Patzkowski, Ryan V. Blanck, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2011) Return to Running and Sports Participation After Limb Salvage.

The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 71 , S120-S124. Jeannie Huh, Daniel J. Stinner, Travis C. Burns, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2011) Infectious Complications and Soft Tissue Injury Contribute to Late Amputation After Severe Lower Extremity Trauma. Essay Economy? The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 71 , S47-S51. Anna N. Bradford, Renan C. Castillo, Anthony R. Carlini, Stephen T. Wegener, Harry Teter, Ellen J. Expressions An Argumentative Essay? Mackenzie. . (2011) The Trauma Survivors Network: Survive. And Political Economy? Connect. Rebuild.. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 70 , 1557-1560.

A. James P. Clover, Sahan Rannan-Eliya, Waseem Saeed, Richard Buxton, Sanjib Majumder, Shehan P. Hettiaratchy, Barbara Jemec. . (2011) Experience of an Orthoplastic Limb Salvage Team after the Haiti Earthquake: Analysis of Caseload and Early Outcomes. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 127 , 2373-2380. Stephen T. Wegener, Renan C. Castillo, Jennifer Haythornthwaite, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. . (2011) Psychological distress mediates the effect of pain on function. Pain 152 , 1349-1357. Useful Expressions An Argumentative Essay? Jay J. Economy? Doucet, Michael R. Galarneau, Bruce M. Potenza, Vishal Bansal, Jeanne G. Thesis Thanks? Lee, Alexandra K. Schwartz, Amber L. Dougherty, Judy Dye, Peggy Hollingsworth-Fridlund, Dale Fortlage, Raul Coimbra. . (2011) Combat Versus Civilian Open Tibia Fractures: The Effect of Blast Mechanism on economy, Limb Salvage. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and total assignment, Critical Care 70 , 1241-1247.

G.E. Glass, S.P. Barrett, F. Sanderson, M.F. Pearse, J. Essay? Nanchahal. . (2011) The microbiological basis for a revised antibiotic regimen in high-energy tibial fractures: Preventing deep infections by nosocomial organisms. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive Aesthetic Surgery 64 , 375-380. David G. Reynolds, Masahiko Takahata, Amy L. Lerner, Regis J. O'Keefe, Edward M. Schwarz, Hani A. Awad. . (2011) Teriparatide therapy enhances devitalized femoral allograft osseointegration and biomechanics in a murine model. Bone 48 , 562-570. David Shearer, Saam Morshed. . (2011) Common generic measures of health related quality of life in biography report injured patients. Injury 42 , 241-247.

Geert A Buijze, Shawn Richardson, Jesse B Jupiter. . (2011) Successful Reconstruction for Complex Malunions and Nonunions of the Tibia and Femur. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 93 :5, 485-492. Natalie Enninghorst, Debra McDougall, Joshua J. Hunt, Zsolt J. Balogh. . (2011) Open Tibia Fractures: Timely Debridement Leaves Injury Severity as the and political, Only Determinant of Poor Outcome. The Journal of useful expressions an argumentative, Trauma: Injury, Infection, and and political, Critical Care 70 , 352-357. Kevin C. Chung, Melissa J. Shauver, Daniel Saddawi-Konefka, Steven C. Haase. . An Argumentative Essay? (2011) A Decision Analysis of essay and political economy, Amputation Versus Reconstruction for Severe Open Tibial Fracture from the Physician and Patient Perspectives. Annals of Plastic Surgery 66 , 185-191. Jessica D. Cross, James R. Ficke, Joseph R. Total Quality Assignment? Hsu, Brendan D. Masini, Joseph C. And Political Economy? Wenke. . (2011) Battlefield Orthopaedic Injuries Cause the Majority of Long-term Disabilities. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeon 19 , S1-S7. Brandon J. Goff, Renan Castillo, Srinivasa N. On Patient? Raja. . (2011) Painful Sequelae Following Limb Salvage: Etiology and Management. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeon 19 , S23-S27. G. Economy? E. Glass, J. K. Chan, A. Freidin, M. Feldmann, N. J. Note Taking Paper? Horwood, J. Nanchahal. . (2011) TNF- promotes fracture repair by augmenting the essay and political, recruitment and differentiation of thesis thanks, muscle-derived stromal cells.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 , 1585-1590. Roman Pfeifer, Philipp Lichte, Boris A Zelle, Nicola-Alexander Sittaro, Anna Zilkens, Jason R Kaneshige, Hans-Christoph Pape. Essay And Political? . (2011) Socio-economic outcome after blunt orthopaedic trauma: Implications on useful expressions an argumentative essay, injury prevention. Patient Safety in Surgery 5 , 9. Nicholas B. Vedder, Douglas P. Essay And Political? Hanel. . Report Grade? 2011. The Mangled Upper Extremity. Green's Operative Hand Surgery, 1603-1644. Essay Economy? Michael S. Pinzur. . (2011) Outcomes-Oriented Amputation Surgery.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 127 , 241S-247S. Terrence P. Sheehan. . Book? 2011. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Restoration in Upper Limb Amputation. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 257-276. Melissa S. Shauver, Maya S. Aravind, Kevin C. Chung. . (2011) A Qualitative Study of essay and political economy, Recovery From Type III-B and III-C Tibial Fractures. Annals of Plastic Surgery 66 , 73-79. Holger Engel, Chih-Hung Lin, Fu-Chan Wei. . (2011) Role of Microsurgery in Lower Extremity Reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 127 , 228S-238S.

Helen G. Hui-Chou, Jay Sulek, Rachel Bluebond-Langner, Eduardo D. Rodriguez. . Essays On Patient Autonomy? (2011) Secondary Refinements of Free Perforator Flaps for Lower Extremity Reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 127 , 248-257. F. Dubrana. . 2011. Stimulation de la consolidation osseuse (adulte et enfant) : BMP, courant electrique, ultrasons. Conferences d'enseignement 2011, 255-268. Maya Aravind, Melissa J. Shauver, Kevin C. Chung. . (2010) A Qualitative Analysis of the Decision-Making Process for Patients with Severe Lower Leg Trauma. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 126 , 2019-2029. And Political? M. For 2nd Grade? Raschke, T. Essay? Vordemvenne, T. Fuchs. . Reading? (2010) Limb salvage or amputation? The use of a gentamicin coated nail in a severe, grade IIIc tibia fracture. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 36 , 605-608.

LT Scott M Tintle, CDR John J Keeling, LTC Scott B Shawen, LCDR Jonathan A Forsberg, MAJ Benjamin K Potter. . (2010) Traumatic and Trauma-Related Amputations. The Journal of essay and political, Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 92 :17, 2852-2868. Hans-Christoph Pape, Christian Probst, Ralf Lohse, Boris A. Zelle, Martin Panzica, Michael Stalp, Jennifer L. Steel, Heinrich M. Duhme, Roman Pfeifer, Christian Krettek, Nicola-Alexander Sittaro. Thesis Thanks? . (2010) Predictors of Late Clinical Outcome Following Orthopedic Injuries After Multiple Trauma. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and essay, Critical Care 69 , 1243-1251. Travis C Burns, Daniel J Stinner, Daniel R Possley, Andrew W Mack, Tobin T Eckel, Benjamin K Potter, Joseph C Wenke, Joseph R Hsu. . Useful Expressions An Argumentative Essay? (2010) Does the Zone of Injury in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fractures Preclude the Use of Local Soft Tissue Coverage?. Essay Economy? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 24 , 697-703. Z.M. Arnez, U. Khan, M.P.H. Tyler. . (2010) Classification of thesis proof, soft-tissue degloving in limb trauma.

Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive Aesthetic Surgery 63 , 1865-1869. Melvin D. Helgeson, Benjamin K. And Political? Potter, Travis C. Burns, Roman A. Biography Report? Hayda, Donald A. Gajewski. . (2010) Risk Factors for and Results of Late or Delayed Amputation Following Combat-Related Extremity Injuries. Orthopedics . Scott T. Hollenbeck, L. Scott Levin. . (2010) Reply. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 126 , 686-687. Benjamin C. Taylor, Bruce French, Attila Poka, Andrew Blint, Sanjay Mehta. . (2010) Osteomyoplastic and Traditional Transtibial Amputations in the Trauma Patient: Perioperative Comparisons and Outcomes. Orthopedics . , James S. Essay And Political Economy? Starman, Renan C. Castillo, Michael J. Bosse, Ellen J. MacKenzie. . Thesis Reading? (2010) Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Fractures with Severe Soft Tissue Injury: Clinical and and political economy, Functional Results at 2 Years.

Clinical Orthopaedics and on patient autonomy, Related Research® 468 , 1669-1675. Kristin R. Archer, Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. Essay And Political Economy? MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. . (2010) Perceived Need and Unmet Need for thesis thanks, Vocational, Mental Health, and Other Support Services After Severe Lower-Extremity Trauma. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 91 :5, 774-780. Thomas F. Higgins, Joshua B. Klatt, Timothy C. Beals. . (2010) Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) – The Best Available Evidence on Limb-Threatening Lower Extremity Trauma. Orthopedic Clinics of North America 41 , 233-239. Vincent Y. Ng, Gregory C. Berlet. And Political? . (2010) Evolving Techniques in total management assignment Foot and Ankle Amputation. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeon 18 , 223-235. Xiaobing Cai, Kaiwei Han, Xiaoliang Cong, Jinfang Cai, Dake Tong, Dong Han, Yu Wang, Baoqing Yu. . (2010) The Use of Calcium Sulfate Impregnated with Vancomycin in the Treatment of Open Fractures of Long Bones: A Preliminary Study. Orthopedics . Economy? Kyle J Jeray, Stephanie Tanner, Emil H Schemitsch, Mohit Bhandari. . (2010) Are Large Fracture Trials Possible?. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 24 , S87-S92.

Mark E. Fleming, Scott M. Tintle, Jeffrey Davila, Timothy Mickel, Anand Kumar, Romney C. Andersen. . Total Management Assignment? (2010) Soft Tissue Care About the Knee in High-energy War Injuries. Techniques in Knee Surgery 9 , 17-29. Scott B. Shawen, John J. Keeling, Joanna Branstetter, Kevin L. Kirk, James R. Ficke. . (2010) The Mangled Foot and Leg: Salvage Versus Amputation. Foot and Ankle Clinics 15 , 63-75. Yee Siang Ong, L Scott Levin. . (2010) Lower Limb Salvage in Trauma.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 125 , 582-588. Stuart J. Melvin, Derek G. Dombroski, Jesse T. Essay Economy? Torbert, Stephen J. Kovach, John L. Esterhai, Samir Mehta. . (2010) Open Tibial Shaft Fractures: II. Definitive Management and Limb Salvage. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeon 18 , 108-117. Andrew Hart, Simon P.J. Useful To Write An Argumentative Essay? Kay. . And Political? 2010.

Soft tissue injuries, including burns. Medicolegal Reporting in Orthopaedic Trauma, 423-434. Andrew N Pollak, Alan L Jones, Renan C Castillo, Michael J Bosse, Ellen J MacKenzie. . (2010) The Relationship Between Time to Surgical Debridement and thesis thanks, Incidence of Infection After Open High-Energy Lower Extremity Trauma. The Journal of Bone and economy, Joint Surgery-American Volume 92 :1, 7-15. Aaron Nauth, Jukka Ristiniemi, Michael D. McKee, Emil H. Biography Book Report Grade? Schemitsch. Economy? . (2009) Bone morphogenetic proteins in open fractures: past, present, and an argumentative essay, future. Injury 40 , S27-S31. Kevin C. Chung, Daniel Saddawi-Konefka, Steven C. Haase, Gautam Kaul. . (2009) A Cost-Utility Analysis of Amputation versus Salvage for Gustilo Type IIIB and IIIC Open Tibial Fractures. Plastic and and political economy, Reconstructive Surgery 124 , 1965-1973. Cards In Research Paper? Robert V O?Toole, Renan C Castillo, Andrew N Pollak, Ellen J MacKenzie, Michael J Bosse. . (2009) Surgeons and Their Patients Disagree Regarding Cosmetic and Overall Outcomes After Surgery for High-Energy Lower Extremity Trauma.

Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 23 , 716-723. Robert M. Rush, Alec C. Beekley, Eric G. Puttler, Randy J. Kjorstad. . (2009) The Mangled Extremity. Current Problems in Surgery 46 , 851-926. Jaymes D Granata, Thomas J Ellis. . (2009) Management of tibial nonunions. Current Orthopaedic Practice 20 , 522-526. T. William Axelrad, Thomas A. Einhorn. . Essay? (2009) Bone morphogenetic proteins in orthopaedic surgery.

Cytokine Growth Factor Reviews 20 , 481-488. Kristian Sorensen, Keith Allison. . Thesis Proof Reading? (2009) An overview of essay and political, limb replantation. Trauma 11 :4, 209-220. Gabriel Burkhardt, Todd Rasmussen. . 2009. Limb Salvage for the Mangled Extremity.

Acute Care Surgery and Trauma, 199-206. Ronald D. Barr, Jay S. Wunder. . (2009) Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are often curable-But at total quality management, what cost?. Cancer 115 :10.1002/cncr.v115:18, 4046-4054. Graeme E. Essay And Political? Glass, Michael Pearse, Jagdeep Nanchahal. . Biography Book Report For 2nd? (2009) The ortho-plastic management of Gustilo grade IIIB fractures of the essay and political, tibia in children: A systematic review of the literature. Injury 40 , 876-879. Andrew J Healey, Nigel Tai. . (2009) Traumatic amputation — a contemporary approach. Trauma 11 :3, 177-187. Michael S. Pinzur. . (2009) Distal Tibiofibular Bone Bridge in Transtibial Amputation. Techniques in Foot Ankle Surgery 8 , 91-93. Steffen Baumeister, C A. Radu. . (2009) Salvage Reconstruction of the Severely Traumatized Foot and Ankle.

Techniques in Orthopaedics 24 , 96-107. Charles K. Herman, Ari S. Hoschander, Berish Strauch. . (2009) New Strategies in thesis thanks Surgical Reconstruction of the Lower Extremity. Techniques in Orthopaedics 24 , 123-129. Christine Rohde, Jeffrey A. Ascherman. And Political? . (2009) Salvage Reconstruction of Lower Extremity Defects With Muscle Flaps. Thesis Thanks? Techniques in Orthopaedics 24 , 139-146. Scott T. Hollenbeck, Shoshana Woo, Siang Ong, Robert D. Fitch, Detlev Erdmann, L Scott Levin. . (2009) The Combined Use of the Ilizarov Method and Microsurgical Techniques for Limb Salvage. Economy? Annals of Plastic Surgery 62 , 486-491. Eduardo D. Thesis Thanks? Rodriguez, Rachel Bluebond-Langner, Carol Copeland, T Nicole Grim, Navin K. Singh, Thomas Scalea. . And Political Economy? (2009) Functional Outcomes of Posttraumatic Lower Limb Salvage: A Pilot Study of Anterolateral Thigh Perforator Flaps Versus Muscle Flaps. The Journal of paper, Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 66 , 1311-1314. Sheila Sprague, Joel M Matta, Mohit Bhandari. . (2009) Multicenter Collaboration in Observational Research: Improving Generalizability and Efficiency.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 91 :Suppl 3, 80-86. Brendan D Masini, Scott M Waterman, Joseph C Wenke, Brett D Owens, Joseph R Hsu, James R Ficke. . (2009) Resource Utilization and Disability Outcome Assessment of Combat Casualties From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Essay? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 23 , 261-266. Thierry Balaguer, Tarik Ihrai, Charles Bessiere, Elisabeth Lebreton. . (2009) A 10-Year–Delayed Amputation and Our Approach for Achieving a Functional Stump. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 123 , 121e-122e. Stephen T. Wegener, Ellen J. Mackenzie, Patti Ephraim, Dawn Ehde, Rhonda Williams. . (2009) Self-Management Improves Outcomes in Persons With Limb Loss. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 90 , 373-380. Reading? Levent Tekin, Ysmail Safaz, Ahmet Salim Goktepe, Kamil Yazycyodlu. . (2009) Comparison of and political economy, Quality of Life and total management, Functionality in Patients with Traumatic Unilateral below Knee Amputation and Salvage Surgery. Prosthetics and Orthotics International 33 :1, 17-24.

Peter V. Essay And Political? Giannoudis, Paul J. Harwood, George Kontakis, Mohamad Allami, David Macdonald, Simon P. Kay, Paul Kind. . (2009) Long-term quality of life in trauma patients following the full spectrum of tibial injury (fasciotomy, closed fracture, grade IIIB/IIIC open fracture and amputation). Injury 40 , 213-219. Michael S. Pinzur. Report Grade? . 2009. Amputations in Trauma. Skeletal Trauma, 2863-2882.

Peter G. Trafton. . 2009. Essay? Tibial Shaft Fractures. Skeletal Trauma, 2319-2451. Essays Autonomy? Hubert J Oostenbroek, Ronald Brand, Peter M van Roermund. . (2009) Lower limb deformity due to essay failed trauma treatment corrected with the Ilizarov technique. Acta Orthopaedica 80 , 435-439. Daniel Saddawi-Konefka, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Kevin C. Chung. . (2008) A Systematic Review of Outcomes and Complications of Reconstruction and Amputation for Type IIIB and biography book grade, IIIC Fractures of the Tibia.

Plastic and essay, Reconstructive Surgery 122 , 1796-1805. John J Keeling, David E Gwinn, Scott M Tintle, Romney C Andersen, Francis X McGuigan. . (2008) Short-Term Outcomes of Severe Open Wartime Tibial Fractures Treated with Ring External Fixation. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 90 :12, 2643-2651. Andrew N. Pollak, James R. Ficke, Extremity War Injuries. . (2008) Extremity War Injuries: Challenges in Definitive Reconstruction. Journal of the American Academy of essays, Orthopaedic Surgeons 16 , 628-634. Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Kristin R. Archer, Michael J. Bosse, Lawrence X. Webb. . (2008) Evidence of Beneficial Effect of Physical Therapy After Lower-Extremity Trauma.

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89 :10, 1873-1879. Michael T. Economy? Smith, Brendan Klick, Sharon Kozachik, Robert E. Edwards, Radha Holavanahalli, Shelley Wiechman, Patricia Blakeney, Dennis Lezotte, James A. Essays Autonomy? Fauerbach. . (2008) Sleep onset insomnia symptoms during hospitalization for and political economy, major burn injury predict chronic pain. Pain 138 , 497-506. Paul E Levin, Emily J Levin. . (2008) The Experience of an Orthopaedic Traumatologist When the Trauma Hits Home: Observations and Suggestions. The Journal of Bone and an argumentative, Joint Surgery-American Volume 90 :9, 2026-2036. Peter Hull. . (2008) The management of open tibial fractures. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery Traumatology 18 , 441-447. Thuan V Ly, Thomas G Travison, Renan C Castillo, Michael J Bosse, Ellen J MacKenzie. . (2008) Ability of Lower-Extremity Injury Severity Scores to Predict Functional Outcome After Limb Salvage. The Journal of Bone and essay and political economy, Joint Surgery-American Volume 90 :8, 1738-1743. Robert V O?Toole, Renan C Castillo, Andrew N Pollak, Ellen J MacKenzie, Michael J Bosse. Total Quality Management Assignment? . (2008) Determinants of Patient Satisfaction After Severe Lower-Extremity Injuries. Essay? The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 90 :6, 1206-1211.

Vikram Reddy, Thomas Ray Stevenson. . (2008) MOC-PS(SM) CME Article: Lower Extremity Reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 121 , 1-7. Adam J. Starr. . (2008) Fracture Repair: Successful Advances, Persistent Problems, and the Psychological Burden of book grade, Trauma. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 90 :Suppl 1, 132-137. Zoran Golubovic, Predrag Stojiljkovic, Lana Macukanovic-Golubovic, Dragan Milic, Sasa Milenkovic, Marko Kadija, Zoran Matovic, Goran Turkovic, Mile Radenkovic, Aleksandar Visnjic, Ivan Golubovic, Sasa Stojanovic, Goran Vidic, Milorad Mitkovic. And Political? . (2008) External fixation in the treatment of open tibial shaft fractures. Proof Reading? Vojnosanitetski pregled 65 , 343-348. David W. Lowenberg, Cameron Sadeghi, Darrell Brooks, Gregory M. Buncke, Rudolf F. Buntic. . (2008) Use of circular external fixation to maintain foot position during free tissue transfer to the foot and economy, ankle. Microsurgery 28 :10.1002/micr.v28:8, 623-627. Ellen J MacKenzie, Frederick P Rivara, Gregory J Jurkovich, Avery B Nathens, Brian L Egleston, David S Salkever, Katherine P Frey, Daniel O Scharfstein. . (2008) The Impact of Trauma-Center Care on Functional Outcomes Following Major Lower-Limb Trauma. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 90 :1, 101-109. Ellen J. MacKenzie, Frederick P. Rivara, Gregory J. Jurkovich, Avery B. Nathens, Katherine P. Thesis? Frey, Brian L. Egleston, David S. Salkever, Sharada Weir, Daniel O. Scharfstein. . (2007) The National Study on Costs and economy, Outcomes of Trauma.

The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63 , S54-S67. T. G. Travison, R. Brookmeyer. . (2007) Global effects estimation for management, multidimensional outcomes. Economy? Statistics in Medicine 26 :10.1002/sim.v26:27, 4845-4859. Carin Ottosson, Hans Pettersson, Sven-Erik Johansson, Olof Nyren, Sari Ponzer. . (2007) A Novel Clinical Instrument for Predicting Delayed Recovery After Musculoskeletal Injuries. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63 , 894-901. Brendan M. Patterson, Julie Agel, Marc F. Total Quality? Swiontkowski, Ellen J. Essay And Political? MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. . (2007) Knee Dislocations With Vascular Injury: Outcomes in the Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) Study. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63 , 855-858. Ujjwal Kanti Debnath, Subramanyam Naidu Maripuri, Abhijit R. Guha, Daniel Parfitt, Charlotte Fournier, Karthik Hariharan. . (2007) Open grade III “floating ankle” injuries: a report of eight cases with review of literature. Archives of expressions to write an argumentative, Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 127 , 625-631. Oliver P. Gautschi, Sonke P. Frey, Rene Zellweger. . (2007) BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS IN CLINICAL APPLICATIONS.

ANZ Journal of and political, Surgery 77 :10.1111/ans.2007.77.issue-8, 626-631. D.J. Quality Management? Crowley, N.K. Kanakaris, P.V. Giannoudis. . (2007) Debridement and wound closure of open fractures: The impact of the time factor on infection rates. Injury 38 , 879-889. Ellen J. MacKenzie, Alison Snow Jones, Michael J. Bosse, Renan C. Castillo, Andrew N. Pollak, Lawrence X. Webb, Marc F. Swiontkowski, James F. Kellam, Douglas G. Smith, Roy W. Essay? Sanders, Alan L. Jones, Adam J. On Patient Autonomy? Starr, Mark P. McAndrew, Brendan M. Patterson, Andrew R. And Political Economy? Burgess. . (2007) Health-Care Costs Associated with Amputation or Reconstruction of a Limb-Threatening Injury. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 89 :8, 1685-1692. Lawrence X. Webb, Michael J. Bosse, Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. Total Assignment? MacKenzie. And Political? . (2007) Analysis of Surgeon-Controlled Variables in the Treatment of Limb-Threatening Type-III Open Tibial Diaphyseal Fractures. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 89 :5, 923-928. Michael S. Pinzur, Frank A. Book For 2nd Grade? Gottschalk, Marco Antonio Guedes de S. Essay Economy? Pinto, Douglas G. In Research? Smith. . (2007) Controversies in Lower-Extremity Amputation.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 89 :5, 1117-1127. Jason W Busse, Mohit Bhandari, Craig L Jacobs, Marc F Swiontkowski, Michael J Bosse. . (2007) In Response. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 21 , 283-284. K. S. Wolff, A. M. Prusa, S. Bulwas, A. Wibmer, M. Sahal, U. Kotowski, H. Teufelsbauer. . (2007) Cluster bomb vs. antipersonnel mine related injuries. Essay Economy? An experience from the Kuwaiti-Iraqi border from June 1998 to November 2000. European Surgery 39 , 111-117.

Sebastian Kuhn, Matthias Hansen, Pol M. Rommens. Book Report? . Essay Economy? (2007) Extending the Indication of Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Fractures. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 33 , 159-169. H.R. Holtslag, M.W. On Patient Autonomy? Post, E. Lindeman, Chr. Van der Werken. Essay? . (2007) Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients.

Injury 38 , 280-289. Reading? Claude D Anderson, Joel D Stewart, Daniel V Unger. . (2007) Recent advances in lower-extremity amputations. Current Opinion in Orthopaedics 18 :2, 137-144. Peter Cole. Essay And Political Economy? . (2007) OPINION: Limb Salvage. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 21 , 68-69. Paul J Dougherty. . (2007) OPINION: Below-the-knee Amputation.

Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 21 , 67-68. Jason W Busse, Craig L Jacobs, Marc F Swiontkowski, Michael J Bosse, Mohit Bhandari. . (2007) Complex Limb Salvage or Early Amputation for Severe Lower-Limb Injury: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 21 , 70-76. Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite. . 2007. Evaluacion de las creencias sobre el dolor, de las estrategias de afrontamiento y del funcionalismo en la vida diaria. Wall y Melzack. Tratado del Dolor, 321-334.

Lisa K. Cannada, Alan L. Quality Management Assignment? Jones. Essay And Political Economy? . (2006) Demographic, social and biography book, economic variables that affect lower extremity injury outcomes. Injury 37 , 1109-1116. C. And Political Economy? C. Essays Autonomy? Breugem, S. Essay Economy? D. Strackee. . (2006) Is There Evidence-Based Guidance for Timing of Soft Tissue Coverage of Grade III B Tibia Fractures?. Essays On Patient? The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds 5 :4, 261-270. Barnaby T. Dedmond, Bill Kortesis, Kathleen Punger, Jordan Simpson, Joseph Argenta, Brenda Kulp, Michael Morykwas, Lawrence X. Webb. . (2006) Subatmospheric Pressure Dressings in the Temporary Treatment of Soft Tissue Injuries Associated With Type III Open Tibial Shaft Fractures in Children. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 26 , 728-732.

Arlene I. Greenspan, Victor G. Coronado, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Jane Schulman, Ben Pierce, George Provenzano. . (2006) Injury Hospitalizations: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 61 , 1234-1243. Michael S. Pinzur, Marco A. Guedes S. Pinto, Matthew Saltzman, Fabio Batista, Frank Gottschalk, Dainius Juknelis. Essay And Political? . Useful To Write An Argumentative Essay? (2006) Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Transtibial Amputation and Reconstruction with Bone Bridging of the Distal Tibia and Fibula. Foot Ankle International 27 :11, 907-912. Essay Economy? Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. Report? MacKenzie, Stephen T. Wegener, Michael J. Bosse. . (2006) Prevalence of chronic pain seven years following limb threatening lower extremity trauma?. Pain 124 , 321-329. Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Essay And Political? Bosse. Thesis Reading? . (2006) Factors Influencing Outcome Following Limb-Threatening Lower Limb Trauma: Lessons Learned From the Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP). Economy? Journal of the note in research paper, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 14 , S205-S210. Ellen J. And Political Economy? MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse, James F. Kellam, Andrew N. Essays On Patient? Pollak, Lawrence X. Webb, Marc F. Swiontkowski, Douglas G. Smith, Roy W. Sanders, Alan L. Jones, Adam J. Economy? Starr, Mark P. McAndrew, Brendan M. Patterson, Andrew R. Burgess, Thomas Travison, Renan C. Castillo. . (2006) Early Predictors of Long-Term Work Disability After Major Limb Trauma. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 61 , 688-694. Kristin R. Archer, Renan C. Castillo, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse. Biography Book For 2nd? . (2006) Physical Disability After Severe Lower-Extremity Injury.

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 87 , 1153-1155. Kazuhiko Yokoyama, Moritoshi Itoman, Koushin Nakamura, Masataka Uchino, Tatsuro Tsukamoto, Takashi Suzuki. Economy? . (2006) Primary Shortening with Secondary Limb Lengthening for Gustilo IIIB Open Tibial Fractures: A Report of Six Cases. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 61 , 172-180. Useful An Argumentative Essay? Melissa L. McCarthy, Sureyya S. Dikmen, Jean A. Langlois, Anbesaw W. Selassie, Ja K. And Political? Gu, Michael D. Horner. . (2006) Self-Reported Psychosocial Health Among Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 87 :7, 953-961. MARC F. SWIONTKOWSKI, HANNU T. ARO, SIMON DONELL, JOHN L. ESTERHAI, JAMES GOULET, ALAN JONES, PHILIP J. KREGOR, LARS NORDSLETTEN, GUY PAIEMENT, AMRATLAL PATEL. . (2006) RECOMBINANT HUMAN BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-2 IN OPEN TIBIAL FRACTURES.

The Journal of for 2nd, Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 88 :6, 1258-1265. Ru Ding, Melissa L. McCarthy, Eileen Houseknecht, Susan Ziegfeld, Vinita Misra Knight, Patricia Korehbandi, Donna Parnell, Patricia Klotz. . (2006) The Health-Related Quality of Life of essay economy, Children With an Extremity Fracture. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 26 , 157-163. Paul F. On Patient? Pasquina, Phillip R. Economy? Bryant, Mark E. Thesis Proof Reading? Huang, Toni L. Roberts, Virginia S. Nelson, Katherine M. Flood. . (2006) Advances in Amputee Care. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 87 :3, 34-43. Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite. . Essay Economy? 2006. Report For 2nd Grade? Assessment of pain beliefs, coping and essay, function.

Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain, 317-328. Michael S. Thesis Proof Reading? Pinzur. Essay Economy? . (2006) Outcomes from the Surgeon??s Perspective. JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics 18 , P113-P115. Charalampos G. Zalavras, Michael J. Patzakis, Paul D. Holtom, Randy Sherman. . (2005) Management of Open Fractures. Infectious Disease Clinics of useful essay, North America 19 , 915-929. MICHAEL J. BOSSE, MELISSA L. MCCARTHY, ALAN L. JONES, LAWRENCE X. WEBB, STEPHEN H. And Political Economy? SIMS, ROY W. SANDERS, ELLEN LEAP MACKENZIE. Assignment? . (2005) THE INSENSATE FOOT FOLLOWING SEVERE LOWER EXTREMITY TRAUMA. The Journal of essay, Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 87 :12, 2601-2608. P. F. Stahel, C. E. Heyde, W. Useful To Write? Wyrwich, W. Essay Economy? Ertel. . (2005) Aktuelle Konzepte des Polytraumamanagements: Von ATLS zu „Damage Control“. Der Orthopade 34 , 823-836. Renan C. Biography Report Grade? Castillo, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Lawrence X. Webb, Michael J. Bosse, Jennifer Avery. . Essay And Political? (2005) Use and Perceived Need of Physical Therapy Following Severe Lower-Extremity Trauma.

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 86 :9, 1722-1728. ELLEN J. MACKENZIE, MICHAEL J. BOSSE, ANDREW N. POLLAK, LAWRENCE X. WEBB, MARC F. SWIONTKOWSKI, JAMES F. KELLAM, DOUGLAS G. For 2nd Grade? SMITH, ROY W. SANDERS, ALAN L. JONES, ADAM J. STARR, MARK P. MCANDREW, BRENDAN M. PATTERSON, ANDREW R. BURGESS, RENAN C. CASTILLO. . (2005) LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE OF DISABILITY FOLLOWING SEVERE LOWER-LIMB TRAUMA. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 87 :8, 1801-1809. Klaus S. Wolff, Alexander M. Prusa, Andreas Wibmer, Peter Rankl, Wilhelm Firbas, Harald Teufelsbauer. . (2005) Effect of Body Armor on essay and political economy, Simulated Landmine Blasts to Cadaveric Legs. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and note taking cards in research paper, Critical Care 59 , 202-208. Joel J Smith, Julie Agel, Marc F Swiontkowski, Renan Castillo, Ellen MacKenzie, James F Kellam. . (2005) Functional Outcome of Bilateral Limb Threatening. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 19 , 249-253. Marylynn Kyritsis Bartley, Georgianna Telford. . And Political? (2005) Avances recientes en atencion traumatologica. Nursing (Ed. espanola) 23 , 26-27. Renan C. Castillo, Michael J. To Write? Bosse, Ellen J. MacKenzie, Brendan M. Essay And Political? Patterson. Autonomy? . (2005) Impact of Smoking on Fracture Healing and Risk of Complications in Limb-Threatening Open Tibia Fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 19 , 151-157.

Terumasa Boku, Kazuhiko Yokoyama, Koushin Nakamura, Masataka Uchino, Takashi Suzuki, Hiroshi Ohtsuka, Moritoshi Itoman. . (2005) Functional outcome and quality of life of Gustilo IIIB open tibial fractures requiring free tissue transfers: A report of eight cases. And Political Economy? Microsurgery 25 :10.1002/micr.v25:7, 532-537. Ellen J. Useful An Argumentative Essay? MacKenzie, Michael J. Essay And Political Economy? Bosse, Renan C. Castillo, Douglas G. Smith, Lawrence X. Webb, James F. Proof? Kellam, Andrew R. Burgess, Marc F. Swiontkowski, Roy W. Sanders, Alan L. Jones, Mark P. McAndrew, Brendan M. Patterson, Thomas G. Travison, Melissa L. McCarthy. . (2004) Functional Outcomes Following Trauma-Related Lower-Extremity Amputation. Essay And Political Economy? The Journal of Bone Joint Surgery 86 :8, 1636-1645. Total Quality? Marilynn Kyritsis Bartley, Georgianna Telford. . (2004) The latest in TRAUMA CARE. Nursing 34 , 26-29.

Y. Essay Economy? Kenan Coban, Ali Gurlek. . (2004) Postburn Subtalar Dislocation in taking cards a Major Foot Contracture. Journal of Burn Care Rehabilitation 25 , 319-323. MELISSA L. MCCARTHY, ELLEN J. Essay? MACKENZIE, DAVID EDWIN, MICHAEL J. Taking In Research Paper? BOSSE, RENAN C. CASTILLO, ADAM STARR. . (2003) PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERE LOWER-LIMB INJURY. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 85 :9, 1689-1697. Sherman , Randolph , . . (2002) To Reconstruct or Not to Reconstruct?.

New England Journal of Medicine 347 :24, 1906-1907.

Custom Academic Paper Writing Services -
Bastiat: Selected Essays on Political Economy | Library of Economics

Subchapter B. Essay And Political Economy! PERMITS, TRANSFERS AND OBJECTIONS. 78.12. Compliance with permit. 78.14. Transfer of well ownership or change of management assignment, address. 78.16. Accelerated permit review. 78.18. Disposal and enhanced recovery well permits. 78.19. Permit application fee schedule.

78.21. Opportunity for objections and conferences; surface landowners. 78.22. Essay And Political Economy! Objections by owner or operator of note cards in research, coal mine. 78.23. And Political! Time for filing objections by owner or operator of thesis proof, coal mine. 78.24. Information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine. 78.26.

Agreement at essay and political conference. 78.27. Continuation of thesis thanks, conference. 78.28. Final action if objections do not proceed to panel. 78.29. Composition of panel. 78.30. Jurisdiction of panel. 78.31. Economy! Scheduling of meeting by the panel.

78.32. Recommendation by the panel. 78.33. Effect of panel on time for permit issuance. (a) No person may drill or alter a well unless that person has first obtained a permit from the report grade Department. (b) No person may operate a well unless one of the essay following conditions has been met: (1) The person has obtained a permit under the act. (2) The person has registered the well under the act. (3) The well was in operation on thesis thanks April 18, 1985, under a permit that was obtained under the Gas Operations Well-Drilling Petroleum and economy, Coal Mining Act (52 P. S. § § 2104, 2208, 2601 and 2602) (Repealed). The provisions of this § 78.11 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis Proof Reading! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.18 (relating to disposal and enhanced recovery well permits). A person may not drill, alter or operate an oil or gas well except in accordance with a permit or registration issued under the act and in compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit, this chapter and the statutes under which it was promulgated. A copy of the permit shall be kept at essay and political the well site during drilling or alteration of a well. The provisions of this § 78.12 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Biography For 2nd Grade! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138804). (a) No transfer, assignment or sale of rights granted under a permit or registration may be made without prior written approval of the Department. Permit transfers may be denied for essay and political, the reasons set forth in essays autonomy section 201(e)(4) and (5) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.201(e)(4) and (5)). (b) The Department may require the transferee to fulfill the drilling, plugging, well site restoration, water supply replacement and other requirements of the act, regardless of whether the transferor commenced the activity and regardless of whether the transferor failed to essay economy properly perform the transferor#146;s obligations under the act. The provisions of this § 78.13 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis Proof! 3229. § 78.14.

Transfer of well ownership or change of address. (a) Within 30 days after the sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance or exchange of essay economy, a well, the new owner or operator shall notify the Department, in writing, of the transfer of ownership. (b) The notice shall include the following information: (1) The names, addresses and telephone numbers of the former and new owner, and the agent if applicable. (2) The well permit or registration number. (3) The effective date of the thesis proof transfer of ownership. (4) An application for a well permit transfer if there is a change in the well operator. (c) The permittee shall notify the Department of a change in address or name within 30 days of the change.

The provisions of this § 78.14 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Essay! 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (193955) to on patient (193956). (a) An application for a well permit shall be submitted on essay and political economy forms furnished by the Department and contain the information required by the Department to evaluate the application. (b) The permit application will not be considered complete until the applicant submits a complete and accurate plat, an approvable bond or other means of complying with section 215 of the act (58 P. S. Useful Expressions To Write! § 601.215), the fee in compliance with § 78.19 (relating to permit application fee schedule), proof of and political economy, notification, necessary requests for an argumentative essay, variance or waivers or other documents required to be furnished by law or the Department.

The person named in the permit shall be the economy same person named in the bond or other security. The provisions of this § 78.15 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended April 17, 2009, effective April 18, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 1982. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276300). In cases of hardship, an reading operator may request an accelerated review of a well permit application. For the purposes of essay and political economy, this section, hardship includes cases where immediate action is necessary to protect public health or safety, to control pollution or to effect other environmental or safety measures, and extraordinary circumstances beyond the control of the operator. Permits issued shall be consistent with the requirements of the essays act. The provisions of this § 78.16 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. An operator may request a 1-year renewal of a well permit. The request shall be accompanied by a permit fee, the surcharge required in essay and political section 601 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.601), and an affidavit affirming that the information on the original application is still accurate and complete, that the well location restrictions are still met and that the surface owners, coal owners and operators, gas storage operators, where the permit renewal is for a proposed well location within an underground gas storage reservoir or the reservoir protective area, and water supply owners within 1,000 feet have been notified of thesis proof reading, this request for renewal. The request shall be received by the Department at least 15 calendar days prior to the expiration of the essay economy original permit. The provisions of thesis thanks, this § 78.17 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (263008).

§ 78.18. Disposal and essay and political, enhanced recovery well permits. (a) A person may not drill a disposal or enhanced recovery well or alter an existing well to be a disposal or enhanced recovery well unless the person: (1) Obtains a well permit under § 78.11 (relating to permit requirements). (2) Submits with the well permit application a copy of the well permit, approved permit application and required related documentation submitted for biography, the disposal or enhanced recovery well to the EPA under 40 CFR Part 146 (relating to underground injection control program). (3) Submits a copy of a control and essay and political, disposal plan for the disposal or enhanced recovery well and useful an argumentative, related facilities that meets the requirements of § 91.34 (relating to activities utilizing pollutants). (4) Submits a copy of an erosion and sedimentation plan for the disposal or enhanced recovery well site that meets the requirements of Chapter 102 and § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sediment control; and erosion and sedimentation control). (b) By December 18, 1995, an operator of disposal or enhanced recovery wells which were operating before December 18, 1995, shall submit to the Department a list of the operator#146;s disposal or enhanced recovery wells including: (1) The Department#146;s permit or registration number for each well on this list. (2) The corresponding permit number issued to each well on essay and political economy this list by the EPA. (c) A person who operates multiple well projects may submit one copy of the documents required under subsection (a) if the documents are applicable to the entire project. The provisions of this § 78.18 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284. This section cited in management 25 Pa. Code § 78a.18 (relating to disposal and essay economy, enhanced recovery well permits); and on patient, 25 Pa. Code § 95.10 (relating to treatment requirements for new and expanding mass loadings of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)). § 78.19. Permit application fee schedule. (a) An applicant shall pay a permit application fee according to the following schedule: (b) An applicant for a conventional well exceeding 12,000 feet in total well bore length shall pay a permit application fee of $1,950 + $100 for every 500 feet the well bore extends over 12,000 feet. Fees shall be rounded to the nearest 500-foot interval under this subsection. (c) If, when drilled, the total well bore length of the conventional well exceeds the length specified in the permit application due to essay and political economy target formation being deeper than anticipated at the time of application submittal, the operator shall pay the difference between the amount paid as part of the thesis thanks permit application and essay, the amount required under subsections (a) and biography book report, (b).

(d) An applicant for a conventional well with a well bore length of 1,500 feet or less for home use shall pay a permit application fee of $200. (e) At least every 3 years, the Department will provide the EQB with an evaluation of the fees in this chapter and recommend regulatory changes to the EQB to and political economy address any disparity between the program income generated by the fees and the Department#146;s cost of expressions, administering the program with the objective of ensuring fees meet all program costs and essay economy, programs are self-sustaining. The provisions of this § 78.19 amended under sections 201(d) and 604 of the Oil and Gas Act (58 P.S. § § 601.201(d) and thesis thanks, 601.604) (Repealed); sections 1917-A and and political economy, 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. Thesis Thanks! § § 510-17 and 510-20); 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3211(d), 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. And Political Economy! § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and thesis thanks, Encroachments Act (32 P.S. Essay And Political! § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and reading, Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. Economy! § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); and management, section 13.2 of the act of and political, July 10, 2014 (P.L. Total Management! 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E). The provisions of this § 78.19 adopted April 17, 2009, effective April 18, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 1982; amended October 23, 2009, effective October 24, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 6232; amended June 13, 2014, effective June 14, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 3517; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (372299) to (372300). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.15 (relating to application requirements). § 78.21. Opportunity for objections and conferences; surface landowners. (a) The surface landowner of the tract on which the proposed well is located may object to the well location based on the assertion that the well location violates section 205 of the and political economy act (58 P. S. § 601.205) or on autonomy the basis that the information in the application is untrue in a material respect, and request a conference under section 501 of the essay and political economy act (58 P. S. § 601.501).

(b) The objection and request for a conference shall be filed in writing with the Department within 15 calendar days of receipt of the thesis thanks plat by the surface landowner. The objection shall contain the following: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person submitting the objection. (2) The name of the well operator, and the name and number of the proposed well. (3) A statement of the objection and a request for a conference if a conference is being requested. The provisions of this § 78.21 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. § 78.22. Objections by owner or operator of coal mine. The owner or operator of an operating coal mine or a coal mine already projected and platted, but not yet being operated, may file written objections to a proposed well location with the Department if the following apply: (1) The well, when drilled, would penetrate within the outside coal boundaries of essay and political, such a mine or within 1,000 feet beyond the boundaries. (2) In the opinion of the owner or operator, the well will unduly interfere with or endanger the useful expressions to write an argumentative mine or persons working in the mine. The provisions of this § 78.22 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Economy! Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.23. Time for filing objections by owner or operator of coal mine. (a) A coal mine owner or operator who objects to thesis thanks a proposed gas well for and political economy, financial considerations, and taking in research, wishes to go before a panel with an objection over which the panel has jurisdiction, shall file objections to a proposed gas well within 10-calendar days of the economy receipt of the thesis reading plat. (b) A coal mine owner or operator who does not wish to go before a panel with an objection over which the panel has jurisdiction, or who is not raising financial objections to the proposed gas well, shall file objections to a proposed oil or gas well within 15 calendar days of the receipt of the economy plat.

The provisions of this § 78.23 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis Proof Reading! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.24. Information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine.

(a) The objections shall be filed in writing and shall contain the following information, if applicable: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the person filing the objection, and the date on which a copy of the essay and political economy plat was received. (2) The name and address of the applicant for the well permit and the name and number of the well. (3) The type of well#151;for example, oil, gas, injection and the like#151;that is the subject of the thesis proof reading objections. (4) The location of the well in relation to the coal owned or operated by the objecting party. (5) The area through which the well will be drilled, specifically: (i) Whether the well will be drilled through a mining area that is essay economy projected, platted or permitted, but not yet being operated. (ii) Whether the well will be drilled through a perimeter area. (iii) Whether the well will penetrate a workable coal seam. (iv) Whether the well will be located above an active mine. (v) Whether the well will penetrate an operating mine. (6) A copy of the an argumentative essay plans, maps or projections of the mining area underlying the proposed gas well showing the location of the proposed well. (7) Whether the owner or operator believes that the well will pose undue interference or endangerment to the mine, and the nature of the threat.

(8) The financial impact posed by essay economy the well, to which objections may be heard by a panel under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel). (9) Whether the thesis thanks well will violate the economy act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518) or another applicable law administered by the Department. (b) The objections shall include an alternate location, if possible, on the tract of the expressions an argumentative essay well operator that would overcome the objections or at which the interference would be minimized. The Department is essay economy not bound to consider alternate locations that are proposed after the close of the essays on patient autonomy first conference. The provisions of essay and political, this § 78.24 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) If a timely objection to the location is filed by the coal owner or operator under § § 78.22#151;78.24 (relating to biography book for 2nd objections by owner or operator of coal mine; time for filing objections by owner or operator of coal mine; and information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine), or if objections are made by essay and political economy the Department, the Department will fix a time and total quality assignment, place for essay and political economy, a conference within 10 calendar days from the proof date of service of the objections upon the well operator, unless all parties agree to an extension of time for the conference. (b) The Department may decide not to hold a conference if it determines that the objections are not valid or if the objection is resolved. (c) The Department will attempt to schedule the conference as late as possible in the 10-day period if the and political well is subject to the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518). The Department will not schedule a conference under section 202 of the essays act (58 P. S. § 601.202) if it receives written notice that the gas well operator or the coal mine owner or operator has made a written request to essay and political economy convene a panel to resolve objections to the location of a gas well over which a panel has jurisdiction in accordance with § § 78.29#151;78.33. (d) The conference shall be governed by § § 78.26#151;78.28 (relating to agreement at conference; continuation of conference; and final action if objections do not proceed to panel). (e) The Department or a person having a direct interest in the subject matter of the act may request a conference any time to attempt to resolve by mutual agreement a matter arising under the useful to write act. The provisions of this § 78.25 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel). (a) If the and political parties reach an agreement at the conference, and if the Department approves the location, the Department will cause the report grade agreement to be reduced to writing. (b) If the Department does not reject the agreement within 10 calendar days after the agreement is essay economy reduced to writing, the agreement becomes effective. (c) An agreement reached at the conference shall be consistent with the requirements of the expressions an argumentative act and applicable statutes. An agreement that is essay and political economy not in accordance with the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518) and essays, applicable law shall be deemed to be null and void. The provisions of this § 78.26 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in essay economy 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general).

The Department may continue the essays conference for good cause. Good cause includes one or more of the following: (1) The need for supplemental data, maps or surveys. (2) The need to verify that the agreement or a proposed well location is consistent with the requirements of the act, the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P.S. § § 501#151;518) and other applicable requirements. (3) The need for the presence of essential witnesses whose unavailability is due to good cause. (4) The need for further investigation into the allegations that are the essay and political economy basis for the objections. (5) Agreement by all parties that a continuance is beneficial to the resolution of the objections. The provisions of this § 78.27 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in reading 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). § 78.28. Final action if objections do not proceed to essay and political economy panel. If the panel does not have jurisdiction of the objections, under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of panel), or if the panel has jurisdiction but the parties choose not to proceed to proof reading a panel, the Department may proceed to issue or deny the permit, under sections 201 and 202 of the act (58 P. S. § § 601.201 and 601.202). No permit will be issued for a well at a location that in the opinion of the Department would endanger the safety of persons working in a coal mine. The provisions of this § 78.28 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. And Political Economy! 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to essay conferences#151;general). (a) If the gas well operator and the objecting coal owner or operator are unable to agree upon a drilling location, and the gas well is subject to the jurisdiction of a panel under § 78.30 (relating to jurisdiction of essay economy, panel), the well operator or a coal owner or operator may convene a panel. (b) The panel shall consist of note taking in research paper, one person selected by the objecting coal owners or operators, a second person selected by the permit applicant and a third selected by these two. (c) The parties shall submit their positions to the panel within such time as the essay and political panel prescribes, in accordance with section 12 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. Essays On Patient! S. Essay! § 512). The provisions of this § 78.29 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). (a) A panel shall hear objections by essays autonomy the owner or operator of the coal mining area only if the essay and political proposed gas well is quality management not subject to the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P. S. § § 401#151;419) and one of the following applies: (1) The well will be drilled through an area that is essay and political economy projected and permitted, but not yet being operated. (2) The well will be drilled through a perimeter area.

(3) The well will penetrate a workable coal seam, and will be located above an active mine, but will not penetrate an operating mine. (b) The panel shall hear only objections that were filed by the owner or operator of the mining areas set forth in subsection (a). (c) If after a conference in accordance with § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general), the Department has unresolved objections, the panel does not have jurisdiction to thesis proof convene or to essay economy hear objections. The provisions of this § 78.30 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.24 (relating to useful essay information to be provided with objections by owner or operator of coal mine); 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general); 25 Pa. Essay And Political! Code § 78.28 (relating to final action if objections do not proceed to thesis thanks panel); and essay and political economy, 25 Pa.

Code § 78.29 (relating to composition of panel). § 78.31. Scheduling of meeting by the panel. The panel shall convene a meeting within 10-calendar days of the total quality panel chairperson#146;s receipt of a written request to do so by the permit applicant or by the objecting coal owner or operator. The provisions of and political, this § 78.31 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Total Quality! Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.32 (relating to recommendation by the panel). (a) The panel shall make its recommendation of where the proposed well should be located, based upon the financial considerations of the parties. (b) The panel shall make its recommendation within 10-calendar days of the close of the meeting held under § 78.31 (relating to scheduling of meeting by essay the panel). (c) If the Department determines that the first recommended location endangers a mine or the public, it will reject the essays autonomy location and notify the panel to make another recommendation. The panel shall submit another recommended location to the Department within 10 calendar days of the Department#146;s notification. (d) If the Department determines that the second recommended location endangers a mine or the public, the and political Department may designate a location where it has determined that the well will not unduly interfere with or endanger the book mine or the public and issue a permit for the well at that designated location. However, if the and political economy Department has not designated such a location, and if the Department determines that a well drilled at any proposed or panel-recommended alternate location will unduly interfere with or endanger the mine or the public, it will deny the permit. (e) No permit will be issued for a well at a location that would, in the opinion of the Department, endanger the safety of persons working in a coal mine. The provisions of this § 78.32 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to useful expressions to write essay conferences#151;general). § 78.33. Effect of panel on time for permit issuance. The period of time during which the essay and political objections are being considered by a full panel is not included in book report for 2nd grade the 45-day period for the issuance or denial of a permit under section 201(e) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201(e)). The provisions of this § 78.33 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. And Political! 3229.

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.25 (relating to conferences#151;general). Subchapter C. Essays On Patient Autonomy! ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 78.51. Protection of water supplies. 78.52.

Predrilling or prealteration survey. 78.53. Erosion and sediment control. 78.55. Control and disposal planning. 78.56. Pits and tanks for temporary containment. 78.57. Essay! Control, storage and thesis, disposal of production fluids. 78.58. Existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of production fluids.

78.61. Disposal of drill cuttings. 78.62. Disposal of residual waste#151;pits. 78.63. And Political Economy! Disposal of residual waste#151;land application. 78.64. Containment around oil tanks. § 78.51. Biography Book Report For 2nd! Protection of water supplies. (a) A well operator who affects a public or private water supply by pollution or diminution shall restore or replace the essay affected supply with an alternate source of water adequate in thesis thanks quantity and quality for essay and political economy, the purposes served by the supply as determined by the Department.

(b) A landowner, water purveyor or affected person suffering pollution or diminution of a water supply as a result of drilling, altering or operating an oil or gas well may so notify the Department and request that an investigation be conducted. The notice and request must include the following: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the autonomy person requesting the investigation. (2) The type, location and use of the water supply. (3) Available background quality and essay economy, quantity data regarding the water supply, if known. (4) Well depth, pump setting and useful expressions to write an argumentative essay, water level, if known. (5) A description of the pollution or diminution. (c) Within 10 days of the receipt of the investigation request, the essay Department will investigate the claim and thesis thanks, will, within 45 days of receipt of the request, make a determination. If the essay Department finds that pollution or diminution was caused by the drilling, alteration or operation activities or if it presumes the well operator responsible for polluting the water supply of the landowner or water purveyor under section 208(c) of the essays autonomy act (58 P. S. § 601.208(c)), the Department will issue orders to essay and political the well operator necessary to assure compliance with this section. (d) A restored or replaced water supply includes any well, spring, public water system or other water supply approved by the Department, which meets the criteria for on patient autonomy, adequacy as follows: (1) Reliability, cost, maintenance and control. A restored or replaced water supply, at a minimum, must: (i) Be as reliable as the previous water supply.

(ii) Be as permanent as the previous water supply. (iii) Not require excessive maintenance. (iv) Provide the and political water user with as much control and total, accessibility as exercised over the previous water supply. (v) Not result in increased costs to operate and and political economy, maintain. Assignment! If the operating and maintenance costs of the restored or replaced water supply are increased, the operator shall provide for permanent payment of the increased operating and essay economy, maintenance costs of the biography report for 2nd restored or replaced water supply. (2) Quality. The quality of economy, a restored or replaced water supply will be deemed adequate if it meets the standards established under the Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act (35 P. S. § § 721.1#151;721.17), or is paper comparable to the quality of the and political water supply before it was affected by the operator if that water supply did not meet these standards. (3) Adequate quantity. A restored or replaced water supply will be deemed adequate in expressions an argumentative quantity if it meets one of the following as determined by the Department: (i) It delivers the amount of water necessary to satisfy the water user#146;s needs and the demands of any reasonably foreseeable uses.

(ii) It is established through a connection to and political economy a public water supply system that is capable of delivering the amount of water necessary to satisfy the water user#146;s needs and useful to write an argumentative, the demands of any reasonably foreseeable uses. (iii) For purposes of this paragraph and with respect to agricultural water supplies, the term reasonably foreseeable uses includes the economy reasonable expansion of note, use where the water supply available prior to drilling exceeded the actual use. (4) Water source serviceability. Replacement of a water supply includes providing plumbing, conveyance, pumping or auxiliary equipment and facilities necessary for the water user to utilize the water supply. (e) If the essay economy water supply is for uses other than human consumption, the operator shall demonstrate to the Department#146;s satisfaction that the restored or replaced water supply is biography book grade adequate for the purposes served by the supply. (f) Tank trucks or bottled water are acceptable only as temporary water replacement for a period approved by essay the Department and do not relieve the operator of the obligation to provide a restored or replaced water supply. (g) If the thesis well operator and the water user are unable to reach agreement on the means for restoring or replacing the water supply, the Department or either party may request a conference under section 501 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.501). (h) A well operator who receives notice from a landowner, water purveyor or affected person that a water supply has been affected by pollution or diminution, shall report receipt of notice from an affected person to the Department within 24 hours of receiving the economy notice.

The provisions of this § 78.51 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (350764) and (317133). § 78.52. Predrilling or prealteration survey.

(a) A well operator who wishes to autonomy preserve its defense under section 208(d)(1) of the act (58 P. S. Essay And Political! § 601.208 (d)(1)) that the pollution of quality, a water supply existed prior to essay the drilling or alteration of the well shall conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey in thesis reading accordance with this section. (b) A person who wishes to document the quality of a water supply to support a future claim that the drilling or alteration of the well affected the water supply by pollution may conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey in accordance with this section. (c) The survey shall be conducted by an independent certified laboratory. Essay And Political! A person independent of the well owner or well operator, other than an employee of the certified laboratory, may collect the sample and thesis, document the economy condition of the water supply, if the certified laboratory affirms that the sampling and documentation is performed in accordance with the laboratory#146;s approved sample collection, preservation and handling procedure and chain of custody. (d) An operator electing to preserve its defenses under section 208(d)(1) of the act shall provide a copy of the results of the survey to the Department and the landowner or water purveyor within 10-business days of receipt of the results. Test results not received by the Department within 10 business days may not be used to taking cards in research paper preserve the operator#146;s defenses under section 208(d)(1) of the essay and political act. (e) The report describing the results of the autonomy survey must contain the following information: (1) The location of the water supply and the name of the surface landowner or water purveyor. (2) The date of the essay economy survey, and the name of the certified laboratory and the person who conducted the useful expressions to write survey. (3) A description of and political, where and how the sample was collected.

(4) A description of the type and age, if known, of the water supply, and treatment, if any. (5) The name of the reading well operator, name and number of well to be drilled and permit number if known. (6) The results of the laboratory analysis. (f) A well operator who wishes to preserve the defense under section 208(d)(2) of the act that the landowner or water purveyor refused the operator access to conduct a survey shall confirm the desire to conduct this survey and and political, that access was refused by issuing notice to the person by certified mail, or otherwise document that access was refused. The notice must include the useful an argumentative essay following: (1) The operator#146;s intention to drill or alter a well.

(2) The desire to conduct a predrilling or prealteration survey. (3) The name of the person who requested and was refused access to conduct the survey and the date of the request and and political, refusal. (4) The name and address of the taking in research well operator and the address of the Department, to which the water purveyor or landowner may respond. The provisions of this § 78.52 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended January 27, 2006, effective January 28, 2006, 36 Pa.B. 465; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (317133) to (317134). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.141 (relating to scope).

§ 78.53. Erosion and essay and political economy, sediment control. During and after earthmoving or soil disturbing activities, including the activities related to siting, drilling, completing, producing, servicing and plugging the well, constructing, utilizing and restoring the access road and restoring the site, the operator shall design, implement and maintain best management practices in thesis thanks accordance with Chapter 102 (relating to erosion and sediment control) and an erosion and sediment control plan prepared under that chapter. Best management practices for oil and gas well operations are listed in the Oil And Gas Operators Manual , Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Protection, Guidance No. 550-0300-001 (April 1997), as amended and updated. The provisions of essay and political economy, this § 78.53 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (266200).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Essays On Patient! Code § 78.18 (relating to disposal and essay and political, enhanced recovery well permits); 25 Pa. Total Assignment! Code § 78.57 (relating to essay economy control, storage and thesis thanks, disposal of production fluids); 25 Pa. Code § 78.60 (relating to discharge requirements); 25 Pa. Economy! Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.62 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.63 (relating to total quality assignment disposal of residual waste#151;land application). The well operator shall control and essay, dispose of fluids, residual waste and drill cuttings, including tophole water, brines, drilling fluids, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids and drill cuttings in a manner that prevents pollution of the proof reading waters of this Commonwealth and in economy accordance with § § 78.55#151;78.58 and 78.60#151;78.63 and with the statutes under which this chapter is promulgated. The provisions of this § 78.54 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229.

This section cited in useful expressions to write 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning). § 78.55. Control and disposal planning. (a) Preparation and implementation of plan. Prior to generation of economy, waste, the well operator shall prepare and implement a plan under § 91.34 (relating to biography book activities utilizing pollutants) for essay and political economy, the control and disposal of fluids, residual waste and drill cuttings, including tophole water, brines, drilling fluids, additives, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids and drill cuttings from the drilling, alteration, production, plugging or other activity associated with oil and gas wells. (b) Requirements. The plan must identify the control and disposal methods and practices utilized by the well operator and be consistent with the act, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Thesis Thanks! § § 691.1#151;691.1001), the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § § 6018.101#151;6018.1003) and § § 78.54, 78.56#151;78.58 and 78.60#151;78.63. The plan must also include a pressure barrier policy that identifies barriers to be used during identified operations. (c) Revisions. The operator shall revise the plan prior to implementing a change to the practices identified in the plan.

(d) Copies. A copy of the essay economy plan shall be provided to note cards in research paper the Department upon essay and political request and shall be available at the site during drilling and completion activities for review. (e) Emergency contacts. A list of emergency contact phone numbers for the area in book report grade which the essay and political well site is located must be included in the plan and be prominently displayed at the well site during drilling, completion or alteration activities. The provisions of essays on patient, this § 78.55 amended under sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of and political economy, 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20); 35 Pa.C.S. § 7321; 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. On Patient Autonomy! § 693.5); section 104 of the essay and political economy Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. Taking Paper! § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. Essay And Political Economy! § 1003); and section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of useful expressions an argumentative essay, The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E).

The provisions of this § 78.55 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805; amended January 25, 2013, effective January 26, 2013, except that subsection (f)(3) is essay and political effective February 25, 2013, subsection (f)(4) is effective July 25, 2013, and subsection (f)(5) is effective April 26, 2013, 43 Pa.B. For 2nd! 526; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Economy! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (365451) to (365457). This section cited in taking cards 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.72 (relating to use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment). § 78.56. Pits and tanks for temporary containment. (a) Except as provided in essay § § 78.60(b) and 78.61(b) (relating to discharge requirements; and disposal of drill cuttings), the operator shall contain pollutional substances and wastes from the drilling, altering, completing, recompleting, servicing and plugging the thesis proof reading well, including brines, drill cuttings, drilling muds, oils, stimulation fluids, well treatment and servicing fluids, plugging and drilling fluids other than gases in a pit, tank or series of pits and and political economy, tanks. The operator shall install or construct and maintain the pit, tank or series of pits and tanks in accordance with the following requirements: (1) The pit, tank or series of to write essay, pits and tanks shall be constructed and essay economy, maintained with sufficient capacity to proof reading contain all pollutional substances and wastes which are used or produced during drilling, altering, completing and plugging the well. (2) A pit shall be designed, constructed and economy, maintained so that at least 2 feet of essays, freeboard remain at essay all times. If open tanks are used, the tanks shall be maintained so that at least 2 feet of freeboard remain at all times unless the tank is provided with an overflow system to a standby tank or pit with sufficient volume to contain all excess fluid or waste. If an open standby tank is used, it shall be maintained with 2 feet of freeboard. Book For 2nd! If this subsection is violated, the operator immediately shall take the necessary measures to ensure the structural stability of the essay pit or tank, prevent spills and restore the 2 feet of freeboard.

(3) Pits and tanks shall be designed, constructed and maintained to be structurally sound and reasonably protected from unauthorized acts of third parties. (4) A pit or tank that contains drill cuttings from below the casing seat, pollutional substances, wastes or fluids other than tophole water, fresh water and uncontaminated drill cuttings shall be impermeable and comply with the following: (i) The pits shall be constructed with a synthetic flexible liner with a coefficient of permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec and with sufficient strength and thickness to maintain the integrity of the taking cards liner. The liner shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that the physical and chemical characteristics of the liner are not adversely affected by the waste and the liner is resistant to economy physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and use. Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together to on patient prevent leakage in accordance with the economy manufacturer#146;s directions. If the expressions an argumentative operator seeks to use a liner material other than a synthetic flexible liner, the operator shall submit a plan identifying the type and thickness of the material and the installation procedures to be used, and economy, shall obtain approval of the plan by the Department before proceeding. (ii) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free from debris, rock and autonomy, other material that may puncture, tear, cut or otherwise cause the liner to fail. The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of bearing the weight of the material above the liner without settling that may affect the integrity of the liner.

If the pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other materials that may cause the liner to fail, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or sufficient amount of an equivalent material, shall be installed over the area as the essay and political subbase for the liner. (iii) The bottom of the pit shall be at least 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table, unless the operator obtains approval under subsection (b) for a pit that exists only during dry times of the total management year and is located above groundwater. (iv) If a liner becomes torn or otherwise loses its integrity, the pit shall be managed to prevent the pit contents from leaking from the pit. If repair of the liner or construction of another temporary pit is not practical or possible, the pit contents shall be removed and disposed at an approved waste disposal facility or disposed on and political the well site in accordance with § 78.61, § 78.62 or § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits; and thesis thanks, disposal of and political economy, residual waste#151;land application). (v) If the liner drops below the 2 feet of freeboard, the pit shall be managed to prevent the pit contents from leaking from the pit and the 2 feet of lined freeboard shall be restored. (b) The operator may request to use practices other than those specified in subsection (a) which provide equivalent or superior protection by reading submitting a request to the Department for approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by the Department. (c) Disposal of uncontaminated drill cuttings in and political a pit or by land application shall comply with § 78.61. A pit used for the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.62. Disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, by useful expressions essay land application shall comply with § 78.63. (d) Unless a permit under The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) or approval under § 78.57 or § 78.58 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids; and economy, existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of production fluids) has been obtained for the pit, the on patient autonomy owner or operator shall remove or fill the pit within 9 months after completion of drilling, or in accordance with the extension granted by the Department under section 206(g) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.206(g)).

Pits used during servicing, plugging and recompleting the well shall be removed or filled within 90 days of construction. The provisions of this § 78.56 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (263009) to (263010) and (241901).

This section cited in 25 Pa. And Political! Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.57. Control, storage and report for 2nd, disposal of production fluids. (a) Unless a permit has been obtained under § 78.60(a) (relating to discharge requirements), the operator shall collect the brine and other fluids produced during operation, service and essay, plugging of the well in taking in research paper a tank, pit or a series of pits or tanks, or other device approved by essay and political economy the Department for subsequent disposal or reuse. Except as allowed in thesis reading this subchapter or otherwise approved by essay and political the Department, the operator may not discharge the brine and other fluids on or into the ground or into the waters of this Commonwealth. (b) Except as provided in thesis thanks § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment), the operator may not use a pit for the control, handling or storage of brine and essay and political economy, other fluids produced during operation, service or plugging of a well unless the pit is authorized by a permit under The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Note Taking In Research Paper! § § 691.1#151;691.1001) or approval to operate the pit as an impoundment under The Clean Streams Law is obtained from the Department under subsection (c).

(c) The operator may apply for essay, approval from the Department to operate a pit as an impoundment under The Clean Streams Law, as indicated by the Department#146;s issuance of a pit approval number in note in research accordance with this section. No pit will be eligible for approval under this subsection unless the essay and political capacity of any one pit or of any two or more interconnected pits is less than 250,000 gallons, or the total capacity contained in pits on one tract or related tracts of thesis thanks, land is less than 500,000 gallons. Compliance with this subsection does not relieve the operator from the obligation to comply with section 308 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Essay! § 691.308) and the requirements for obtaining a permit for the erection, construction and operation of expressions, treatment works promulgated under that section. (1) A request for approval under this subsection shall be made on forms furnished by the Department and, at a minimum, shall include the essay following: (i) A description of the proof reading operator#146;s plan that demonstrates compliance with this subsection for the construction or reconstruction of the and political pit. (ii) A description of the operator#146;s program for operation and maintenance of the pit. (iii) A description of the method for quality, subsequent disposal or reuse of the brine or other fluids produced during operation of the essay economy well.

(iv) A description of the operator#146;s program for the closure of the pit and essays on patient, restoration of the site. (2) The operator shall design, construct, operate and maintain the pit in essay accordance with the approval and proof reading, the following: (i) The pit approval number is posted at the pit in a legible and visible manner. (ii) The pit is not located within 100 feet of a stream, wetland or body of water unless a waiver is granted by the Department. (iii) The bottom of the pit is a minimum of 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table. (iv) At least 2 feet of freeboard remain at all times. (v) The pit is structurally sound and the inside slopes of the essay and political economy pit are not steeper than a ratio of 2 horizontal to taking paper 1 vertical. (vi) The pit is impermeable and and political, is lined with a synthetic flexible liner or alternate material that has a coefficient of permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. The liner shall be of on patient autonomy, sufficient strength and thickness to essay and political economy maintain the integrity of the note cards liner. The thickness of a synthetic liner shall be at least 30 mils.

Adjoining sections of liners shall be sealed together in essay and political economy accordance with the manufacturer#146;s directions to prevent leakage. (vii) The physical and chemical characteristics of the liner shall be compatible with the waste and book grade, the liner is resistant to physical, chemical and other failure during transportation, handling, installation and use. Liner compatibility shall satisfy EPA Method 9090, Compatibility Test for Wastes and Membrane Liners , or other documented data approved by the Department. (viii) The pit shall be constructed so that the and political liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free of debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut, rip or otherwise cause the liner to fail. On Patient Autonomy! The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of bearing the essay economy weight of the material above the liner without settling in an amount that will affect the essays on patient autonomy integrity of the liner. If the pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other material that may cause the liner to leak, a subbase of at least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or a sufficient amount of an equivalent material shall be installed over essay and political economy the area as the subbase for thesis thanks, the liner. (ix) Prior to placing brine or other fluids in essay economy the pit, the operator shall inspect the useful expressions essay liner and correct all damage or imperfections that may cause the and political economy liner to leak. (x) Surface water which may drain into the pit shall be diverted away from the thesis reading pit. (xi) The pit is and political reasonably protected from unauthorized acts of third parties.

(3) Upon abandonment of the on patient autonomy well or revocation of the approval by the Department, the operator shall restore the essay pit in accordance with the following: (i) The free liquid fraction of the pit contents shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60(a) and the remaining pit contents and liner shall be removed and disposed under § § 78.62 and 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits; and disposal of residual waste#151;land application), or the Solid Waste Management Act. (ii) The pit shall be backfilled to the ground surface and graded to promote runoff with no depression that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (iii) The surface of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective, permanent, vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the total assignment intended use of the surface by the landowner, the essay and political economy surface shall be stabilized against accelerated erosion.

The provisions of this § 78.57 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Essays! Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for essay economy, temporary containment); and useful, 25 Pa. Code § 78.58 (relating to existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of essay economy, production fluids). § 78.58. Existing pits used for the control, storage and disposal of production fluids.

For pits in thesis thanks existence on July 29, 1989, the operator may request approval for an alternate method of satisfying the and political economy requirements of § 78.57(c)(2)(iii) (relating to control, storage and thesis, disposal of production fluids), the angle of slope requirements of § 78.57(c)(2)(v) and the liner requirement of § 78.57(c)(2)(vi)#151;(viii) by affirmatively demonstrating to the Department#146;s satisfaction, by the use of monitoring wells or other methods approved by the Department, that the pit is impermeable and that the method will provide protection equivalent or superior to that provided by § 78.57. The operator shall request approval under § 78.57(c)(1). The provisions of this § 78.58 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Economy! 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); and useful an argumentative essay, 25 Pa. Essay And Political Economy! Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment). The provisions of this § 78.59 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (271914). (a) The owner and operator may not cause or allow a discharge of a substance to cards in research paper the waters of this Commonwealth unless the discharge complies with this subchapter and Chapters 91#151;93, 95 and 102, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) and the act. (b) The owner and operator may not discharge tophole water or water in a pit as a result of precipitation by land application unless the essay discharge is in accordance with the following requirements: (1) No additives, drilling muds, pollutional materials or drilling fluids other than gases or fresh water have been added to or are contained in the water, unless otherwise approved by expressions to write an argumentative the Department.

(2) The pH is not less than 6 nor greater than 9 standard units, or is characteristic of the natural background quality of the groundwater. (3) The specific conductance of the discharge is less than 1,000 µmHos/cm. (4) There is no sheen from oil and grease. (5) The discharge water shall be spread over an undisturbed, vegetated area capable of absorbing the tophole water and filtering solids in the discharge, and spread in a manner that prevents a direct discharge to surface waters and complies with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). (6) Upon completion, the area complies with § 78.53. (7) The area of land application is not within 200 feet of a water supply or within 100 feet of a stream, body of and political economy, water or a wetland unless approved as part of total assignment, a waiver granted by and political the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.205(b)). (8) If the water does not meet the requirements of useful expressions, paragraph (2) or (4), the Department may approve treatment prior to discharge to the land surface. The provisions of this § 78.60 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (271914) to essay (241905). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Thesis Thanks! Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and disposal of production fluids); 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. Code § 78.62 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.63 (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (a) Drill cuttings from above the casing seat#151;pits. The owner or operator may dispose of drill cuttings from above the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) (relating to surface and essay economy, coal protective casing and cementing procedures) in a pit at autonomy the well site if the essay and political owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The drill cuttings are generated from the total quality well at the well site. (2) The drill cuttings are not contaminated with pollutional material, including brines, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids or drilling fluids other than tophole water, fresh water or gases. (3) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or wetland unless approved as part of and political, a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.205(b)). (4) The disposal area is proof not within 200 feet of a water supply.

(5) The pit is designed, constructed and maintained to essay be structurally sound. (6) The free liquid fraction of the waste shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60 (relating to essays on patient discharge requirements). (7) The pit shall be backfilled to essay and political the ground surface and graded to promote runoff with no depression that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the backfilled pit shall be compatible with the adjacent land. (8) The surface of the autonomy backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective, permanent, vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and and political, plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface of the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (b) Drill cuttings from above the casing seat#151;land application. The owner or operator may dispose of drill cuttings from above the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) by land application at the well site if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The drill cuttings are generated from the well at the well site. (2) The drill cuttings are not contaminated with pollutional material, including brines, drilling muds, stimulation fluids, well servicing fluids, oil, production fluids or drilling fluids other than tophole water, fresh water or gases. (3) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of thesis thanks, a stream, body of water or wetland unless approved as part of a waiver granted by the Department under section 205(b) of the act (58 P.S. § 601.205(b)).

(4) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of essay and political, a water supply. (5) The soils have a minimum depth from surface to bedrock of 20 inches. (6) The drill cuttings are not spread when saturated, snow covered or frozen ground interferes with incorporation of the drill cuttings into taking in research paper, the soil. (7) The drill cuttings are not applied in quantities which will result in runoff or in surface water or groundwater pollution. (8) The free liquid fraction is disposed in accordance with § 78.60. (9) The drill cuttings are spread and essay economy, incorporated into the soil. (10) The land application area shall be revegetated to biography book report grade stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53. The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and essay and political economy, plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the biography book for 2nd surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (c) Drill cuttings from economy below the casing seat.

After removal of the on patient free liquid fraction and disposal in accordance with § 78.60, drill cuttings from below the casing seat determined in accordance with § 78.83(b) may be disposed of as follows: (1) In a pit that meets the requirements of § 78.62(a)(5)#151;(18) and (b) (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;pits). (2) By land application in essay accordance with § 78.63(a)(5)#151;(20) and (b) (relating to disposal of residual waste#151;land application). (d) The owner or operator may request to use solidifiers, dusting, unlined pits, attenuation or other alternative practices for the disposal of uncontaminated drill cuttings by submitting a request to the Department for approval. The request shall be made on forms provided by taking cards in research the Department and shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to essay and political economy the requirements of this section. (e) A pit used for quality assignment, the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.62. Land application of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, shall comply with § 78.63.

The provisions of this § 78.61 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Essay And Political Economy! Immediately preceding text appears at biography book serial pages (241905) to (241907). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to essay and political economy pits and tanks for temporary containment). § 78.62. Disposal of residual waste#151;pits. (a) After the essays autonomy removal and disposal of the free liquid fraction of the and political waste under § 78.60(a) (relating to thesis thanks discharge requirements), the owner or operator may dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, in a pit at the well site if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The waste is essay economy generated by the drilling or production of an oil or gas well that is biography for 2nd located on the well site where the waste is disposed. (2) The well is permitted under section 201 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201) or registered under section 203 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.203). (3) The requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P.S. And Political Economy! § 601.215) are satisfied by filing a surety or collateral bond for wells drilled on or after April 18, 1985. (4) Compliance is proof maintained with the act and this title.

(5) The disposal area is not within 200 feet measured horizontally from an existing building, unless the essay and political economy current owner thereof has provided a written waiver consenting to the disposal closer than 200 feet. The waiver shall be knowingly made and separate from a lease or deed unless the lease or deed contains an explicit waiver from the current owner. (6) The disposal area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or wetland. (7) The disposal area is not within 200 feet of a water supply. (8) The bottom of the pit is a minimum of 20 inches above the seasonal high groundwater table. (9) The pit is designed, constructed and maintained to be structurally sound and impermeable.

(10) The pit is lined with a synthetic flexible liner that is compatible with the waste and has a coefficient of permeability of no greater than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. The liner shall be of sufficient strength and thesis thanks, thickness to maintain the integrity of the liner. The liner thickness shall be at least 30 mils. Adjoining sections of and political, liners shall be sealed together in accordance with the note taking cards manufacturer#146;s directions to prevent leakage. The operator may use an alternate liner or natural materials, if the material and and political, the installation procedure to be used are approved by the Department. Reading! Notice of the essay approved liners and installation procedures will be published by the Department in the Pennsylvania Bulletin . (11) The liner shall be designed, constructed and maintained so that the physical and chemical characteristics of the liner are not adversely affected by the waste and thesis proof, the liner is resistant to physical, chemical and essay and political, other failure during transportation, handling, installation and use. Liner compatibility shall satisfy EPA Method 9090, Compatibility Test for Wastes and essays, Membrane Liners , or other documented data approved by essay and political economy the Department. (12) The pit shall be constructed so that the liner subbase is smooth, uniform and free of debris, rock and other material that may puncture, tear, cut, rip or otherwise cause the liner to fail.

The liner subbase and subgrade shall be capable of bearing the essays on patient autonomy weight of the material above the liner without settling. If the pit bottom or sides consist of rock, shale or other material that may cause the liner to fail and and political, leak, a subbase of at essays on patient least 6 inches of soil, sand or smooth gravel, or sufficient amount of an equivalent material shall be installed over the area as the subbase for the liner. (13) Prior to essay and political placing material in essays on patient the pit, the liner shall be inspected for lack of uniformity, damage and other imperfections that may cause the liner to leak. The owner or operator shall correct damages or imperfections before placing waste in the pit, and shall maintain the pit until closure of the pit. (14) Prior to encapsulating the waste within the liner, the free liquid fraction of the waste shall be removed and disposed under § 78.60(a). (15) The liner shall be folded over, or an additional liner shall be added, to completely cover the waste and the waste is shaped so that water does not infiltrate the economy liner and is not confined above the liner.

(16) Puncturing or perforating the liner is prohibited. (17) The pit shall be backfilled to at least 18 inches over the top of the liner and thesis, graded to promote runoff with no depressions that would accumulate or pond water on the surface. The stability of the essay backfilled pit shall be compatible with the total management assignment adjacent land. (18) The surface area of the backfilled pit area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is and political capable of self-regeneration and thesis thanks, plant succession. Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (b) A person may not dispose of and political, residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site unless the waste meets the on patient following requirements: (1) The concentration of essay and political economy, contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50#037; of the maximum concentration in § 261.24 Table I (relating to characteristic of useful, toxicity). (2) The concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50 times the essay and political primary maximum contaminant level in effect under § 109.202 (relating to State MCLs, MRDLs and treatment technique requirements).

(3) For other health related contaminants, the thesis thanks concentration of contaminants in essay and political the leachate from the waste does not exceed 50 times the safe drinking water level established by the Department. (4) Leachate characteristics are determined in accordance with methods approved by the Department. (c) The owner or operator may request to use solidifiers or other alternate practices for thesis thanks, the disposal of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, by economy submitting a request to the Department for proof, approval. The request shall be made on and political economy forms provided by the Department and shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to the requirements of this section. The provisions of this § 78.62 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241907) to (241909). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.54 (relating to book for 2nd general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. And Political! Code § 78.57 (relating to control, storage and for 2nd, disposal of production fluids); and 25 Pa. Essay And Political! Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.63. Disposal of residual waste#151;land application.

(a) The owner or operator may dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site by land application of the waste if the owner or operator satisfies the following requirements: (1) The waste is generated by the drilling or production of an biography report grade oil or gas well that is located on and political the well side. (2) The well is permitted under section 201 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.201) or registered under section 203 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.215). (3) The requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215) are satisfied by filing a surety or collateral bond for wells drilled on or after April 18, 1985. (4) Compliance with the act and this title is maintained. (5) The owner or operator shall notify the thesis thanks Department at least 3 working days before the land application activity is to occur. (6) The waste application area is essay economy not within 200 feet measured horizontally from an existing building, unless the current owner thereof has provided a written waiver consenting to the application closer than 200 feet. The waiver shall be knowingly made and total quality management assignment, separate from a lease or deed, unless the lease or deed contains an economy explicit waiver from the current owner.

(7) The waste application area is not within 100 feet of a stream, body of water or wetland. (8) The waste application area is not within 200 feet of a water supply and note cards in research paper, is not within 1,000 feet upgradient from an economy uncased well or spring being used as a water supply. (9) At a minimum, the seasonal high groundwater table is 20 inches from the surface. (10) The soils located within and immediately adjacent to the application area shall fall within the United States Department of Agriculture textural classes of sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam or silt loam. (11) The soils have a minimum depth from surface to bedrock of expressions to write an argumentative, 20 inches. (12) Ground slopes to be utilized for waste applications do not exceed 25#037;. (13) The waste is not spread when the ground is saturated, or when snow or frozen ground would interfere with incorporation of the waste into the soil. (14) Prior to land application of the essay waste, the useful expressions to write an argumentative free liquid fraction of the essay waste is removed and for 2nd, disposed under § 78.60(a) (relating to essay economy discharge requirements).

(15) The waste is not applied in quantities which will result in surface or groundwater pollution. (16) The waste is not applied in quantities that will adversely affect the essays autonomy intended use of the economy vegetation. (17) The waste is spread and essays on patient, incorporated into the top layer of the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches. (18) The loading and application rate of essay and political, waste is consistent with the biography book for 2nd Departmental guidelines for the proposed operation and essay and political economy, may not exceed a maximum waste to soil ratio of 1:1. (19) To determine compliance with this section, the Department may require the owner or operator to conduct soil surveys, monitoring or chemical analysis. (20) The land application area shall be revegetated to stabilize the soil surface and comply with § 78.53 (relating to erosion and sedimentation control). The revegetation shall establish a diverse, effective permanent vegetative cover which is capable of self-regeneration and plant succession.

Where vegetation would interfere with the intended use of the surface by the landowner, the surface shall be stabilized against erosion. (21) If a chemical analysis fails to show compliance with paragraph (18), the reading owner or operator shall remediate the land application area until compliance is demonstrated. (b) A person may not dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, at the well site unless the concentration of contaminants in the leachate from the essay and political economy waste does not exceed the reading maximum concentration stated in economy § 261.24 Table I (relating to characteristic of toxicity). (c) The owner or operator may request to dispose of residual waste, including contaminated drill cuttings, in an alternate manner from that required in management assignment subsection (a) by submitting a request to the Department for essay economy, approval. Thesis Thanks! The request shall be made on forms provided by the Department and shall demonstrate that the practice provides equivalent or superior protection to and political the requirements of this section. The provisions of this § 78.63 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Note! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241909) to (241911). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.54 (relating to general requirements); 25 Pa. Code § 78.55 (relating to control and disposal planning); 25 Pa. Code § 78.56 (relating to pits and essay and political, tanks for temporary containment); 25 Pa. Code § 78.57 (relating to thesis control, storage and disposal of essay and political economy, production fluids); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to disposal of drill cuttings). § 78.64. Containment around oil tanks. (a) If an owner or operator uses a tank with a capacity of at least 660 gallons or tanks with a combined capacity of at least 1,320 gallons to contain oil produced from a well, the owner or operator shall construct and essays, maintain a dike or other method of secondary containment which satisfies the requirements under 40 CFR 112 (relating to oil pollution prevention) around the essay economy tank or tanks which will prevent the useful expressions an argumentative tank contents from essay entering waters of this Commonwealth. (b) The containment area provided by the dikes or other method of secondary containment shall have containment capacity sufficient to hold the thesis thanks volume of the largest single tank, plus a reasonable allowance for precipitation based on local weather conditions and facility operation.

(c) Prior to drainage of accumulated precipitation from containment structures, the containment area shall be inspected and accumulations of oil picked up and essay economy, returned to total quality the tank or disposed of in accordance with approved methods. (d) After complying with subsection (c), drainage of containment facilities is acceptable if: (1) The accumulation in the containment facility consists of only precipitation directly to the containment facility and drainage will not cause a harmful discharge or result in a sheen. (2) The containment drain valve is opened and essay economy, resealed, or other drainage procedure, as applicable, is conducted under responsible supervision. The provisions of on patient autonomy, this § 78.64 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. In addition to complying with section 206 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.206), an essay economy owner or operator shall meet the following requirements: (1) A drill hole or bore hole used to biography book report facilitate the drilling of a well shall be filled with cement, soil, drill cuttings or other earthen material before moving the drilling equipment from the well site. (2) If a well site is constructed and the well is not drilled, the well site shall be restored within 30 days after the expiration of the essay economy well permit unless the Department approves an extension for reasons of cards paper, adverse weather or lack of essential fuel, equipment or labor. (3) Within 60 days after the restoration of the well site, the operator shall submit a well site restoration report to the Department. The report shall be made on forms provided by the Department and shall identify the following: (i) The date of economy, land application of the tophole water, the results of pH and specific conductance tests and an estimated volume of discharge. (ii) A description of the cards in research paper method used for disposal or reuse of the free liquid fraction of the and political waste, and biography book report grade, the name of the hauler and disposal facility, if any. (iii) The location of the pit in relation to the well, the depth of the pit, the type and thickness of the and political economy material used for the pit subbase, the type and thickness of the pit liner, the type and nature of the waste, a description of the pit closure procedures used and the pit dimensions.

(iv) The location of the area used for land application of the thesis thanks waste, and the results of a chemical analysis of the essay economy waste soil mixture if requested by the Department. (v) The types and volumes of waste produced and the name and address of the waste disposal facility and expressions essay, waste hauler used to dispose of the waste. The provisions of this § 78.65 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. (a) A release of essay, a substance causing or threatening pollution of the note taking in research paper waters of this Commonwealth, shall comply with the essay economy reporting and corrective action requirements of § 91.33 (relating to incidents causing or threatening pollution). (b) If a reportable release of thesis proof, brine on or into the ground occurs at the well site, the owner or operator shall notify the essay and political economy appropriate regional office of the Department as soon as practicable, but no later than 2 hours after detecting or discovering the release. (c) The notice required by subsection (b) shall be by total management assignment telephone and describe: (1) The name, address and telephone number of the company and person reporting the incident. (2) The date and time of the incident or when it was detected. (3) The location and cause of the incident. (4) The quantity of the brine released. (5) Available information concerning the contamination of essay and political, surface water, groundwater or soil.

(6) Remedial actions planned, initiated or completed. (d) If, because of an accident, an amount of assignment, brine less than the reportable amount as described in § 78.1 (relating to definitions), spills, leaks or escapes, that incident does not have to be reported. (e) Upon the occurrence of any release, the owner or operator shall take necessary corrective actions to: (1) Prevent the and political economy substance from thesis thanks reaching the waters of this Commonwealth. (2) Recover or remove the substance which was released. (3) Dispose of the substance in accordance with this subchapter or as approved by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.66 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Subchapter D. WELL DRILLING, OPERATION AND.

78.71. Use of and political, safety devices#151;well casing. 78.72. Use of book grade, safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment. 78.73. General provision for well construction and operation. 78.75a. Area of alternative methods. 78.76. Essay And Political Economy! Drilling within a gas storage reservoir area.

78.77. Wells in a hydrogen sulfide area. 78.78 Pillar permit applications. 78.82. An Argumentative Essay! Use of conductor pipe. 78.83. Surface and coal protective casing and essay economy, cementing procedures. 78.83a. Casing and cementing plan. 78.83b. Casing and cementing#151;lost circulation.

78.83c. Intermediate and taking cards paper, production casing. 78.86. Defective casing or cementing. 78.87 Gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures. 78.88. Mechanical integrity of operating wells. 78.89.

Gas migration response. 78.92. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented. 78.93. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. 78.94. Wells in and political economy noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present.

78.95. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented. 78.96. Marking the location of a plugged well. 78.97. Plugging a well stimulated with explosives. 78.98. Restricting surface water from the well bore. 78.102.

Criteria for approval of note taking, inactive status. 78.103. And Political! Annual monitoring of inactive wells. 78.104. Term of inactive status. 78.105. Revocation of inactive status. This subchapter cited in useful to write an argumentative 25 Pa. Code § 78.401 (relating to storage well construction). § 78.71.

Use of safety devices#151;well casing. (a) The operator shall equip the well with one or more strings of casing of essay and political economy, sufficient cemented length and strength to total quality management assignment attach proper well control equipment and prevent blowouts, explosions, fires and essay economy, casing failures during installation, completion and operation. (b) The operator shall determine the amount and biography report, type of casing to be run and the amount and type of cement to be used in accordance with current prudent industry practices and engineering. In making the determinations, the operator shall consider the following: (1) Successful local practices for similar wells. (2) Maximum anticipated surface pressure. (3) Collapse resistance. (4) Tensile strength.

(5) Chemical environment. (6) Potential mechanical damage. (7) Manufacturing standards, including American Petroleum Institute or equivalent specifications for essay economy, pipe used in wells drilled below the Onondaga formation or where blow-out preventers are required. The provisions of this § 78.71 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276323). § 78.72. Use of safety devices#151;blow-out prevention equipment.

(a) The operator shall use blow-out prevention equipment after setting casing with a competent casing seat in total quality management the following circumstances: (1) When drilling out solid core hydraulic fracturing plugs to complete a well. (2) When well head pressures or natural open flows are anticipated at the well site that may result in economy a loss of well control. (3) When the operator is drilling in an area where there is no prior knowledge of the pressures or natural open flows to essays be encountered. (4) On wells regulated by the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P.S. § § 401#151;419). (5) When drilling within 200 feet of a building. (b) Blow-out prevention equipment used must be in good working condition at essay economy all times. (c) Controls for the blow-out preventer shall be accessible to allow actuation of the equipment. Additional controls for a blow-out preventer with a pressure rating of greater than 3,000 psi, not associated with the rig hydraulic system, shall be located at least 50 feet away from the drilling rig so that the note taking cards in research blow-out preventer can be actuated if control of the economy well is to write an argumentative lost.

(d) The operator shall use pipe fittings, valves and unions placed on or connected to the blow-out prevention systems that have a working pressure capability that exceeds the economy anticipated pressures. (e) The operator shall conduct a complete test of the ram type blow-out preventer and related equipment for both pressure and ram operation before placing it in expressions to write service on the well. The operator shall test the essay annular type blow-out preventer in accordance with the manufacturer#146;s published instructions, or the instructions of a professional engineer, prior to the device being placed in service. Blow-out prevention equipment that fails the test may not be used until it is useful expressions to write an argumentative essay repaired and passes the essay economy test. (f) When the equipment is in service, the useful essay operator shall visually inspect blow-out prevention equipment during each tour of drilling operation and during actual drilling operations test the pipe rams for closure daily and essay and political, the blind rams for closure on autonomy each round trip. When more than one round trip is made in a day, one daily closure test for blind rams is sufficient. Testing shall be conducted in essay and political accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication API RP53, #145;#145;API Recommended Practice for thesis, Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells,#146;#146; or other procedure approved by the Department. The operator shall record the results of the essay and political economy inspection and closure test in the drillers log before the end of the tour. If blow-out prevention equipment is not in good working order, drilling shall cease when cessation of drilling can be accomplished safely and biography report for 2nd grade, not resume until the blow-out prevention equipment is essay and political economy repaired or replaced and retested. (g) All lines, valves and fittings between the expressions to write an argumentative essay closing unit and the blow-out preventer stack must be flame resistant and have a rated working pressure that meets or exceeds the requirements of the and political economy blow-out preventer system. (h) When a blowout preventer is autonomy installed or required under subsection (a), there shall be present on the well site an individual with a current certification from a well control course accredited by the International Association of and political, Drilling Contractors or other organization approved by the Department.

The certification shall be available for review at the well site. The Department will maintain a list of approved accrediting organizations on its web site. (i) Well drilling and completion operations requiring pressure barriers, as identified by the operator under § 78.55(b) (relating to control and disposal plan), shall employ at least two mechanical pressure barriers between the open producing formation and report for 2nd grade, the atmosphere that are capable of being tested. The mechanical pressure barriers shall be tested according to essay manufacturer specifications prior to operation. If during the course of operations the operator only has one functioning barrier, operations must cease until additional barriers are added and tested or the redundant barrier is repaired and tested. On Patient Autonomy! Stripper rubber or a stripper head may not be considered a barrier. (j) The minimum amount of intermediate casing that is cemented to the surface to which blow-out prevention equipment may be attached, shall be in accordance with the following: (k) Upon completion of the drilling operations at a well, the essay economy operator shall install and utilize equipment, such as a shut-off valve of sufficient rating to contain anticipated pressure, lubricator or similar device, as may be necessary to cards in research enable the well to be effectively shut-in while logging and servicing the well and after completion of the well. The provisions of this § 78a.72 amended under 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and 3274; section 5 of and political, The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. Expressions To Write Essay! § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (32 P.S. § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and and political economy, Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. Thesis! § 6026.104); sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and and political economy, 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); section 13.2 of the act of for 2nd, July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. Economy! § 1741.1-E); and sections 1917-A and 1920-A of biography report grade, The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-17 and 510-20). The provisions of this § 78.72 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (355529) to (355531). § 78.73. And Political Economy! General provision for well construction and operation.

(a) The operator shall construct and operate the well in accordance with this chapter and ensure that the integrity of the thesis thanks well is maintained and essay economy, health, safety, environment and useful expressions essay, property are protected. (b) The operator shall prevent gas, oil, brine, completion and servicing fluids, and any other fluids or materials from economy below the casing seat from entering fresh groundwater, and shall otherwise prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater. (c) After a well has been completed, recompleted, reconditioned or altered the operator shall prevent surface shut-in pressure and surface producing back pressure inside the surface casing or coal protective casing from exceeding the following pressure: 80#037; multiplied by 0.433 psi per foot multiplied by the casing length (in feet) of the applicable casing. (d) After a well has been completed, recompleted, reconditioned or altered, if the note in research paper surface shut-in pressure or surface producing back pressure exceeds the pressure as calculated in subsection (c), the operator shall take action to prevent the migration of gas and other fluids from lower formations into fresh groundwater. To meet this standard the operator may cement or install on a packer sufficient intermediate or production casing or take other actions approved by the Department. This section does not apply during testing for mechanical integrity in accordance with State or Federal requirements. (e) Excess gas encountered during drilling, completion or stimulation shall be flared, captured or diverted away from the drilling rig in essay a manner that does not create a hazard to the public health or safety. (f) Except for gas storage wells, the well must be equipped with a check valve to prevent backflow from the pipelines into the well.

The provisions of this § 78.73 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Autonomy! 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276324) to (276325). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and economy, cementing procedures); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83b (relating to casing and cementing#151;lost circulation); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.88 (relating to mechanical integrity of essay, operating wells). The venting of gas to essay and political economy the atmosphere from a well is thesis prohibited when the venting produces a hazard to the public health and safety.

The provisions of this § 78.74 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Economy! 3229. (a) A well operator may request approval from the Department to use an alternative method or material for the casing, plugging or equipping of a well under section 211 of the act (58 P.S. § 601.211). (b) A well operator seeking approval under this section shall file an application with the Department on forms furnished by thesis thanks the Department. The application shall: (1) Describe the proposed alternative method or material, in reasonable detail.

(2) Indicate the manner in which the alternative will satisfy the goals of the essay and political economy act and this chapter. (3) Include a drawing or schematic of the alternative method, if appropriate. (c) The well operator shall notify all coal owners and operators and quality, gas storage operators of record of the proposal, by certified mail. The well operator shall state in the application that he has sent the certified mail notice to the coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of record, either simultaneously with or prior to submitting the proposal to the Department. (d) The coal owners and operators and gas storage operators of essay and political economy, record shall have up to 15 days from their receipt of the notice to file objections or to indicate concurrence with the proposed alternative method or material. (e) If no objections are filed within 15 days from receipt of the notice, and if none are raised by the Department, the Department will make a determination whether to allow the use of the proposed alternative method or material.

The provisions of this § 78.75 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241916) to (241917). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Biography Report For 2nd! Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures); 25 Pa. Essay And Political! Code § 78.87 (relating to gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.401 (relating to paper storage well construction). § 78.75a. Area of alternative methods. (a) The Department may designate an area of alternative methods if the Department determines that well drilling requirements beyond those provided in this chapter are necessary to essay and political drill, operate or plug a well in a safe and thesis thanks, environmentally protective manner. (b) To establish an area of alternative methods, the Department will publish a notice in the Pennsylvania Bulletin of the proposed area of alternative methods and essay, provide the public with an opportunity to comment on the proposal. After reviewing any comments received on the proposal, the Department will publish a final designation of the area and required alternative methods in reading the Pennsylvania Bulletin . (c) Wells drilled within an area of alternative methods established under subsection (b) must meet the requirements specified by the Department unless the operator obtains approval from the and political Department to total drill, operate or plug the well in a different manner that is at least as safe and and political economy, protective of the environment as the requirements of the area of alternative methods. The provisions of total quality assignment, this § 78.75a adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. § 78.76. Drilling within a gas storage reservoir area. (a) An operator proposing to essay drill a well within a gas storage reservoir area or a reservoir protective area to produce gas or oil shall forward by certified mail a copy of the well location plat, the drilling, casing and cementing plan and the anticipated date drilling will commence to the gas storage reservoir operator and to the Department for approval by useful expressions to write the Department and shall submit proof of notification to the gas storage reservoir operator to the Department with the well permit application.

(b) The storage operator may file an objection with the Department to the drilling, casing and essay, cementing plan or the proposed well location within 15 days of receipt of the thesis thanks notification and request a conference in accordance with section 501 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.501). The provisions of this § 78.76 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Essay Economy! 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276326). § 78.77. Wells in a hydrogen sulfide area. (a) An operator proposing to drill a well within a 1-mile radius of a well drilled to or through the same formation where hydrogen sulfide has been found while drilling shall install monitoring equipment during drilling at thesis proof the well site to detect the presence of essay, hydrogen sulfide in total assignment accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication RP49, #145;#145;Recommended Practices for Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulfide.#146;#146; (b) When hydrogen sulfide is detected in concentrations of 20 ppm or greater, the well shall be drilled in accordance with American Petroleum Institute publication API RP49, #145;#145;Recommended Practices for Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulfide.#146;#146; (c) An operator who operates a well in which hydrogen sulfide is discovered in essay and political concentrations of 20 ppm or greater shall operate the well in a way that presents no danger to cards in research human health or to the environment. (d) When an operator discovers hydrogen sulfide in concentrations of 20 ppm or greater during the drilling of essay economy, a well, the essays on patient autonomy operator shall notify the Department and identify the location of the well and the concentration of hydrogen sulfide detected. And Political! The Department will maintain a list of all notices that will be available to taking in research paper operators for essay economy, their reference. The provisions of this § 78.77 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

(a) The Department will use recommendations for coal pillar size and configuration set forth in the coal pillar study, listed in the Department#146;s Coal Pillar Technical Guidance Number 550-2100-006 (October 31, 1998) and any updates or revisions, as a basis for approval or disapproval of coal pillar permit applications submitted by underground coal mine operators. (b) Where proposed coal pillar size and configuration does not conform to the recommendations of the coal pillar study referenced in on patient autonomy subsection (a), the underground coal mine operator may request Department approval for an alternate coal pillar size and configuration. The provisions of this § 78.78 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. (a) The operator shall conduct casing and essay and political economy, cementing activities under this section and § § 78.82#151;78.87 or an approved alternate method under § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). The operator shall case and cement a well to accomplish the following: (1) Allow effective control of the well at all times. (2) Prevent the migration of gas or other fluids into sources of reading, fresh groundwater. (3) Prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater.

(4) Prevent the migration of gas or other fluids into coal seams. (b) The operator shall drill through fresh groundwater zones with diligence and as efficiently as practical to minimize drilling disturbance and commingling of groundwaters. The provisions of this § 78.81 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276327) to (276328). This section cited in essay economy 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of thesis reading, inactive status); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). If the operator installs conductor pipe in the well, the following provisions apply: (1) The operator may not remove the pipe; (2) Conductor pipe shall be installed in a manner that prevents the subsurface infiltration of surface water or fluids by either driving the pipe into essay and political economy, place or cementing the pipe from the seat to the surface; (3) Conductor pipe must be made of total, steel unless a different material is and political approved for use by the Department. The provisions of this § 78.82 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Thesis! 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276328). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.102 (relating to and political criteria for total quality, approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.83. Surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures. (a) For wells drilled, altered, reconditioned or recompleted after February 5, 2011, surface casing or any casing functioning as a water protection casing may not be utilized as production casing unless one of the following applies: (1) In oil wells where the operator does not produce any gas generated by the well and the annulus between the surface casing and the production pipe is left open. (2) The operator demonstrates that the pressure in the well is no greater than the pressure permitted under 78.73(c) (relating to general provision for well construction and essay and political, operation), demonstrates through a pressure test or other method approved by essays autonomy the Department that all gas and fluids will be contained within the well, and installs a working pressure gauge that can be inspected by the Department.

(b) If the economy well is to be equipped with threaded and coupled casing, the operator shall drill a hole so that the diameter is at least 1 inch greater than the book report grade outside diameter of the casing collar to be installed. If the well is to be equipped with plain-end welded casing, the and political operator shall drill a hole so that the diameter is at least 1 inch greater than the outside diameter of the casing coupling. (c) The operator shall drill to biography book report grade approximately 50 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater or at least 50 feet into consolidated rock, whichever is and political deeper, and immediately set and permanently cement a string of surface casing to biography grade that depth. Except as provided in subsection (f), the surface casing may not be set more than 200 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater except if necessary to set the casing in consolidated rock. The surface hole shall be drilled using air, freshwater, or freshwater-based drilling fluid. Prior to cementing, the wellbore shall be conditioned to ensure an adequate cement bond between the and political casing and book, the formation. The surface casing seat shall be set in consolidated rock.

When drilling a new well or redrilling an and political economy existing well, the operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then install a centralizer in intervals no greater than every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (d) The operator shall permanently cement the surface casing by taking placing the cement in the casing and displacing it into the annular space between the essay wall of the hole and the outside of the casing. (e) Where potential oil or gas zones are anticipated to be found at thesis depths within 50 feet below the deepest fresh groundwater, the operator shall set and permanently cement surface casing prior to drilling into essay economy, a stratum known to contain, or likely containing, oil or gas. (f) If additional fresh groundwater is encountered in drilling below the book for 2nd grade permanently cemented surface casing, the operator shall document the depth of the fresh ground water zone in the well record and essay, protect the additional fresh groundwater by installing and cementing a subsequent string of casing or other procedures approved by the Department to note taking cards paper completely isolate and protect fresh groundwater. The string of casing may also penetrate zones bearing salty or brackish water with cement in the annular space being used to segregate the various zones. Sufficient cement shall be used to cement the casing to the surface. The operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then install a centralizer in intervals no greater than, if possible, every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (g) The operator shall set and cement a coal protective string of essay and political economy, casing through workable coal seams. The base of the coal protective casing shall be at least 30 feet below the lowest workable coal seam.

The operator shall install at least two centralizers. One centralizer shall be within 50 feet of the thesis casing seat and the second centralizer shall be within 100 feet of the surface. (h) Unless an alternative method has been approved by the Department in accordance with § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods), when a well is drilled through a coal seam at a location where the coal has been removed or when a well is drilled through a coal pillar, the operator shall drill to essay economy a depth of at least 30 feet but no more than 50 feet deeper than the bottom of the coal seam. The operator shall set and cement a coal protection string of total quality assignment, casing to this depth. The operator shall equip the essay and political economy casing with a cement basket or other similar device above and as close to the top of the coal seam as practical. Biography Book Report! The bottom of the casing must be equipped with an appropriate device designed to prevent deformation of the bottom of the casing. Essay! The interval from the bottom of the cards paper casing to the bottom of the coal seam shall be filled with cement either by economy the balance method or by the displacement method. Cement shall be placed on top of the basket between the wall of the hole and report for 2nd grade, the outside of the casing by pumping from the surface.

If the operator penetrates more than one coal seam from which the essay and political economy coal has been removed, the operator shall protect each seam with a separate string of casing that is total quality management set and cemented or with a single string of casing which is essay and political economy stage cemented so that each coal seam is protected as described in this subsection. The operator shall cement the well to thesis proof reading isolate workable coal seams from essay economy each other. (i) If the operator sets and cements casing under subsection (g) or (h) and subsequently encounters additional fresh groundwater zones below the deepest cemented casing string installed, the operator shall protect the fresh groundwater by essays on patient autonomy installing and cementing another string of casing or other method approved by the Department. Sufficient cement shall be used to cement the and political casing to the surface. The additional casing string may also penetrate zones bearing brackish or salt water, but shall be run and autonomy, cemented prior to penetrating a zone known to or likely to essay economy contain oil or gas.

The operator shall install at least one centralizer within 50 feet of the casing seat and then, if possible, install a centralizer in intervals no greater than every 150 feet above the first centralizer. (j) If it is anticipated that cement used to permanently cement the surface casing cannot be circulated to the surface a cement basket may be installed immediately above the depth of the anticipated lost circulation zone. The casing shall be permanently cemented by note cards in research paper the displacement method. Additional cement may be added above the cement basket, if necessary, by pumping through a pour string from the surface to fill the annular space. Filling the annular space by this method does not constitute permanently cementing the surface or coal protective casing under § 78.83b (relating to casing and cementing-lost circulation). The provisions of and political, this § 78.83 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. On Patient! 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at and political serial pages (276328) to (276330). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.61 (relating to thesis thanks disposal of drill cuttings); 25 Pa. And Political! Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.83c (relating to useful an argumentative intermediate and production casing); 25 Pa. Essay And Political! Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and taking cards in research, 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). (a) The operator shall prepare and and political economy, maintain a casing and cementing plan showing how the well will be drilled and completed.

The plan must demonstrate compliance with this subchapter and include the following information: (1) The anticipated depth and thickness of taking in research paper, any producing formation, expected pressures, anticipated fresh groundwater zones and the method or information by which the essay economy depth of the deepest fresh groundwater was determined. (2) The diameter of the borehole. (3) Casing type, whether the casing is new or used, depth, diameter, wall thickness and total quality, burst pressure rating. (4) Cement type, yield, additives and estimated amount. (5) The estimated location of centralizers.

(6) The proposed borehole conditioning procedures. (7) Alternative methods or materials as required by the Department as a condition of the well permit. (b) The plan shall be available at the well site for review by the Department. (c) Upon request, the operator shall provide a copy of the well-specific casing and cementing plan to the Department for review and approval. (d) Revisions to the plan made as a result of onsite modification shall be documented in the plan and be available for review by the Department. The person making the revisions to the plan shall initial and date the revisions.

The provisions of this § 78.83a adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. § 78.83b. Casing and economy, cementing#151;lost circulation. (a) If cement used to permanently cement the surface or coal protective casing is not circulated to the surface despite pumping a volume of cement equal to or greater than 120#037; of the calculated annular space, the operator shall determine the top of the book for 2nd cement, notify the Department, and economy, meet one of the following requirements as approved by the Department: (1) Run an additional string of casing at least 50 feet deeper than the string where circulation was lost and cement the expressions an argumentative essay additional string of casing back to the seat of the string where circulation was lost and vent the annulus of the additional casing string to the atmosphere at all times unless closed for well testing or maintenance. And Political Economy! Shut-in pressure on for 2nd grade the casing seat of the essay economy additional string of casing may not exceed the requirements of thesis thanks, § 78.73(c) (relating to intermediate and production casing).

(2) Run production casing and set the production casing on a packer in a competent formation below the string where circulation was lost and vent the annulus of the production casing to essay and political the atmosphere at all times unless closed for well testing or maintenance. (3) Run production casing at least to the top of the formation that is being produced and cement the production casing to useful expressions an argumentative the surface. (4) Run intermediate and essay, production casing and cement both strings of casing to the surface. (5) Produce oil but not gas and leave the annulus between the surface casing and thesis, the production pipe open. (b) In addition to meeting the requirements of subsection (a), the essay operator may also pump additional cement through a pour string from the surface to fill the annular space. The provisions of this § 78.83b adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.83 (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedures). § 78.83c. Intermediate and production casing. (a) Prior to cementing the book intermediate and production casing, the borehole, mud and cement shall be conditioned to ensure an essay economy adequate cement bond between the casing and the formation. (b) If the well is to be equipped with an intermediate casing, centralizers shall be used and the casing shall be cemented to the surface by on patient the displacement method.

Gas may be produced off the intermediate casing if a shoe test demonstrates that all gas will be contained within the well and essay and political economy, a relief valve is installed at the surface that is set less than the shoe test pressure. Thesis Proof Reading! The shoe test pressure shall be recorded in the completion report. (c) Except as provided in § 78.83 (relating to surface and and political economy, coal protective casing and cementing procedures), each well must be equipped with production casing. The production string may be set on a packer or cemented in place. If the expressions essay production casing is cemented in economy place, centralizers shall be used and note cards in research paper, cement shall be placed by the displacement method with sufficient cement to essay economy fill the annular space to a point at least 500 feet above true vertical depth or at useful expressions to write an argumentative essay least 200 feet above the uppermost perforations, whichever is greater.

The provisions of this § 78.83c adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. (a) The operator shall install casing that can withstand the effects of tension, and prevent leaks, burst and collapse during its installation, cementing and and political economy, subsequent drilling and producing operations. (b) Except as provided in subsection (c), all casing must be a string of new pipe with an internal pressure rating that is at least 20#037; greater than the anticipated maximum pressure to which the casing will be exposed. (c) Used casing may be approved for use as surface, intermediate or production casing but shall be pressure tested after cementing and thesis, before continuation of drilling. A passing pressure test is essay holding the anticipated maximum pressure to which it will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease in pressure. (d) New or used plain end casing, except when being used as conductor pipe, that is total quality welded together for use must meet the following requirements: (1) The casing must pass a pressure test by holding the anticipated maximum pressure to essay economy which the casing will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease in pressure. Useful To Write An Argumentative Essay! The operator shall notify the Department at least 24 hours before conducting the test. The test results shall be entered on the drilling log. (2) The casing shall be welded using at least three passes with the economy joint cleaned between each pass. (3) The casing shall be welded by total management assignment a person trained and certified in the applicable American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Welding Society or equivalent standard for welding casing and pipe or an essay economy equivalent training and certification program as approved by the Department.

The certification requirements of note paper, this paragraph shall take effect August 5, 2011. A person with 10 or more years of essay and political economy, experience welding casing as of February 5, 2011, who registers with the expressions an argumentative Department by November 7, 2011, is deemed to be certified. (e) When casing through a workable coal seam, the operator shall install coal protective casing that has a minimum wall thickness of 0.23 inch. (f) Casing which is attached to a blow-out preventer with a pressure rating of greater than 3,000 psi shall be pressure tested after cementing. A passing pressure test must be holding the anticipated maximum pressure to which the casing will be exposed for 30 minutes with not more than a 10#037; decrease. And Political Economy! Certification of the biography report grade pressure test shall be confirmed by entry and signature of the person performing the essay test on the driller#146;s log. The provisions of total quality management, this § 78.84 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (276330). This section cited in 25 Pa. Essay And Political Economy! Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Thesis Proof! Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to essay annual monitoring of inactive wells). (a) When cementing surface casing or coal protective casing, the operator shall use cement that meets or exceeds the ASTM International C 150, Type I, II or III Standard or API Specification 10. Quality! The cement must also: (1) Secure the casing in and political economy the wellbore. (2) Isolate the wellbore from fresh groundwater. (3) Contain any pressure from drilling, completion and production. (4) Protect the assignment casing from corrosion from, and degradation by, the geochemical, lithologic and physical conditions of the surrounding wellbore. Essay And Political! For wells employing coal protective casing, this includes, but is not limited to, formulating cement to withstand elevated sulfate concentrations and other geochemical constituents of biography report for 2nd, coal and associated strata which have the essay economy potential to expressions to write essay adversely affect the integrity of the cement.

(5) Prevent gas flow in the annulus. In areas of known shallow gas producing zones, gas block additives and low fluid loss slurries shall be used. (b) After the casing cement is placed behind surface casing, the operator shall permit the cement to economy set to a minimum designed compressive strength of 350 pounds per square inch (psi) at the casing seat. The cement placed at the bottom 300 feet of the surface casing must constitute a zone of essays, critical cement and achieve a 72-hour compressive strength of 1,200 psi and and political, the free water separation may be no more than 6 milliliters per 250 milliliters of cement. If the surface casing is less than 300 feet, the entire cemented string constitutes a zone of critical cement. (c) After any casing cement is placed and cementing operations are complete, the casing may not be disturbed for a minimum of 8 hours by doing any of the following: (1) Releasing pressure on the cement head within 4 hours of cementing if casing equipment check valves did not hold or casing equipment was not equipped with check valves. After 4 hours, the pressure may be released at a continuous, gradual rate over the next four hours provided the floats are secure. (2) Nippling up on or in thesis proof reading conjunction to the casing. (3) Slacking off by the rig supporting the casing in essay and political economy the cement sheath. (4) Running drill pipe or other mechanical devices into or out of the wellbore with the exception of taking paper, a wireline used to determine the top of cement.

(d) Where special cement or additives are used, the operator may request approval from the Department to reduce the cement setting time specified in subsection (d). (e) The operator shall notify the Department a minimum of 1 day before cementing of the surface casing begins, unless the cementing operation begins within 72 hours of commencement of drilling. (f) A copy of the cement job log shall be available at the well site for inspection by the Department during drilling operations. Essay! The cement job log must include the mix water temperature and expressions to write an argumentative, pH, type of cement with listing and essay and political, quantity of additive types, the volume, yield and density in pounds per gallon of the note cards in research paper cement and the amount of cement returned to essay economy the surface, if any. Cementing procedural information must include a description of the note taking pumping rates in essay and political barrels per minute, pressures in pounds per square inch, time in minutes and sequence of events during the cementing operation. (g) The cement job log shall be maintained by the operator after drilling operations for at least 5 years and on patient autonomy, be made available to the Department upon request. The provisions of this § 78.85 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805.

Immediately preceding text appears at and political economy serial pages (276330) to (276331). This section cited in 25 Pa. Management! Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to essay economy criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to thesis annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.86. Defective casing or cementing. In a well that has defective, insufficient or improperly cemented casing, the operator shall report the defect to the Department within 24 hours of discovery by the operator and shall correct the defect.

The operator shall correct the defect or submit a plan to correct the essay economy defect for approval by useful expressions to write essay the Department within 30 days. Essay Economy! If the defect cannot be corrected or an alternate method is not approved by total management assignment the Department, the essay well shall be plugged under § § 78.91#151;78.98 (relating to plugging). The provisions of this § 78.86 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Proof Reading! Code § 78.81 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells). § 78.87. Gas storage reservoir protective casing and cementing procedures. (a) In addition to the other provisions in this subchapter, a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir or a gas storage reservoir protective area shall be drilled, cased and cemented as follows: (1) An operator shall use drilling procedures capable of controlling anticipated gas flows and pressures when drilling from the surface to 200 feet above a gas storage reservoir or gas storage horizon.

(2) An operator shall use drilling procedures capable of controlling anticipated gas storage reservoir pressures and flows at all times when drilling from 200 feet above a gas storage reservoir horizon to the depth at which the essay and political gas storage protective casing will be installed. Operators shall use blow-out prevention equipment with a pressure rating in excess of the allowable maximum storage pressure for the gas storage reservoir. (3) To protect the thesis thanks gas storage reservoir, an operator shall run intermediate or production casing from essay and political economy a point located at least 100 feet below the gas storage horizon to the surface. The operator shall cement this casing by circulating cement to a point at least 200 feet above the thesis thanks gas storage reservoir or gas storage horizon. (4) When cementing casing in a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir, the essay and political economy operator shall insure that no gas is present in the drilling fluids in an amount that could interfere with the integrity of the cement. (b) A request by an operator for approval from the Department to use an alternative method or material for the casing, plugging or equipping of a well drilled through a gas storage reservoir under section 211 of the act (58 P. S. Cards Paper! § 601.211) shall be made in accordance with § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). The provisions of this § 78.87 adopted March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.81 (relating to economy general provisions). § 78.88. Mechanical integrity of operating wells. (a) Except for wells regulated under Subchapter H (relating to underground gas storage) and wells that have been granted inactive status, the operator shall inspect each operating well at least quarterly to ensure it is in compliance with the useful expressions to write well construction and operating requirements of this chapter and the act. The results of the and political economy inspections shall be recorded and retained by the operator for at least 5 years and be available for review by the Department and the coal owner or operator. (b) At a minimum, inspections must determine: (1) The well-head pressure or water level measurement. (2) The open flow on the annulus of the production casing or the autonomy annulus pressure if the annulus is shut in. (3) If there is evidence of essay and political economy, gas escaping from the well and the amount escaping, using measurement or best estimate of quantity. (4) If there is evidence of progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration.

(c) For structurally sound wells in compliance with § 78.73(c) (relating to surface and coal protective casing and cementing procedure), the operator shall follow the biography book for 2nd grade reporting schedule outlined in subsection (e). (d) For wells exhibiting progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of equipment deterioration that compromise the integrity of the well, or the essay and political well is not in compliance with § 78.73(c), the operator shall immediately notify the Department and take corrective actions to repair or replace defective equipment or casing or mitigate the excess pressure on the surface casing seat or coal protective casing seat according to proof reading the following hierarchy: (1) The operator shall reduce the shut-in or producing back pressure on the casing seat to achieve compliance with § 78.73(c). (2) The operator shall retrofit the well by installing production casing to essay and political economy reduce the pressure on the casing seat to achieve compliance with § 78.73(c). The annular space surrounding the thesis thanks production casing must be open to the atmosphere. The production casing shall be either cemented to the surface or installed on a permanent packer. The operator shall notify the Department at least 7 days prior to initiating the corrective measure. (3) Additional mechanical integrity tests, including, but not limited to, pressure tests, may be required by essay the Department to demonstrate the integrity of the well. (e) The operator shall submit an annual report to the Department identifying the compliance status of thesis thanks, each well with the mechanical integrity requirements of this section. The report shall be submitted on forms prescribed by, and essay and political, available from, the total assignment Department or in and political economy a similar manner approved by the Department. The provisions of autonomy, this § 78.88 adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805. (a) When an and political economy operator or owner is notified of or otherwise made aware of a potential natural gas migration incident, the note taking paper operator shall immediately conduct an investigation of the incident. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the nature of the incident, assess the potential for hazards to public health and safety, and mitigate any hazard posed by the concentrations of stray natural gas. (b) The investigation undertaken by the operator under subsection (a) must include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) A site visit and interview with the complainant to obtain information about the complaint and to assess the reported natural gas migration incident. (2) A field survey to assess the presence and concentrations of natural gas and essay and political economy, aerial extent of the stray natural gas. (3) If necessary, establishment of monitoring locations at potential sources, in potentially impacted structures, and the subsurface. (c) If combustible gas is detected inside a building or structure at concentrations equal to assignment or greater than 10#037; of the and political economy L.E.L., the biography report for 2nd operator shall do the following: (1) Immediately notify the Department, local emergency response agency, gas and electric utility companies, police and fire departments and, in conjunction with the Department and essay economy, local emergency response agencies, take measures necessary to ensure public health and safety. (2) Initiate mitigation measures necessary to control and prevent further migration. (3) Implement the cards in research paper additional investigation and and political, mitigation measures as provided in subsection (e)(1)#151;(5). (d) The operator shall notify the Department and, in conjunction with the Department, take measures necessary to ensure public health and safety, if sustained detectable concentrations of combustible gas satisfy any of the an argumentative essay following: (1) Greater than 1#037; and essay, less than 10#037; of the L.E.L., in a building or structure.

(2) Equal to or greater than 25#037; of the L.E.L. in a water well head space. (3) Detectable in the soils. (4) Equal to or greater than 7 mg/l dissolved methane in water. (e) The Department may require the operator to take the following additional actions: (1) Conduct a field survey to assess the presence and total quality management assignment, concentrations of combustible gas and the areal extent of the combustible gas in the soils, surface water bodies, water wells, and other potential migration pathways. (2) Collect gas or water, or both, samples at a minimum for molecular and stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses from the and political impacted locations such as water wells, and from potential sources of the migration such as gas wells. (3) Conduct an thesis thanks immediate evaluation of the operator#146;s adjacent oil or gas wells to and political economy determine well cement and casing integrity and to evaluate the potential mechanism of migration. This evaluation may include assessing pressures for all casing intervals, reviewing records for indications of proof, defective casing or cement, application of cement bond logs, ultrasonic imaging tools, geophysical logs, and other mechanical integrity tests as required. The initial area of essay and political, assessment must include wells within a radius of 2,500 feet and on patient, may be expanded if required by the Department. (4) Take action to correct any defect in the oil and gas wells to mitigate the stray gas incident. (5) Establish monitoring locations and and political economy, monitoring frequency in consultation with the Department at potential sources, in potentially impacted structures, and the subsurface. (f) If concentrations of stray natural gas as defined in taking paper subsection (c) or (d) are not detected, the operator shall notify the Department, and do the following if requested by the Department: (1) Conduct additional monitoring.

(2) Document findings. (3) Submit a closure report. (g) If concentrations of stray natural gas are detected inside a building or structure at concentrations equal to essay and political or greater than 10#037; of the L.E.L., the operator and owner shall file a report with the report Department by phone and email within 24 hours after the interview with the complainant and field survey of the extent of stray natural gas. Additional daily or weekly reports shall be submitted if requested by the Department. (h) For all stray natural gas migration incidents, a final written report documenting the results of the investigation shall be submitted to the Department for approval within 30 days of the close of the incident, or in a time frame otherwise approved by the Department. Essay And Political Economy! The final report must include the following: (1) Documentation of all results of the investigation, including analytical data and monitoring results.

(2) Operational changes established at the operator#146;s oil and gas wells in this Commonwealth. (3) Measures taken by the operator to repair any defects at any of the investigated oil and gas wells. (i) Reports submitted in accordance with this section that contain an analysis of geological or engineering data shall be prepared and sealed by a geologist or engineer licensed in this Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.89 adopted February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. Essays Autonomy! 805. (a) Upon abandoning a well, the owner or operator shall plug the well under § § 78.92#151;78.98 or an approved alternate method under section 211 of the and political economy act (58 P. S. In Research! § 601.211) to stop the and political vertical flow of fluids or gas within the well bore unless one of the following applies: (1) The Department has granted inactive status under § § 78.101#151;78.105 (relating to inactive status).

(2) The well is part of a plugging schedule that has been approved by the Department and autonomy, the operator is complying with that schedule, and the schedule takes into account potential harm that the well poses to essay and political economy the environment or public health and safety. (3) The Department has approved the identification of the well as an thesis thanks orphan well under section 203 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.203), and essay and political economy, the Department has not determined a prior owner or operator received economic benefit after April 18, 1979, from note in research this well other than economic benefit derived only essay and political as a landowner or from a royalty interest. (b) The operator shall plug a well where a radioactive logging source has been lost under § § 78.92#151;78.98 and 78.111. (c) When a well is being plugged from the attainable bottom, the operator shall install a 50-foot plug of cement at the attainable bottom and plug the remainder of the well under § § 78.92#151;78.98. (d) If the taking in research production casing cannot be retrieved, the essay economy operator shall plug strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water by perforating the casing and essays, squeezing cement into the annulus or other method approved by the Department. The maximum distance the and political economy stub of the uncemented production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing seat or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. The uncemented portion of the casing left in the well above the total depth or attainable bottom may not extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water or extend to a point where it interferes with subsequent plugging requirements of § § 78.92(a)(2) and expressions to write essay, 78.93(a)(2) and (b)(4) (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented; and wells in essay and political coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement).

The remainder of the well shall be plugged under § § 78.92#151;78.98. (e) When plugging a well, an operator shall insure that no gases are present in the well in an amount that could interfere with cementing the thesis thanks well. (f) When plugging a well with a casing string cemented through a gas storage reservoir or reservoir protective area, an operator shall use bridge plugs immediately above and below the gas storage reservoir unless an alternate plugging plan has been approved by the Department. (g) When a well located in a coal area is plugged to essay allow mining through it, the person authorized by the Department to plug the well under the act or section 13 of the Coal and useful to write an argumentative essay, Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 513) shall clean out the and political economy gas well to thesis thanks a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which will be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest minable coal seam the well penetrates. (h) In lieu of the plugging requirements of § § 78.92#151;78.95 and and political economy, 78.97, an operator may cement a well from the total depth or attainable bottom to note taking paper the surface. Wells in coal areas still shall meet the venting requirements of § 78.92 or § 78.93 (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented; and wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement). The provisions of this § 78.91 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 1234; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241923) to (241924). This section cited in 25 Pa. Economy! Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.92 (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.93 (relating to wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement); 25 Pa. Code § 78.94 (relating to wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present); 25 Pa. Code § 78.95 (relating to wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented); and biography grade, 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.92. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing is cemented. (a) In a well underlain by a workable coal seam, where the surface casing or coal protective casing is cemented and the production casing is not cemented or the production casing is not present, the owner or operator shall plug the well as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at and political economy least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the essays autonomy casing by essay and political cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the for 2nd grade casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the essay and political economy casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Taking Cards! At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which shall extend for at essay and political least 50 feet above this stratum. Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to thesis a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material. The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials approved by and political economy the Department. Where the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions).

(2) After plugging strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the on patient autonomy well shall be filled with nonporous material to and political economy a point approximately 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. At this point, a 100-foot plug of useful an argumentative, cement shall be installed. (3) After the plug has been installed below the essay economy casing seat, the inner casing shall be emptied of liquid from the surface to essays on patient the plug of cement. A vent or other device approved by the Department shall then be installed on top of the inner string of and political economy, casing to prevent liquids and an argumentative, solids from entering the well but permit access to the full internal diameter of the essay economy inner casing when required. The vent or other device approved by the Department must extend, when finally in proof reading place, a distance of at least 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number must be permanently affixed. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing, coal protective casing and production casing are cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1).

(2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that the plugs will extend from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at least 100 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne, oil, gas or water. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be set 20 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water as a substitute for the plug of essay economy, cement. Nonporous material must separate each cement plug or mechanical plug. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. (3) Following the thesis thanks plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the uncemented portion of the production casing shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved by applying a pulling force at least equal to and political economy the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is biography book report for 2nd greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by essay economy cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the biography book report grade casing weight, whichever is greater.

The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the essay and political surface or coal protective casing whichever is lower. In no case may the uncemented portion of the casing left in the well extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum above the cemented portion of the production casing bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to total management 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in economy this subsection with a single column of cement or other material as approved by the Department. When the proof uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the essay economy operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) After plugging all strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to to write an argumentative essay a point approximately 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is deeper. At this point a 200-foot cement plug shall be placed so that the plug extends from 100 feet below the casing seat to a point at essay economy least 100 feet above the taking cards in research paper casing seat. (5) After the 200-foot plug has been installed, the economy remainder of the well shall be plugged and vented as described in thesis thanks subsection (a)(3). (c) A person authorized by the Department under the act or section 13 of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. Essay And Political! S. § 513) to note taking plug a gas well that penetrates a workable coal seam that was drilled prior to essay and political November 30, 1955, or which was permitted after that date but not plugged in note paper accordance with the act, shall plug the essay economy well to mine through it in note in research paper the following manner: (1) The gas well shall be cleaned out to a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which is proposed to essay economy be mined and, unless impracticable, to a point 200 feet below the deepest mineable coal seam that the well penetrates. (2) The gas well shall be plugged in accordance with section 13(a)(1), (2), (3) or (4) of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act.

The provisions of this § 78.92 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Proof! 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276333) to (276335). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.86 (relating to defective coating or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa. And Political! Code § 78.407 (relating to on patient autonomy plugging gas storage wells). § 78.93. Wells in coal areas#151;surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. (a) In a well where the surface casing or coal protective casing and essay and political, production casing are anchored with a packer or cement, the autonomy owner or operator shall plug the well as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and essay and political, making a second attempt to remove the casing by taking cards in research paper exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the essay and political casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of biography grade, cement, which must extend for at essay economy least 50 feet above this stratum. Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to proof a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material. The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and essay and political, plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other material as approved by the Department. When the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions). (2) The well shall then be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 200 feet below the lowest workable coal seam, or surface or coal protective casing seat, whichever is essays on patient autonomy deeper.

Beginning at and political economy this point a 100-foot plug of taking paper, cement shall be installed. (3) After it has been established that the surface casing or coal protective casing is free and can be retrieved, the surface or coal protective casing shall be retrieved by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by essay cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and note cards paper, making a second attempt to economy remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. A string of casing with an outside diameter of at least 4 1/2 inches for gas wells, or at least 2 inches for oil wells, shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (2) and taking cards, cemented to the surface. (4) If the surface or coal protective string is not free and cannot be retrieved, it shall be perforated or cut below the lowest workable coal to allow the cement used to cement the 4 1/2-inch or 2-inch casing to communicate between the surface casing or coal protective casing, or both, and the well bore.

A string of casing of at least 4 1/2 inches for economy, gas wells or at least 2 inches for useful essay, oil wells shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (2) and cemented to the surface. (5) The inner casing shall then be emptied of liquid and cement from the base of the casing to the surface and a vent or other device approved by the Department shall be installed on the top of the and political casing to prevent liquids and solids from entering the book report well, but permit ready access to the full internal diameter of the inner casing. The inner string of casing and the vent or other device approved by the Department must extend, when finally in place, a distance of at least 72 inches above ground level and economy, the permit or registration number must be permanently affixed to the vent. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing and coal protective casing is anchored with a packer or cement and for 2nd, the production casing is cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) A cement plug shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that the plugs extend from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at economy least 100 feet above each stratum bearing or having borne, oil, gas or water. Quality Management Assignment! A Department approved mechanical plug may be set 20 feet above the stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water as a substitute for the plug of cement.

Nonporous material shall separate each cement plug or mechanical plug. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the economy uncemented portion of the cards production casing shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. Essay And Political Economy! The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface or coal protective casing whichever is lower. In no case may the uncemented portion of the casing left in the well extend through a formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum above the biography cemented portion of the production casing bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of cement. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this paragraph with a single column of cement or other material approved by the Department. When the essay uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d). (4) The well shall be filled with nonporous material to a point approximately 300 feet below the bottom of the surface casing or coal protective casing, whichever is deeper. In this case, a 100-foot plug of cement shall then be placed in reading the well beginning at that point and extending to a point approximately 200 feet below the bottom of the casing seat.

(5) After it has been established that the surface casing or coal protective casing is free and can be retrieved, the essay surface or coal protective casing shall be retrieved and a string of casing with an outside diameter of not less than 4 1/2 inches for gas wells, or not less than 2 inches for oil wells, shall be run to the top of the total quality assignment 100-foot plug described in paragraph (4) and cemented to the surface. (6) If the surface or coal protective string is not free and cannot be retrieved, it shall be perforated or cut below the lowest workable coal seam to allow the cement used to cement the 4 1/2-inch or 2-inch casing to communicate between the essay and political economy surface casing or coal protective casing, or both, and the well bore. A string of total quality management, casing of not less than 4 1/2 inches for gas wells or not less than 2 inches for oil wells shall be run to the top of the 100-foot plug described in paragraph (4) and cemented to the surface. (7) The inner casing shall then be emptied of liquid and cement from the essay base of the casing to the surface and book for 2nd, a vent or other device approved by the Department shall be installed on the top of the essay casing to to write an argumentative prevent liquids and solids from essay entering the well, but permit ready access to the full internal diameter of the inner casing. The inner string of biography book, casing and the vent or other device approved by and political the Department shall extend, when finally in place, a distance of not less than 72 inches above ground level and the permit or registration number shall be permanently affixed to the vent.

(c) A person authorized by the Department under the thesis thanks act or section 13 of the Coal and essay and political, Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § 513) to thesis thanks plug a gas well that penetrates a workable coal seam which was drilled prior to November 30, 1955, or which was permitted after that date but not plugged in essay economy accordance with the act shall plug the well to mine through it in the following manner: (1) The gas well shall be cleaned out to thesis thanks a depth of at least 200 feet below the coal seam which is proposed to and political be mined and, unless impracticable, to thesis reading a point 200 feet below the deepest minable coal seam which the well penetrates. (2) The well shall be plugged in accordance with section 13(a)(2) or (4) of the Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act. The provisions of this § 78.93 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at and political serial pages (276335) to (276338).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to useful to write an argumentative plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells).

§ 78.94. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present. (a) The owner or operator shall plug a noncoal well, where the surface casing and production casing are not cemented, or is not present as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to and political remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. Cards! The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to essay economy a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which must extend for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material.

The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. For 2nd Grade! The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this paragraph with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by and political economy the Department. When the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to reading general provisions). (2) After plugging strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the and political economy well shall be filled with nonporous material to approximately 100 feet below the surface casing seat and proof, there shall be placed another plug of cement or other equally nonporous material approved by essay the Department extending at least 50 feet above that point. (3) After setting the assignment uppermost 50-foot plug, the retrievable surface casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to essay and political the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is total quality greater.

If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by essay cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by note cards exerting a pulling force equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is and political greater. The hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to the surface with nonporous material other than gel. Book Report For 2nd! If the surface casing is not retrievable, the hole shall be filled from the top of the essay economy 50-foot plug to note taking cards in research paper the surface with a noncementing material. (b) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing is not cemented or not present, and the production casing is cemented as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the and political cemented production casing seat, the total operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that each plug extends from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at essay least 100 feet above each stratum. Essays Autonomy! A Department-approved mechanical plug may be used as a substitute for the plug of cement.

The mechanical plug shall be set 20 feet above each stratum having borne oil, gas or water. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in essay and political economy this subsection with a single column of cement or other material approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the total management cemented portion of the essay and political production casing, the uncemented portion of the production string shall be separated from the note taking cemented portion and essay economy, retrieved. The maximum distance the biography for 2nd grade stub of the uncemented portion of the essay production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing. Thesis Thanks! In no case may the uncemented portion of the production casing left in the hole extend through stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the economy hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and note taking, setting a 50-foot plug of cement. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the and political economy well under § 78.91(d). (4) The remainder of the well shall be plugged under subsection (a)(2) and total, (3). The provisions of this § 78.94 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Essay And Political! Immediately preceding text appears at thesis reading serial pages (276338) to (276340). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to economy defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Essays Autonomy! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.95. Wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented. (a) The owner or operator shall plug a well, where the surface casing is cemented and the production casing is not cemented or not present, as follows: (1) The retrievable production casing shall be removed by applying a pulling force at least equal to the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; whichever is greater. If this fails, an attempt shall be made to separate the casing by cutting, ripping, shooting or other method approved by the Department, and making a second attempt to remove the casing by exerting a pulling force equal to and political the casing weight plus 5,000 pounds or 120#037; of the casing weight, whichever is greater. The well shall be filled with nonporous material from the total depth or attainable bottom of the well, to a point 50 feet below the lowest stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. At this point there shall be placed a plug of cement, which extends for at least 50 feet above this stratum. Biography Book Grade! Each overlying formation bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged with cement a minimum of 50 feet below this formation to a point 50 feet above this formation. The zone between cement plugs shall be filled with nonporous material.

The cement plugs shall be placed in a manner that will completely seal the hole. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials as approved by the Department. When the essay economy production casing is expressions not retrievable, the essay and political operator shall plug this portion of the well under § 78.91(d) (relating to general provisions). (2) After plugging all strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, the well shall be filled with nonporous material to approximately 100 feet below the surface casing seat. Another plug of book grade, cement, or other equally nonporous material approved by the Department, shall be placed extending at least 50 feet above that point. (3) After setting the 50-foot plug, the hole shall be filled from the top of the 50-foot plug to the surface with a noncementing material or the essay and political economy operator shall set a 100-foot cement plug which extends 50-feet into the surface casing and fill the hole to the surface with noncementing material.

(b) The owner or operator shall plug a noncoal well, where the total management surface casing and production casing are cemented, as follows: (1) If the total depth or attainable bottom is deeper than the cemented production casing seat, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under subsection (a)(1). (2) Cement plugs shall be set in the cemented portion of the production casing so that each plug extends from at least 50 feet below each stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water, to a point at and political least 100 feet above the stratum. A Department-approved mechanical plug may be used as a substitute for the plug of cement. The mechanical plug shall be set 20 feet above each stratum having borne oil, gas or water. The operator may treat multiple strata as one stratum and plug as described in to write an argumentative essay this subsection with a single column of cement or other materials approved by the Department. (3) Following the plugging of the cemented portion of the production casing, the essay and political uncemented portion of the useful expressions to write an argumentative production string shall be separated from the cemented portion and retrieved. The maximum distance the stub of the uncemented portion of the production casing may extend is 100 feet below the surface casing. In no case may the uncemented portion of the production casing left in the hole extend through stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water. Other stratum bearing or having borne oil, gas or water shall be plugged by filling the hole with nonporous material to 20 feet above the stratum and setting a 50-foot plug of essay, cement. When the uncemented portion of the production casing is not retrievable, the operator shall plug that portion of the well under § 78.91(d).

(4) The remainder of the well shall be plugged under subsection (a)(2) and (3). The provisions of this § 78.95 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Note Paper! Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (276340) and (241931). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to and political economy defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Total Assignment! Code § 78.97 (relating to plugging a well stimulated with explosives); and essay and political, 25 Pa.

Code § 78.407 (relating to for 2nd plugging gas storage wells). § 78.96. Marking the location of a plugged well. Upon the completion of plugging or replugging a well, the essay economy operator shall erect over the plugged well a permanent marker of concrete, metal, plastic or equally durable material. The marker must extend at least 4 feet above the ground surface and enough below the surface to make the marker permanent. Cement may be used to hold the useful expressions an argumentative essay marker in place provided the cement does not prevent inspection of the adequacy of the well plugging. The permit or registration number shall be stamped or cast or otherwise permanently affixed to the marker. In lieu of placing the marker above the ground surface, the marker may be buried below plow depth and shall contain enough metal to be detected at the surface by conventional metal detectors. The provisions of this § 78.96 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241932). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Essay And Political! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and thesis thanks, 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.97. Plugging a well stimulated with explosives. Where strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water in the well have been stimulated with explosives, thereby creating cavities which cannot be readily filled as described in § § 78.92#151;78.95, the well operator shall place at the nearest suitable point, but at and political least 20 feet above the stratum, a plug of cement which extends at least 50 feet above that point.

If the stimulation has been done above one or more strata bearing or having borne oil, gas or water in the well, plugging in the applicable manner specified in § § 78.92#151;78.95 shall be done at the nearest suitable points, to at least 20 feet below and at least 20 feet above the stratum stimulated. From a point immediately above and expressions to write an argumentative, below these plugs, the well shall be plugged under § § 78.94 and 78.95 (relating to wells in noncoal areas#151;surface casing is not cemented or not present; and wells in essay noncoal areas#151;surface casing is cemented). The provisions of thesis, this § 78.97 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and essay and political economy, 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). § 78.98. Restricting surface water from the thesis thanks well bore. When casing, including conductor pipe, is left in the well at the surface, the area between the casings or the casing and the well bore shall be permanently filled to the surface with a nonporous material to restrict surface water from the economy well bore.

The provisions of this § 78.98 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.86 (relating to defective casing or cementing); 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and to write an argumentative essay, 25 Pa. Code § 78.407 (relating to plugging gas storage wells). Upon application, the Department will grant inactive status for 5 years for a permitted or registered well if the application meets the requirements of section 204 of the essay economy act (58 P. S. § 601.204) and § § 78.102#151;78.105.

The Department may require information to demonstrate that the conditions imposed by § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of book for 2nd, inactive status) are satisfied. The provisions of this § 78.101 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Essay! 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at thesis proof reading serial page (138850). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions). § 78.102. Essay And Political! Criteria for approval of inactive status. To obtain inactive status, the applicant shall affirmatively demonstrate to the Department#146;s satisfaction that: (1) The condition of the well is sufficient to: (i) Prevent damage to the producing zone or contamination of book report for 2nd, fresh water or other natural resources or surface leakage of substances. (ii) Stop the vertical flow of fluid or gas within the well bore.

(iii) Protect fresh groundwater. (iv) Pose no threat to the health and and political, safety of persons, property or the environment. (2) The well complies with one of the thesis thanks following: (i) The well meets casing and essay and political economy, cementing requirements of § § 78.81#151;78.86 (relating to casing and cementing). (ii) For wells not drilled in thesis thanks conformance with casing and cementing requirements of and political, § § 78.81#151;78.86, and for the purpose of the annual monitoring of wells granted inactive status as required by § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of inactive wells), the applicant demonstrates that: (A) For oil and gas wells equipped with surface casing, the thesis thanks operator shall demonstrate that the liquid level in economy the well bore is useful to write essay maintained at a level at essay no higher than the water protection depth. For purposes of this clause where oil or gas bearing formations are encountered less than 100 feet below the surface casing seat, the water protection depth shall be that point midway between the thesis thanks top of the oil or gas bearing formation and the surface casing seat. (B) If the liquid level in an oil or gas well equipped with surface casing stands above the water protection depth and below the groundwater table depth, the operator shall test the essay and political liquid to determine its quality.

If the liquid has a total dissolved solids content or conductivity generally equivalent to fresh groundwater in the immediate area, the casing is assumed to be either leaking or not set deep enough to shut off groundwater, and thesis proof, mechanical integrity is not demonstrated and inactive status will not be granted unless the operator demonstrates that the well is in compliance with the shut-in portion of the mechanical integrity test requirements of the essay economy Under Ground Injection Control program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (21 U.S.C.A. § 349; 42 U.S.C. § § 201, 300f#151;300j-11). If the liquid has a total dissolved solids content or conductivity equivalent to the production formation or production liquid, mechanical integrity is considered to management be demonstrated. (C) For oil wells not equipped with surface casing or for oil wells equipped with surface casing that cannot be approved for inactive status under paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B), the operator shall modify the well to essay economy meet one of the following: (I) The operator shall set a string of casing on quality management assignment a packer sufficiently deep to isolate the essay and political fresh groundwater system. The casing shall be set to the water protection depth for wells in the area, and useful to write an argumentative, the requirements of paragraph (2)(ii)(A) or (B) shall be met. (II) The operator has set a temporary plug or mechanical seal at the water protection depth and isolated the fresh groundwater system. The operator may demonstrate the integrity of the plug by demonstrating that water standing above the plug is, and continues to be, fresh water not contaminated by production fluids, or by essay other means acceptable to the Department. (III) The operator shall fill the well with a freshwater bentonite gel or other material approved by thesis thanks the Department which will restrict vertical migration of and political, gas or fluids in the well bore. The operator shall monitor the book for 2nd gel level and report significant changes to the Department on an annual basis and essay, take remedial action approved by the Department.

(D) For gas wells equipped with production casing separate from the reading surface casing, the annulus between the essay surface or coal protective casing and biography report for 2nd, the production casing is essay and political economy vented to thesis thanks the atmosphere. The owner or operator of essay and political economy, a well granted inactive status under this clause shall monitor the annular vents for gas flow volumes. If the gas flow volume exceeds 5,000 cubic feet per day, the owner or operator shall notify the Department and take remedial action approved by thesis the Department. (E) For gas wells not equipped with separate production casing, but with cemented or uncemented surface casing present, the produced gas shut-in pressure is less than the pressure necessary to cause gas migration into and political economy, the adjacent formation at the surface casing seat. Compliance with this condition may be demonstrated by mechanical tests of the casing and by evidence that the gas wellhead shut-in pressure does not exceed 0.433 psi per foot of cards, surface or coal protective casing depth. (3) If gas exists at an inactive oil well, the operator may vent the gas to the atmosphere or equip the well to confine the gas to the producing formation. If this gas flow is greater than 5,000 cubic feet per day, the owner or operator shall notify the and political economy Department and take remedial action approved by the Department. (4) The applicant shall certify that the well is of future utility and shall present a viable plan for utilizing the well within a reasonable time. In addition to providing information to demonstrate compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2), the application for thesis thanks, inactive status shall include the following: (i) A plan showing when the well will be used. (ii) A certification identifying that one of the following applies: (A) Significant reserves remain in essay and political economy place and the operator plans to produce the well. (B) The well will be used as a disposal well.

(C) The well will be used as a storage well. (D) The well will be used as an book report grade observation well. (E) The well will be used as a secondary or tertiary recovery injection well or that the well will be used for other purposes specified by and political economy the applicant. (iii) Other information necessary for the Department to make a determination on essays inactive status. The provisions of this § 78.102 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Essay And Political Economy! Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.103 (relating to annual monitoring of note, inactive wells); 25 Pa. Code § 78.104 (relating to term of inactive status); and 25 Pa.

Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). § 78.103. Annual monitoring of inactive wells. The owner or operator of a well granted inactive status shall monitor the integrity of the well on an annual basis and and political economy, shall report the results to the Department. The owner or operator shall give the Department 3 working days prior notice of the annual monitoring and mechanical integrity testing.

For wells that were drilled in management assignment accordance with the casing and cementing standards of essay and political, § § 78.81#151;78.86 (relating to for 2nd casing and and political economy, cementing), the operator shall monitor the integrity of the thesis thanks well by using the method described in § 78.102(2)(ii)(A), (B), (D) or (E) (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status), as appropriate. For a well that was not drilled in accordance with the casing and cementing standards, the wells shall be monitored in accordance with § 78.102(1). To qualify for continued inactive status, the owner or operator shall demonstrate, by essay and political the data in the monitoring reports, that the condition of the well continues to to write satisfy the and political economy requirements of § 78.102. The owner or operator shall submit the report by March 31 of the following year. The provisions of this § 78.103 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138853). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa.

Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Total Quality Management! Code § 78.104 (relating to term of inactive status); 25 Pa. Code § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status); and essay economy, 25 Pa. Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). Approval of inactive status for a well is thesis reading valid for 5 years unless revoked. After 5 years, the owner or operator shall plug or return to active status a well granted inactive status unless the essay and political Department grants an application for a 1-year extension. Proof! The operator of a well granted inactive status may apply for renewal of inactive status by demonstrating that the well continues to satisfy the conditions imposed on essay economy the well by § § 78.102 and proof reading, 78.103 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status; and annual monitoring of inactive wells). The provisions of this § 78.104 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at essay economy serial page (138854).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.105 (relating to revocation of inactive status). § 78.105. Revocation of inactive status. The Department may revoke inactive status and may order the immediate plugging of biography for 2nd grade, a well if one of the following applies: (1) The well is in violation of the act or regulations administered by the Department. (2) The operator of the economy inactive well has become insolvent, to the extent that the plan provided under § 78.102 (relating to criteria for approval of inactive status) is no longer viable to essays on patient return the essay and political economy well to active status, or the operator otherwise demonstrates a lack of cards in research, ability or intention to comply with applicable laws and regulations. (3) The condition of the well no longer satisfies the requirements of section 204 of the act (58 P. Essay And Political! S. Biography Report Grade! § 601.204) and § § 78.102#151;78.104 (relating to criteria for and political economy, approval of inactive status; annual monitoring of inactive wells; and term of biography report for 2nd grade, inactive status).

(4) The owner or operator is essay economy unwilling or unable to perform his obligations under the assignment act. The provisions of this § 78.105 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Essay Economy! 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at biography book report grade serial page (138854).

This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.101 (relating to general provisions). (a) The owner or operator may not abandon a radioactive source licensed by the Commonwealth for logging purposes without consent of the Department. Approval of a plan of abandonment may be arranged with the Department by telephone and is to be followed by economy a written report to the Department within 30 days after abandonment of the radioactive source. The plan shall be approved by the Department. (b) The operator shall notify the Department of his intention to leave a radioactive source in a well. (c) The operator shall mechanically equip a well in which a radioactive source is abandoned to prevent the accidental or intentional mechanical disintegration of the essays autonomy radioactive source. (1) The operator shall cover the essay and political radioactive source being abandoned in the bottom of a well with a substantial standard color-dyed cement plug on top of total quality management assignment, which a mechanical stop or deflector shall be set.

The dye shall contrast with the color of the economy formation to alert a re-entry operator prior to encountering the source. (2) In a well where a logging source has been cemented in place behind a casing string and above total depth, upon on patient autonomy plugging the well, a color-dyed cement plug shall be placed opposite the abandoned source inside the well bore and a mechanical stop or deflector shall be placed on top of the plug. (3) If, after expending a reasonable effort, the operator cannot comply with paragraph (1) or (2) because of hole conditions, the operator shall request Department approval to cease efforts to comply with paragraph (1) or (2) and shall obtain approval for an alternate method for and political economy, abandoning the source and plugging the well. (d) Upon plugging a well in which a radioactive source is left in the hole, the operator shall place a permanent plaque by thesis thanks welding or bolting or cementing it to essay and political the top of the bore hole in taking cards paper a manner approved by the Department that re-entry cannot be accomplished without disturbing the plaque. The plaque shall serve as a visual warning to a person re-entering the hole that a radioactive source has been abandoned in-place in the well. The plaque shall depict the trefoil radiation symbol with the essay and political economy words #145;#145;Caution, Radioactive Material#146;#146; under § 219.41 (relating to radiation symbol) and thesis thanks, shall be constructed of and political economy, a long-lasting material such as monel, stainless steel, bronze or brass. The marker shall bear the following information: (2) Permit number. (3) Name and address of thesis thanks, operator. (4) The type and strength of radioactive material abandoned in the well.

(5) The total well depth. (6) Depth at which the source was abandoned. (7) A warning not to drill below the plug-back depth or to enlarge the casing. (e) Prior to workover or re-entry activity, if a radioactive source is present, the economy operator shall have the plan of operation approved by the Department before the workover or re-entry is permitted. (f) This section does not relieve the licensee, owner or operator from the obligation to comply with Federal regulations and quality management assignment, this title, including Chapters 225 and 226 (relating to radiation safety requirements for industrial radiographic operations; and licenses and radiation safety requirements for well logging). The provisions of essay economy, this § 78.111 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.91 (relating to general provisions); and 25 Pa. Code § 226.3a (relating to abandonment of a sealed source). 78.122. Well record and completion report. 78.123. Logs and quality management assignment, additional data.

78.124. Certificate of plugging. 78.125. And Political! Disposal and enhanced recovery well reports. (a) The well operator shall submit an annual production and status report for each permitted or registered well on an individual basis, on or before February 15 of reading, each year. And Political! When the production data is on patient not available to the operator on a well basis, the operator shall report production on the most well-specific basis available. And Political! The annual production report must include information on the amount and thesis thanks, type of waste produced and the method of waste disposal or reuse.

Waste information submitted to the Department in accordance with this subsection is deemed to satisfy the residual waste biennial reporting requirements of essay and political, § 287.52 (relating to biennial report). (b) The production report shall be submitted electronically to the Department through its web site. The provisions of this § 78a.121 amended under 58 Pa.C.S. § § 3202, 3215(e), 3218(a), 3218.2(a)(4), 3218.4(c) and essays, 3274; section 5 of The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § 691.5); section 105 of the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. § 6018.105); section 5 of the Dam Safety and essay, Encroachments Act (32 P.S. Expressions To Write Essay! § 693.5); section 104 of the Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation Standards Act (35 P.S. § 6026.104); sections 301 and essay and political economy, 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P.S. § § 7110.301 and 7110.302); section 3 of the Unconventional Well Report Act (58 P.S. § 1003); section 13.2 of the act of July 10, 2014 (P.L. 1053, No. 126) adding section 1741.1-E of The Fiscal Code (72 P.S. § 1741.1-E); and biography book report grade, sections 1917-A and 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. Essay And Political! § § 510-17 and 510-20). The provisions of grade, this § 78.121 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Essay Economy! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Book Report! 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B.

805; amended October 7, 2016, effective October 8, 2016, 46 Pa.B. 6431. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (377631). This section cited in 7 Pa. Code § 137b.73a (relating to gas, oil and coal bed methane). § 78.122. Well record and essay and political, completion report.

(a) For each well that is drilled or altered, the operator shall keep a detailed drillers log at total the well site available for inspection until drilling is completed. Within 30 calendar days of cessation of drilling or altering a well, the well operator shall submit a well record to the Department on a form provided by essay and political economy the Department that includes the following information: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the reading permittee. (2) Permit number, and farm name and number. (3) Township and county. (4) Date drilling started and essay economy, completed. (5) Method of drilling. (6) Size and depth of conductor pipe, surface casing, coal protective casing, intermediate casing, production casing and borehole. (7) Type and amount of cement and results of cementing procedures. (8) Elevation and total depth.

(9) Drillers log that includes the note name and depth of formations from the surface to total depth, depth of oil and gas producing zone, depth of fresh water and essay and political, brines and source of information. (10) Certification by the operator that the well has been constructed in accordance with this chapter and any permit conditions imposed by the Department. (11) Other information required by the Department. (b) Within 30 calendar days after completion of the thesis thanks well, the well operator shall submit a completion report to the Department on a form provided by the Department that includes the following information: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the permittee. (2) Name, address and telephone number of the essay and political economy service companies.

(3) Permit number and essay, farm name and number. (4) Township and county. (5) Perforation record. (6) Stimulation record which includes the following: (i) A descriptive list of the chemical additives in and political economy the stimulation fluid, including any acid, biocide, breaker, brine, corrosion inhibitor, crosslinker, demulsifier, friction reducer, gel, iron control, oxygen scavenger, pH adjusting agent, proppant, scale inhibitor and surfactant. (ii) The percent by thesis proof reading volume of each chemical additive in the stimulation fluid. (iii) A list of the chemicals in the Material Safety Data Sheets, by name and chemical abstract service number, corresponding to the appropriate chemical additive. (iv) The percent by volume of each chemical listed in the Material Safety Data Sheets. (v) The total volume of the base fluid. (vi) A list of essay and political, water sources used under an approved water management plan and the volume of water used from each source.

(vii) The total volume of recycled water used. (viii) The pump rate and note taking cards in research, pressure used in the well. (7) Actual open flow production and shut in surface pressure. (8) Open flow production and essay economy, shut in surface pressure, measured 24 hours after completion. (c) When the well operator submits a stimulation record, it may designate specific portions of the stimulation record as containing a trade secret or confidential proprietary information. The Department will prevent disclosure of the designated confidential information to the extent permitted under the Right-to-Know Law (65 P.S. Biography Book Grade! § § 67.101#151;67.3103). (d) In addition to and political submitting a stimulation record to the Department under subsection (b), and subject to thesis thanks the protections afforded for essay, trade secrets and confidential proprietary information under the Right-to-Know Law, the operator shall arrange to provide a list of the chemical constituents of the chemical additives used to hydraulically fracture a well, by chemical name and abstract service number, unless the note in research additive does not have an abstract service number, to the Department upon written request by essay and political the Department. The provisions of this § 78.122 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended February 4, 2011, effective February 5, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 805. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (304395) to (304396). (a) If requested by the Department within 90 calendar days after the completion of drilling or recompletion of a well, the well operator shall submit to the Department a copy of the electrical, radioactive or other standard industry logs run on the well. In addition, if requested by thesis thanks the Department within 1 year of the essay economy completion of note taking in research paper, drilling or recompletion of a well, the and political well operator shall file with the thesis thanks Department a copy of the drill stem test charts, formation water analysis, porosity, permeability or fluid saturation measurements, core analysis and lithologic log or sample description or other similar data as compiled. No information will be required unless the economy operator has had the information described in essays autonomy this subsection compiled in the ordinary course of and political, business.

No interpretation of the thesis data is to be filed. (b) Upon notification by the Department prior to drilling, the well operator shall collect additional data specified by the Department, such as representative drill cuttings and samples from economy cores taken, and essays on patient, other geological information that the operator can reasonably compile. (c) The information requested by the Department under subsections (a) and (b) shall be provided to the Department by the operator, within 3 years after completion of the well unless the Department has granted an extension or unless the Department has requested information as described in subsection (d). If the Department has granted an essay and political extension, the information shall be submitted in accordance with the extension, but in no case may the extension exceed 5 years from the thesis proof reading date of completion of the well. (d) In accordance with the request of the Department, the operator shall submit the information described in essay this section for use in investigation or enforcement proceedings, or in aggregate form for statistical purposes. The provisions of this § 78.123 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B.

1234. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (194014) to (194015). (a) Within 30 calendar days after the book report grade well has been plugged, the owner or operator of the well shall submit a certificate of plugging to the Department and each coal operator, lessee or owner who was sent notice by certified mail of the intent to plug the well. (b) The certificate of plugging shall be on a form provided by and political the Department and contain information required by thesis thanks the Department. (c) The certificate of economy, plugging shall be prepared and signed by two experienced and qualified people who participated in total management assignment the work, and shall also be signed by the well owner or operator.

The provisions of this § 78.124 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. § 78.125. Disposal and enhanced recovery well reports. (a) The operator of a disposal or enhanced recovery well shall submit to the Department, upon essay economy request, a copy of the annual monitoring report submitted to the EPA summarizing the results of the operator#146;s monitoring as required by 40 CFR Part 146 (relating to underground injection control program) when these reports are submitted to the EPA. This summary, at a minimum, shall include the following: (1) Monthly records of major changes in characteristics or sources of injected fluids. (2) Reports of volumes and pressures of essays autonomy, injection fluids.

(3) Reports of mechanical integrity testing. (4) Other information or reports required to be submitted to the EPA under 40 CFR Part 146. (b) The operator of a disposal or enhanced recovery well shall submit to essay and political economy the Department copies of periodic monitoring reports or reports of failures, releases, accidents or other incidents required to be submitted to the EPA under 40 CFR 146 when these reports are submitted to the EPA. (c) The operator of a disposal well or enhanced recovery well may submit monitoring reports to the Department on a field or project basis rather than on an individual well basis provided manifold monitoring is report for 2nd grade used. The provisions of and political, this § 78.125 adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 6, 1998, effective March 7, 1998, 28 Pa.B. Quality! 1234. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (194016). The provisions of these § § 78.141#151;78.146 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved January 27, 2006, effective January 28, 2006, 36 Pa.B.

465. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241942) to (241944) and (276341). Subchapter G. BONDING REQUIREMENTS. 78.302. Essay And Political! Requirement to file a bond. 78.303. Form, terms and conditions of the bond. 78.304.

Terms and conditions for surety bonds. 78.305. Terms and conditions for collateral bonds#151;general. 78.306. Collateral bonds#151;letters of credit. 78.307.

Collateral bonds#151;certificates of deposit. 78.308. Collateral bonds#151;negotiable bonds. 78.309. Phased deposit of collateral. 78.310. Replacement of existing bond. 78.311. Failure to maintain adequate bond.

78.313. Incapacity of operators. 78.314. Preservation of remedies. In addition to the requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215), this subchapter specifies certain requirements for surety bonds, collateral bonds, replacement of existing bonds, maintaining adequate bond and thesis reading, bond forfeiture. The provisions of this § 78.301 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229. For a well that has not been plugged, the owner or operator shall file a bond or otherwise comply with the bonding requirements of section 215 of the act (58 P. S. And Political Economy! § 601.215) and this chapter. A bond or bond substitute is not required for note in research, a well drilled before April 18, 1985. The provisions of essay and political, this § 78.302 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241946).

§ 78.303. Form, terms and conditions of the bond. (a) The following types of security are approvable: (1) A surety bond as provided in § 78.304 (relating to terms and conditions for surety bonds). (2) A collateral bond as provided in § § 78.305#151;78.308. For individuals who meet the requirements of section 215(d.1) of the act, a phased deposit of collateral bond as provided in § 78.309(b) (relating to phased deposit of collateral). (b) A person submitting a bond shall comply with the Department guidelines establishing minimum criteria for execution and completion of the biography book report bond forms and related documents. (c) A bond shall be conditioned upon compliance with the drilling, water supply replacement, restoration and plugging requirements in essay the act, this chapter and total, permit conditions relating thereto. The bonds are penal in and political nature and are designed to taking cards ensure compliance by the operator to protect the environment, public health and safety affected by the oil and gas well.

(d) The person named in the bond or other security shall be the and political economy same as the person named in the permit. (e) The bond amounts required under section 215 of the act are as follows: (1) Two thousand five hundred dollars for a single well. (2) Twenty-five thousand dollars for a blanket bond. The provisions of to write essay, this § 78.303 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. Essay Economy! 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B.

1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241946). § 78.304. Terms and conditions for surety bonds. (a) The bond of a surety company that has failed, refused or unduly delayed to pay, in full, on proof reading a forfeited surety bond is not approvable. (b) Only the bond of a surety authorized to do business in essay and political this Commonwealth is approvable. If the principal place of business of the surety is outside of proof reading, this Commonwealth, or if the surety is not a Pennsylvania corporation, the surety bond shall also be signed by an authorized resident agency of the surety that maintains an economy office in this Commonwealth. (c) The surety may cancel the bond by filing written notice of cancellation with the Department, the operator and the principal on the bond, only under the following conditions: (1) The notice of quality, cancellation shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested. Cancellation may not take effect until 120 days after receipt of the notice of cancellation by essay and political the Department, the operator and total quality management, the principal on the bond as evidenced by return receipts. (2) Within 30 days after receipt of a notice of and political economy, cancellation, the book grade operator shall provide the and political economy Department with a replacement bond under § 78.310 (relating to replacement of existing bond).

(d) The Department will not accept surety bonds from a surety company when the total bond liability to management the Department on essay and political the bonds filed by thesis thanks the operator, the principal and related parties exceeds the essay and political surety company#146;s single risk limit as provided by The Insurance Company Law of 1921 (40 P. S. § § 341#151;991). (e) The bond shall provide that the surety and the principal shall be jointly and severally liable for payment of the bond amount. (f) The bond shall provide that the amount shall be confessed to judgment and execution upon forfeiture. (g) The Department will retain, during the term of the bond, and upon forfeiture of the book grade bond, a property interest in the surety#146;s guarantee of payment under the bond which is not affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency or other financial incapacity of the economy operator or principal on the bond. (h) The surety shall give written notice to the Department, if permissible under law, to the principal and the Department within 10 days of a notice received or action filed by or with a regulatory agency or court having jurisdiction over the surety alleging one of the following: (1) The insolvency or bankruptcy of the surety.

(2) A violation of regulatory requirements applicable to the surety, when as a result of the violation, suspension or revocation of the useful essay surety#146;s license to do business in this Commonwealth or another state is under consideration by a regulatory agency. The provisions of this § 78.304 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.305. And Political! Terms and conditions for collateral bonds#151;general. (a) Collateral documents shall be executed by taking cards in research paper the owner or operator. (b) The market value of collateral deposited shall be at least equal to the required bond amount with the and political economy exception of United States Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds which shall have a maturity date of not more than 10 years after the thesis proof date of purchase and at maturity a value of at least $25,000. (c) Collateral shall be pledged and assigned to the Department free from claims or rights. The pledge or assignment shall vest in the Department a property interest in the collateral which shall remain until release as provided by law and and political economy, is not affected by the bankruptcy, insolvency or other financial incapacity of the operator.

(d) The Department#146;s ownership rights to cards in research deposited collateral shall be such that the collateral is readily available to the Department upon forfeiture. The Department may require proof of ownership, and other means, such as secondary agreements, as it deems necessary to essay and political meet the requirements of this subchapter. If the Department determines that deposited collateral does not meet the requirements of this subchapter, it may take action under the law to protect its interest in the collateral. The provisions of this § 78.305 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138865). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.306. Collateral bonds#151;letters of credit. (a) Letters of credit submitted as collateral for collateral bonds shall be subject to report the following conditions: (1) The letter of credit shall be a standby or guarantee letter of essay and political economy, credit issued by thesis proof a Federally insured or equivalently protected financial institution, regulated and examined by the Commonwealth or a Federal agency and authorized to do business in this Commonwealth. (2) The letter of credit shall be irrevocable and shall be so designated. However, the Department may accept a letter of credit for essay and political, which a limited time period is stated if the following conditions are met and are stated in the letter: (i) The letter of credit is automatically renewable for additional time periods unless the financial institution gives at least 90 days prior written notice to both the Department and the operator of its intent to thesis thanks terminate the credit at and political the end of the current time period.

(ii) The Department has the right to draw upon the credit before the end of useful, its time period, if the operator fails to replace the letter of credit with other acceptable means of compliance with section 215 of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215) within 30 days of the financial institution#146;s notice to terminate the essay and political credit. (3) Letters of credit shall name the Department as the beneficiary and total assignment, be payable to the Department, upon demand, in part or in full, upon essay and political economy presentation of the Department#146;s drafts, at essay sight. The Department#146;s right to essay and political economy draw upon the letter of credit does not require documentary or other proof by thesis thanks the Department that the essay customer has violated the conditions of the bond, the permit or other requirements. (4) A letter of credit shall be subject to essays on patient 13 Pa.C.S. (relating to essay and political economy the Uniform Commercial Code) and the latest revision of Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits as published in the International Chamber of essays autonomy, Commerce Publication No. 400. (5) The Department will not accept a letter of credit from economy a financial institution which has failed, refused or unduly delayed to pay, in full, on a letter of credit or a certificate of deposit previously submitted as collateral to the Department. (6) The issuing financial institution shall waive rights of set-off or liens which it has or might have against the letter of credit. (b) If the Department collects any amount under the letter of credit due to thesis thanks failure of the operator to replace the essay economy letter of credit after demand by to write an argumentative essay the Department, the Department will hold the proceeds as cash collateral as provided by this subchapter. The operator may obtain the essay cash collateral after he has submitted and the Department has approved a bond or other means of on patient autonomy, compliance with section 215 of the act. The provisions of economy, this § 78.306 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B.

6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (138865) to (138866). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.307. Thesis Thanks! Collateral bonds#151;certificates of deposit. A certificate of deposit submitted as collateral for collateral bonds is and political subject to taking in research paper the following conditions: (1) The certificate of economy, deposit shall be made payable to the operator and taking cards, shall be assigned to the Department by and political the operator, in writing, as required by the Department and on forms provided by the Department. The assignment shall be recorded upon the books of the financial institution issuing the proof reading certificate. (2) The certificate of deposit shall be issued by a Federally-insured or equivalently protected financial institution which is authorized to do business in this Commonwealth. (3) The certificate of essay and political economy, deposit shall state that the financial institution issuing it waives rights of setoff or liens which it has or might have against the certificate. (4) The certificate of deposit shall be automatically renewable and fully assignable to total quality assignment the Department.

Certificates of deposit shall state on their face that they are automatically renewable. (5) The operator shall submit certificates of deposit in amounts which will allow the Department to liquidate those certificates prior to maturity, upon forfeiture, for the full amount of the bond without penalty to the Department. (6) The Department will not accept certificates of deposit from financial institutions which have failed, refused or unduly delayed to and political pay, in full, on certificates of deposit or letters of credit which have previously been submitted as collateral to the Department. (7) The operator is not entitled to interest accruing after forfeiture is declared by the Department, until the thesis thanks forfeiture declaration is ruled invalid by a court having jurisdiction over the Department, and essay and political economy, the ruling is final. The provisions of this § 78.307 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at total quality management serial pages (138866) to (138867). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to essay and political form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.308. Collateral bonds#151;negotiable bonds. Negotiable bonds submitted and pledged as collateral for collateral bonds under section 215(a)(3) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215(a)(3)) are subject to the following conditions: (1) The Department will use the current market value of governmental securities, other than United States Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds, for the purpose of establishing the value of the securities for bond deposit.

(2) The current market value shall be at least equal to the amount of the required bond. (3) The Department may periodically evaluate the securities and may require additional amounts if the thesis thanks current market value is insufficient to satisfy the bond amount requirements for the oil or gas well operations. (4) The operator may request and receive the essay interest accruing on governmental securities filed with the total quality assignment Department as the interest becomes due and payable. An operator will not receive interest accruing on governmental securities until the full amount of the bond has been accumulated. No interest may be paid for postforfeiture interest accruing during appeals and after resolution of the appeals, when the forfeiture is adjudicated, decided or settled in and political favor of the Commonwealth. The provisions of this § 78.308 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Expressions Essay! 6284.

Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (138867) to and political (138868). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the bond). § 78.309. Phased deposit of collateral. (1) Eligibility. An operator who had a phased deposit of collateral in effect as of November 26, 1997, may maintain that bond for taking in research, wells requiring bonding, for new well permits and for wells acquired by transfer. (i) An operator may not have more than 200 wells. (ii) Under the following schedule, an operator shall make a deposit with the Department of essay and political, approved collateral prior to the issuance of a permit for a well or the transfer of a permit for a well, and thesis thanks, shall make subsequent annual deposits and additional well payments. For the purpose of calculating the required deposit, all of the operator#146;s wells are included in the number of wells.

(iii) An operator shall make the essay phased deposits of collateral as required by the bond. (2) Termination of useful an argumentative, eligibility. Economy! An operator is no longer eligible to make phased deposits of collateral when one or more of the following occur: (i) The operator shall fully bond the quality management wells immediately, if an operator has more than 200 wells. (ii) If the operator misses a phased deposit of collateral payment, the essay and political economy operator shall do one of the following: (A) Immediately submit the appropriate bond amount in full. (B) Cease all operations and quality assignment, plug the wells covered by the bond in essay and political accordance with the plugging requirements of section 210 of the report for 2nd grade act (58 P. S. § 601.210). (i) An individual who seeks to satisfy the collateral bond requirements of the essay act by submitting phased deposit of collateral under section 215(d.1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215(d.1)), may not drill more than ten new wells per calendar year. A well in proof which the individual has a financial interest is to be considered one of the wells permitted under this section.

A partnership, association or corporation is not eligible for phased deposit of collateral under this subsection. (ii) The individual shall deposit with the Department $500 per essay and political well in assignment approved collateral prior to economy issuance of quality assignment, a new permit. (iii) The individual shall deposit 10#037; of the remaining amount of bond in approved collateral in each of the next 10 years. Essay And Political! Annual payments shall become due on the anniversary date of the issuance of the permit, unless otherwise established by the Department. Payments shall be accompanied by note taking cards in research paper appropriate bond documents required by and political the Department. (iv) The individual shall make the phased collateral payments as required by the bond. (2) Termination of eligibility. If the individual misses a phased deposit of biography book report, collateral payment, the individual will no longer be eligible to make phased deposits of collateral and essay and political economy, shall do one of the following: (i) Immediately submit the appropriate bond amount in for 2nd full.

(ii) Cease operations and plug the and political wells covered by the bond in accordance with the plugging requirements of section 210 of the act. (c) Interest earned. Interest earned by taking paper collateral on deposit by operators and individuals under this section shall be accumulated and become part of the bond amount until the and political economy operator completes deposit of the requisite bond amount in accordance with the note cards schedule of deposit. Interest earned by the collateral shall be retruned to the operator or the individual upon release of the bond. Essay! Interest may not be paid for biography book grade, postforfeiture interest accruing during appeals and after resolution of the appeals, when the essay and political forfeiture is thesis reading adjudicated, decided or settled in favor of the essay and political economy Commonwealth. The provisions of for 2nd, this § 78.309 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Essay Economy! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (241951) to (241953). This section cited in 25 Pa.

Code § 78.303 (relating to form, terms and conditions of the report for 2nd bond). § 78.310. Replacement of essay, existing bond. (a) An owner or operator may replace an existing surety or collateral bond with another surety or collateral bond that satisfies the requirements of this chapter, if the useful expressions essay liability which has accrued against the bond, the owner or operator who filed the first bond and the well operation is economy transferred to biography for 2nd grade the replacement bond. An owner or operator may not substitute a phased deposit of collateral bond under section 215(d) and essay and political, (d.1) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.215(d) and (d.1)) for a valid surety bond or collateral that has been filed and approved by the Department.

(b) The Department will not release existing bonds until the operator has submitted and the Department has approved acceptable replacement bonds. The provisions of this § 78.310 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284; amended March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Total Quality Management Assignment! Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (241953). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.304 (relating to terms and conditions for surety bonds). § 78.311. Failure to maintain adequate bond.

The permittee shall maintain a bond in an amount and with sufficient guarantee as provided by this chapter. Essay Economy! If a surety company that had provided surety bonds, or a financial institution that had provided certificates of deposit or letters of credit for an operator enters into useful an argumentative, bankruptcy or liquidation, has its license suspended or revoked or for another reason indicates an inability or unwillingness to provide an adequate financial guarantee of the obligations under the bond, the operator shall submit a bond within 45 days of notice from the Department. The provisions of this § 78.311 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; amended December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 6284. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (138869). (a) A collateral or surety bond may be forfeited when the Department determines that the operator fails or refuses to comply with the essay act, this title, an order of the on patient autonomy Department, or the terms or conditions of the permit relating to drilling, water supply replacement, plugging and site restoration.

(b) If forfeiture of the bond is required, the Department will: (1) Send written notification by and political mail to thesis thanks the permittee, and the surety, if any, of the Department#146;s intent to forfeit the bond and describe the grounds for forfeiture. The notification will also provide an opportunity to take remedial action or submit a schedule for taking remedial actions acceptable to the Department within 30 days of the notice of intent to forfeit, in lieu of collecting the bond. (2) If the permittee and surety, if any, fail either to take remedial action or to submit a plan acceptable to the Department within 30 days of the essay notice of the for 2nd intent to forfeit, the bond will be subject to forfeiture and collection up to the face amount thereof. The Department will issue a declaration to forfeit the and political bond. (3) The declaration to forfeit is an biography book for 2nd grade action which may be appealable to the Environmental Hearing Board under section 4 of the Environmental Hearing Board Act (35 P. S. § 7514).

The provisions of this § 78.312 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. An owner or operator shall notify the Department by certified mail within 10 calendar days after commencement of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under 11 U.S.C.A. § § 101#151;1330, known as the Federal Bankruptcy Act, naming the owner or operator as debtor. The provisions of this § 78.313 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. Remedies provided or authorized by law for and political economy, violation of statutes, including the act, the applicable environmental protection acts, this title, the terms and thesis thanks, conditions of and political economy, permits and orders of the Department, are expressly preserved. Nothing in this subchapter is an exclusive penalty or remedy for the violations. No action under this subchapter waives or impairs another remedy or penalty provided in law or equity. The provisions of this § 78.314 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. Subchapter H. UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE.

78.401. Storage well construction. 78.402. Useful Expressions To Write An Argumentative Essay! Inspections by essay the gas storage operator. 78.403. Gas storage well integrity testing. 78.404. Maximum storage pressure. 78.407. Plugging gas storage wells.

The provisions of this Subchapter H adopted December 16, 1994, effective December 17, 1994, 24 Pa.B. Useful To Write An Argumentative Essay! 6284, unless otherwise noted. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.88 (relating to mechanical integrity of operating wells). (a) In addition to the casing and cementing requirements of Subchapter D (relating to well drilling, operation and plugging), when constructing new gas storage wells the operator shall: (1) Cement the surface and economy, intermediate casings with sufficient cement to circulate cement to proof the surface or to equal at least 120#037; of the calculated volume to fill the annular space on the outside of the economy casing. (2) Cement the production casing with sufficient cement to fill the calculated annular space with cement to a point at least 500 feet above the casing shoe and at least 200 feet above the upper most perforations. (b) Gas storage wells being reconditioned shall meet the requirements of this section unless an alternate method of useful expressions an argumentative, casing and cementing has been approved by the Department under § 78.75 (relating to alternative methods). (c) The storage operator shall give the Department notice at least 15 days prior to reconditioning or altering a gas storage well and describe the procedure that the operator will use to essay and political economy recondition or alter the gas storage well.

If no objections are raised by expressions essay the Department within 10 days, the operator may proceed to recondition or alter the well as proposed. The operator shall submit an and political economy updated well record within 30 days of completing a reconditioning or alteration. This section cited in thesis thanks 25 Pa. Code § 78.405 (relating to emergency repairs). § 78.402. Inspections by the gas storage operator. (a) A gas storage operator shall inspect every storage well and observation well in the gas storage field at essay economy least once each month. Biography Book Report Grade! The results of the inspections shall be recorded and retained by the operator and shall be available for review by the Department and the coal owner or operator.

(b) Inspections at and political a minimum shall determine: (1) The well-head pressure or water level measurement, as appropriate. (2) The open flow on the annulus of the taking cards paper production casing or the annulus pressure if the essay annulus is shut in. (3) If there is essays evidence of gas escaping from a well using measurement or best estimate of essay, quantity. (4) If there is evidence of progressive corrosion, rusting or other signs of thesis, equipment deterioration. (c) Storage operators shall inspect the gas storage reservoir and storage protective area at least annually to discover if material changes have occurred that require an amendment or supplement of the map and data as required in section 301(a) and (b) of the act (58 P. S. § 601.301(a) and (b)). As part of that inspection, gas storage operators shall inspect known abandoned wells and plugged wells within the gas storage reservoir area and the gas storage protective area, subject to the right of entry, at the end of the economy injection season when the on patient storage pressure is at its highest.

The inspection record shall include observed evidence of gas leaking and other conditions that may be hazardous to and political the public or property. (d) Evidence of a new gas leak and leaks that exceed 5,000 cubic feet per in research day shall be reported to the Department within 24 hours. Following notification, the gas storage reservoir operator shall file a written report including corrective action taken, or planned, and a detailed explanation of the problem within 10 days. Subsequent reports describing additional corrective action and acquired data may be requested by economy the Department. This section cited in 25 Pa. An Argumentative! Code § 78.403 (relating to gas storage well integrity testing); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.406 (relating to recordkeeping).

§ 78.403. Gas storage well integrity testing. (a) A gas storage reservoir operator shall develop an integrity monitoring and integrity testing program for each gas storage field. (b) A gas storage reservoir operator shall test the integrity of each gas storage well at least once every 5 years. By June 15, 1995, each gas storage operator shall submit, for Department approval, an integrity testing plan for each gas storage field. (c) The testing program may consist of geophysical well logging, pressure testing or other procedures approved by the Department.

The testing program shall indicate a well#146;s integrity, whether there has been gas loss in quantities in excess of those amounts in § 78.402(d) (relating to inspections by the gas storage operator), and whether there is a well condition that requires reconditioning, plugging or other remedial action. (d) Gas storage field monitoring may consist of annular and tubing pressure monitoring, reservoir engineering evaluation in the form of pressure/volume inventory studies, gauge calibration programs, wellsite inspection programs, casing inspection programs, pressure and flow testing programs, internal and external inventory auditing programs or a combination of monitoring procedures approved by the Department that verify the gas storage reservoir#146;s integrity. (e) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain the essay information gathered in subsections (a)#151;(d) and shall make the information available to the Department for useful expressions to write essay, 15 years. (f) For an and political observation well for which a gas storage operator does not retain monitoring data, the gas storage operator shall plug the well or apply for inactive status. (g) The Department may require the operator to perform additional tests it deems necessary after a conference is essays autonomy held under section 501 of the act (58 P. Essay And Political! S. § 601.501). This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.406 (relating to biography report recordkeeping). A gas storage reservoir operator, who has not requested approval of a maximum storage pressure for a gas storage reservoir, shall request, by February 15, 1995, Department approval of a maximum gas storage reservoir pressure in accordance with the following: (1) The maximum shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) may not exceed the highest shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) found to exist during the production history of the reservoir, unless a higher pressure is established through testing of economy, caprock and pool containment. The methods used for determining the higher pressure shall be determined in proof conference with the Department in accordance with section 501 of the act.

(2) If the original discovery shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) is not known, or the highest production shut-in wellhead pressure (psig) is not known, or a higher pressure has not been established through a method as approved by the Department as established in essay economy paragraph (1), the maximum storage reservoir pressure shall be limited to a freshwater hydrostatic gradient. When emergency repairs are necessary, prior notification under § 78.401(c) (relating to storage well construction) is proof not required. Essay And Political! The operator shall give notice to management the Department within 24 hours of the repairs. Within 5 days of the and political emergency, the operator shall submit a written explanation of the on patient emergency and economy, the corrective action taken, or planned. Thesis Reading! If corrective action requires a permit, an application shall be filed within 10 days.

(a) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain records for each gas storage well and shall make these records available to the Department. These records shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Well inspection results and pressure data for the preceding 7 years. (2) Integrity testing data for each gas storage well required by § 78.403 (relating to gas storage well integrity testing) for at least 15 years. (b) The gas storage reservoir operator shall retain data for at economy least 7 years gathered during inspections of abandoned wells and plugged wells as required by § 78.402 (relating to inspections by the gas storage operator) and expressions, shall make these records available to the Department. In addition to complying with the and political plugging requirements in § § 78.91#151;78.98 (relating to proof reading plugging), the gas storage reservoir operator shall: (1) Notify the Department of an intent to plug a gas storage well at economy least 15 days before beginning to plug the to write an argumentative well. This notice shall describe the intended plugging procedure. (2) Clean out the portions of the well that penetrate the storage horizon.

(3) Set cement across the and political economy perforations in a manner that prevents the migration of report for 2nd grade, gas or other fluids within or outside of the well. (4) For an and political economy open hole, set a bridge plug immediately above the storage horizon followed by a 500 foot cement plug, or use another method approved by the Department. Subchapter X. STATEMENTS OF POLICY. INSPECTION POLICY REGARDING OIL AND GAS. 78.903. Frequency of inspections. 78.904. To Write! Manner of essay and political economy, inspection.

INSPECTION POLICY REGARDING OIL AND GAS. The provisions of this § 78.901 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. Total Quality Management Assignment! 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at essay and political serial page (241959). (a) This statement of policy sets forth the policy of the Department in regard to quality assignment inspections of oil and economy, gas well locations, sites, property, facilities, operations or activities governed by management assignment the act, the and political Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act (58 P. S. § § 501#151;518) or the Oil and Gas Conservation Law (58 P. Report For 2nd! S. § § 401#151;419). Essay And Political Economy! This policy does not create a duty or obligation upon the Department to taking in research paper conduct a minimum or maximum number of inspections per essay year or during a certain period of time. (b) Inspections are conducted to administer, implement, enforce and determine compliance with the biography book report for 2nd grade statutes set forth in subsection (a) and essay economy, with Article XIX-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. § § 510-1#151;510-108), The Clean Streams Law (35 P.S. § § 691.1#151;691.1001) and the Solid Waste Management Act (35 P.S. Note Taking! § § 6018.101#151;6018.1003) and other statutes administered by the Department that apply to activities associated with gas and and political, oil operations.

The provisions of useful an argumentative essay, this § 78.902 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. This section cited in 25 Pa. Code § 78.903 (relating to essay economy frequency of inspections); and 25 Pa. Code § 78.905 (relating to additional inspections). The Department, its employes and agents intend to conduct inspections at the following frequencies: (1) At least once prior to the issuance of a permit, if a waiver or exception is requested by the permit applicant.

(2) At least once in verifying or resolving objections or determining the Department#146;s response to objections, when objections are raised to a permit application. (3) At least once during each of the phases of siting, drilling, casing, cementing, completing, altering and stimulating a well. (4) At least once during, or within 3 months after, the time period in which the expressions to write an argumentative owner or operator is required to restore the and political site, after drilling the well. (5) At least once prior to the authorization to use an alternate method for plugging, casing or equipping the well. (6) At least once during the periods that an alternative method for plugging, casing or equipping the well is being used or installed. (7) At least once when a well is being reconditioned or repaired or when casing is being replaced. (8) At least once prior to a well being granted inactive status.

(9) At least once during the plugging of the well. (10) At least once during, or within 3 months after, the quality period in which the owner or operator is required to restore the economy site, after the well is plugged or abandoned. (11) At least once before the bond or other financial security is released. (12) At least once a year, if there is onsite brine disposal or residual waste disposal subject to the statutes referenced in § 78.902 (relating to policy). (13) At least twice a year if the well is located in a gas storage reservoir or in a gas storage reservoir protective area. (14) At least once a year to thesis proof determine whether compliance with the statutes administered by economy the Department has been achieved. (15) If there is thesis thanks a violation, at least once to and political determine whether the violation has been corrected, or whether there is a continuing violation. (16) At least once, in response to a complaint. The provisions of this § 78.903 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B.

3229; reserved March 30, 2001, effective March 31, 2001, 31 Pa.B. 1736. Immediately preceding text appears at an argumentative essay serial pages (241959) to (241960). The inspections described in this subchapter may be conducted separately, or in combination, whichever manner is deemed by the Department to permit maximum efficiency, accuracy and thoroughness in implementing the statutes administered by economy the Department. The provisions of this § 78.904 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. The Department, its employes and agents may conduct additional inspections, including follow-up inspections, inspections to observe a practice or condition related to the public health or safety and inspections to determine compliance with the statutes set forth in § 78.902 (relating to policy), with the laws administered by the Department, with the Department#146;s regulations, with the terms or conditions of a permit or with the useful expressions to write an argumentative requirements of an essay order. The provisions of this § 78.905 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. The provisions of thesis thanks, this statement of policy are subject to the availability of personnel and financial resources. Essay And Political! This statement of note taking paper, policy does not create a duty or obligation upon the Department to conduct a minimum or maximum number of inspections per year or during a certain period.

The provisions of this § 78.906 adopted July 28, 1989, effective July 29, 1989, 19 Pa.B. 3229. No part of the information on this site may be reproduced for profit or sold for essay and political, profit.

Expert Essay Writers -
Political Economy Essay | CustomWritings com Blog

Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the essay economy, results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is proof reading plenty to be said for and political, effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to autonomy, blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to essay and political, jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is useful to write stacked or filed online.

Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Essay? Download selected resumes on your desktop. No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and engaging in other overkill tactics. Biography Book? Excessive and irrelevant information only clutters the page and essay and political makes it more difficult to find the autonomy, skills and information for essay economy, which your prospective employer is taking in research searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought.

As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different. At the end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the skills, experience, and education of a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and and political pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume.

If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the proof, website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. And Political Economy? You may have to begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and upper management applicants from within. If this is the case, be extremely careful about divulging the extent of your education, experience, and salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’. Note Taking? However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is essay economy that at thesis thanks, some point you just have to economy, accept that options are limited and be willing to ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Note Cards? Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and economy increase your odds of recognition and promotion.

Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience. If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on thesis thanks, the first page and that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for essay and political, a number of years, try to list only the most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on useful expressions to write an argumentative, the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in essay economy, case the reviewer is thesis proof so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the and political economy, razzle and dazzle of the first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to thesis proof reading, demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to essay and political economy, know the capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to total quality management, sound professional, but it doesn’t have to essay and political economy, sound like it came out of the Oxford Dictionary.

Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the an argumentative, first page. Essay And Political Economy? Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history.

You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to thesis thanks, read and make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and essay and political make each section of your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of on patient information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and economy long term employment with a company in essays on patient, which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and essay and political centered. This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in thesis thanks, the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and essay economy your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page.

Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to thesis proof, avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in essay and political economy, between each section, increase the font size of your name.

If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and cards paper any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from essay economy other applicants if there is an expressions to write essay interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the essay and political, outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and to write an argumentative essay the basic sections you will need to and political, fill out per thesis thanks application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and essay once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for total management assignment, a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for essay economy, it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the proof, same name and changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’.

Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to essay and political, Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Useful Expressions Essay? Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of essay their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and biography for 2nd grade it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against and political a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps:

Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at note taking in research, a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the essay and political economy, guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Thesis Reading? Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume.

This is your one and only chance to economy, name drop, so take advantage of it. Biography Book Report For 2nd? Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the essay and political economy, one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to grade, your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the essay economy, schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken.

Determine which aspect of your education is total quality management most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Economy? Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to grade, keep the essay and political, entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to essay, reference your resume and essay any other included attachments. In addition, you need to essays on patient, politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to essay and political, an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check.

Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and thesis thanks ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is up to you! How to essay and political economy, prepare for a winning job interview.

In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the thesis thanks, buyer, in essay and political economy, this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to note cards, sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on essay economy, a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. You need to put yourself in thesis proof, a stronger position, instead of essay and political economy you trying to chasing the thesis proof, job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray.

If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about and political economy five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions.

It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. On Patient? The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over and political the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about thesis thanks how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for economy, free and total quality management then add your own spin.

Use the power of imagination to and political, stand out on patient autonomy, from the crowd, everybody else is going to essay and political, be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. Report Grade? If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in and political, the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in biography, your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at essay and political, your disposal without any guaranty.

The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.