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Bank Customer Service Representative Resume Samples. The best examples from thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by resume experts based on rigorous standards. Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Bank Customer Service Representatives, or Financial Service Representatives, consult with clients about banking, securities, insurance, and other related services.
Tasks listed on sample resumes of Bank Customer Service Representatives include determining customers' needs and short essays on school providing solutions with regards to their banking requirements, and educating customers on the bank's product options and essay technology issues. Bank Customer Service Representatives may be interested in obtaining certifications, though their presence is short essays on school, not necessary on resumes in order to be considered for the position. For more information on what it takes to be a Bank Customer Service Representative, check out our complete Bank Customer Service Representative Job Description. Bank Customer Service Representative. Answered inbound phone calls in a fast-paced work environment, providing timely and excellent customer service. Essays? Executed financial transactions according to bank policies and procedures Responded to customer inquiries, providing information on bank accounts, policies, products, and short services Assessed needs of customers, suggesting products and scorer services accordingly Researched and resolved service-related problems. Bank Customer Service Representative. Short Essays? Provided customer support for high-volume Bank department in (English/Spanish) Responded to online customer inquiries, complaints and comments on a daily basis, and determined corrective action for high-call volume department. Reviewed and verified transactions to essays on school ensure proper processing according to established quality standards. Processed transactions, including money transfer, deposits and withdrawals and, data entry to pearson online scorer update client files. Ensured departmental compliance with company and essays regulatory agency records management and retention policies and procedures, achieving 100% compliance on 3 annual audits.
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Assisted State Farm agents and short essays on school staff with loan and of child development essay deposit applications, and answered general questions about short on school all services and banking products. Served as first point of contact and pearson technical resource for all customer inquiries and issues. Managed customer profiles, opened new bank deposit accounts, and essays on school processed deposits and loan products submitted via telephone, mail, and internet. Described promotional offers and online student used persuasive sales techniques to upsell services and/or convince clients to essays on school apply for additional banking services. Writing Jobs? Participated in the program State Farm Un Buen Vecino to inform the Spanish speaking community about scholarships and citizenship programs. Processed requests for information and forwarded prospective clients to agents. Ensured adequacy and essays adequacy of all reports that were subject to local, state, and federal agency review.
Maintained privacy and confidentiality of all sensitive and personally identifying information, as governed by Privacy Act and answers problems Freedom of Information Act. Bank Customer Service Representative. Handle customer accounts and resolve complaints; evaluate customer needs and recommend the most appropriate products and services over the phone. Extensive organization to facilitate many job duties with tight deadlines Maintain high volume of quality work, while insuring highest confidentiality Exercise judgment when dispensing information to maintain confidentiality of sensitive information Communicate effectively with customers, managers, and co-workers through a variety of channels including email, phone, traditional mail, and through the short essays use of various office machines Daily use of Microsoft Office: Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook. Newspaper? Bank Customer Service Representative. Process all banking related transactions in an efficient, timely and accurate manner.
Proficiently answer customer inquiries regarding their accounts. Short On School? Perform cash and check balancing by ensuring all the daily and monthly cash counts are accurate. Review all the ATM balances Ensure that all customer needs are met and handle appropriately during their initial contact. Maintain customers' accounts (including lost/stolen checks, check cards, stop payment etc.) Review customers' accounts for transactions accuracy. Provide outstanding assistance to customers with all their banking transactions and services. Bank Customer Service Representative. Duties included basic teller transactions and cash handling for individual and business accounts.
Maintained customer confidentiality, privacy and security Quickly and effectively solved customer challenges Customer service/ relations regarding customer accounts and daily needs. Bank Customer Service Representative. Assist customer with routine account-related request. Cross-sell bank products and services based on customer needs, in accordance with the bank's program standards Process necessary paperwork to rebate customer service charges Balance customer checkbooks Maintained office organized and movie ratings sanitized Distributed incoming mail and short essays on school processed outgoing mail. Bank Customer Service Representative. Service customer enquiries, determine customer needs and provide solutions with regards to their banking requirements. Educate customers on ratings site, product options and technology issues Manage customer and bank privacy Manage and pass on customer feedback Effectively use a variety of computer programs to short access customer details and databases, and pearson online essay scorer research options Cross sell bank products Continual awareness of compliance requirements. Bank Customer Service Representative. Responsibilities include answering phones to respond to general inquires referring to customers account.
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Why I Like My School - Your Home Teacher
landfall essay Airini Beautrais won the 2016 Landfall Essay Competition for this essay exploring the way names reveal our identity, histories, and sometimes our ignorance. My children’s father was the first person I ever dated. By this I mean that until we met, I had done what I presume most of my peers did: got drunk or stoned and got into short, bed. I had never gone to newspaper jobs a movie beforehand, or planned a picnic, or gone out for essays coffee. Newspaper. There was something antique about sitting there in on school the pub in movie the five o’clock sunlight, potted palms drooping around us, plastic jug being evenly poured into on school, two smeary glasses.
This person wanted us to get to know each other. It was quiet in there. It had the feeling of an empty theatre. In the daylight the newspaper jobs red velvet drapes looked dusty and sad. The wooden floors looked like well-trodden wooden floors. Things would transform into other things when night fell. At the time, that particular pub was where the hipsters went, and after the hipsters the sort-of-hipsters, and on school after a certain hour the generic, severely drunk drunks who went wherever they saw crowds. You’d get sticky legs from the observation of child development essay constant slosh of essays, beer; there’d be unsolicited frotting. The owner had the unfortunate task of stopping the band at midnight so the neighbours, who’d bought apartments in the middle of the city’s small zone of nightlife, would not force the pub to close permanently. He’d stand on stage reasoning into newspaper writing jobs, the microphone while intoxicated groupies yelled, ‘Play another one!’, oblivious to his pleas. The final closure was effected a few years later.
I did not particularly want to short essays get to know anyone at the time. I had come out of a badly executed relationship, and wanted a lover, or several, who would hardly talk to me. Not On. I didn’t feel ready to short essays meet my children’s father. We made small talk. He told me about the autobahns back home. ‘Sometimes when my brother is driving I look over and see he’s going at 200ks.
But you don’t notice it, it just feels normal.’ And then I thought it would be proper to find out, like I hadn’t, always. ‘What’s your last name?’ I asked him. Observation Of Child Essay. He smiled at essays me, said, ‘Wait for it ’ drummed on the table, clicked his fingers, pointed into the air and turnitin.com announced, ‘Grübsch!’ That was the difficult question. When a letter arrives for Mr Grubsch, I am disheartened. Something is on school missing; something small but vital. A grub is a juvenile insect. Or a filthy person. When my partner was doing relief teaching he used to tell the kids his name was Mr Norman, because it was easier. When he relieved for a German teacher, he allowed himself to be Mr Grübsch. ‘Sir,’ a boy asked him once, ‘why do you have a smiley face in your name?’ Ü.
When you handwrite it on a whiteboard, it’s two dots for eyes and a quick bendy mouth. It makes a sound like the ‘oo’ in ‘food’. Take away the dots and it sounds like the ‘u’ in ‘pudding’. But the essays turnitin.com ‘u’ in pudding isn’t the same as the ‘u’ in ‘grubs’. Food. Pudding. Grubs. If I were Norman I’d wish for a dollar for every time I’d been Grubs. Bird, person, work, lurk: same vowel sounds, different vowels.
The English language has some weird mongrel vowels, and that’s fascinating, like a tapestry, or a painting with many layers of short on school, paint. Bird, person, work, lurk: same vowel sounds, different vowels. Deutsch doesn’t do this. As much of a pain in observation of child the arse as it is essays learning German, as much as genitives and datives and gendered nouns can tie a native English speaker’s brain into knots, at iconoclasm least the language is phonetic. Learn the sounds the letters make and you’ll be able to read a word and pronounce it correctly. Essays On School. One of our German lecturer friends told me the hardest word for scorer a learner to essays on school master is ‘Eichhörnchen’. Eiche : an to all problems oak tree. Short Essays On School. Eichhörnchen : a squirrel. An Eichel is an acorn, or the head of a penis. This quietly alters the experience of walking in parks in the autumn.
It was a man named Griebsch who suggested to Norman what his name might mean. He lived on the floor below; the names sat on nearby intercom buttons. A Grübsch is probably the same thing as a Griebsch : the core of a fruit. Gräbsch is another variant. Apfelgriebsch . My children are not grubs. They are the core of an apple. Like Johnny Appleseed, blessed by problems, nomenclature with some divine botanical purpose. Griebsch, Gräbsch, Grübsch: all these are regional names. Short. It’s hard to know where Herr Müller might be from.
But Herr Grübsch will, at of child development essay least at some point, have ties to a small triangle of villages just north of the city of Leipzig. Short Essays. Oma and Opa Grübsch live in a house built by a Grübsch and inhabited by Grübsches for iconoclasm essay five or six generations. When you walk down to the local Konsum you might see a Grübsch cycling past. A distant cousin who barely recognises you. You’ll pass a number of Grübsch letterboxes. Some you’ll know, some you won’t.
Drive for half an hour and you won’t find any. The answer to my question, in the dusty red velvet evening in the pub, was that there are two spellings. One is that you put an short on school umlautthose two little dots over the u. The other is that you write an e after the u. So ü and ue are phonetically the same, while ü and u are not. Food, food. Food, pudding. Observation Development. An umlaut is written the same as a diaeresis, but doesn’t have the same effect. Short On School. Similar diacritical marks are found in iconoclasm essay a range of languages, with a range of short on school, different purposes. ‘Umlaut’ is the movie name for the symbol as used in Germanic languages, where it indicates that a vowel sounds as though it is followed by an e. Perhaps it originated in Middle High German at a time when writing the letter e felt like too much of an effort. Fortunately for this barely lubricated conversation, I knew what an umlaut was. This is short essays on school because one generation back, there’s one in my family.
This umlaut arrived in New Zealand on a boat in around 1900, worked in problems quarries, had a daughter (whose married name, appropriately, is on school Stoney) and four sons. Like Norman’s surname, it’s regional. In the essays not on Swiss village of Küssnacht you can walk past any number of doors labelled ‘Gössi’. In the local town hall there are family records dating back to the sixteenth century. Essays On School. These are meticulously kept: in the 1980s the authorities were disgruntled with my mother for not writing and notifying them that she’d got married and had three children. Typing the ö is a nuisance. Observation Of Child Essay. Was this even possible on a typewriter? Perhaps, unconsciously, it was this sort of common ground: the sharing of a diacritic, like finding you’ve been told the same folktales, that helped Norman and short on school me connect with each other. Perhaps it was similar when my parents met, and without even discussing it fell into some kind of ratings, groove cut by the shared pain of being constantly, sometimes wilfully, mispronounced.
Gössi, like Grübsch, loses its diacritic in an Anglo spelling environment. Typing the ö is short essays a nuisance. Was this even possible on answers to all problems a typewriter? So the little e which in the olden days had been written above the a, o or u, and which morphed over time into the two dots, was re-inserted. Goessi. ‘Goosey! Go-Easy Rider!’ the kids at school used to essays on school taunt my mum and her sisters, over and over. By the time she married my dad, Mum hated her name so much she would have changed it to just about anything. Development Essay. Beautrais was acceptable, despite being similarly ‘foreign’. All the things we’ve been called over essays on school, the years, all the names on envelopes: Beauchamp, Beetroot, Beatriceeven, once, Beautyanuswhat the fuck did it matter? She was no longer Easy Rider, or a goose. What is different for a person in newspaper jobs an Anglo-dominated culture with a non-Anglo name?
What makes it different for children growing up? You look different, I’ve been told. You sound different. Where are you from? How long has your family lived here? Do you speak French?
Your ancestors must have settled in Akaroa? Do I? Do I? I was born in Auckland. On School. Between four and six generations. No, I never learned. No, my French ancestor came by himself and went to Taumarunui. ‘You had better ring the schools when you apply for jobs,’ said my teachers’ college lecturer, ‘so they know you can speak English.’ As a Pakeha, though, I can still slip quietly into the coat pockets of essays not on turnitin.com, white privilege. I do not have to deal with the everyday systematic racism that a non-white New Zealander faces. It’s only a name, after all.
But my experience, my family’s experience, my partner’s experience with names is like a little hole in short the seam of that coat pocket, shedding a small light on the fabric of cultural superiority. A kiwi is writing a bird, or a hairy fruit, or a person who identifies as a New Zealander. In the latter instance, that is the surface meaning. On another level, a Kiwi is a white New Zealander of British extraction. This was the silent suggestion in Don Brash’s election campaign billboards, half blue half red, labelled Iwi/Kiwi. This was implied in on school Paul Henry’s buffoonish jokes about Anand Satyanand.
In every comment about what is or isn’t Kiwi. There are degrees of Kiwi. Some of us are more Kiwi than others. Never mind the goddamn bird being just about extinct. Or the Psa bacterium.
The T-sauce, the pav, the iconoclasm essay black singlet, the jandals, the short All Blacks, the hokey pokey, the red and black Swanndri, the quarter-acre section. Does this apply to anyone? That’s what ‘Kiwi’ means to mean odd kind of half-arsed point-missing fairytale. What does it all add up to? To me it’s like a weird imperative to throw oneself in that problematic melting pot, the moulding of a shape into which people can be pressed and tested, and fit or not. You are welcome.
You aren’t. The poll tax. To All. The dawn raids. Our pathetic refugee quota. There’s a series of short on school, kids’ books currently in production called Kiwi Corkers, full of faltering anapaestic lines, improbable dated slang, fudged rhymes, mangled reo. The Gebrüder Grimm meets Footrot Flats, no irony intended. Cinderella marries a footy player. Observation Development Essay. The little red hen is a little blue duck. She milks cows by hand and short essays owns an Edmonds cookbook. Observation Essay. That’s what ‘Kiwi’ means to mean odd kind of half-arsed point-missing fairytale.
One that’s increasingly difficult to short essays on school maintain as populations become more urbanised and more multicultural, but don’t we ever keep trying. The first Gössi generation born in New Zealand were born in essay the 1930s. They became young adults in short essays a time when anything Germanic was suspicious. German biscuits became Belgian biscuits, German shepherds Alsatians. Movie Site. There’s an old piano at my son’s Playcentre, walnut veneer, with a brass inlay reading ‘Made in’ and short essays on school then a scratched-out shape that starts with a ‘G’ and ends with a ‘y’. There are photographs in our local museum of newspaper writing jobs, bricks through butcher shop windows.
The longstanding mis-association of a regime with a people. Mr Norman, when his carefully practised accent cracked, when his country of origin was made known, was enthusiastically greeted with the Nazi salute. Essays On School. His Aussie friend listed him in his mobile contacts as ‘Hit’. Observation Development. When my grandfather started school in short on school 1937, his English wasn’t fluent. Writing Jobs. By the time he left school he’d lost Schweizer-Deutsch. His parents spoke it to each other, and a mixture to their children, but somehow the children lost their grip on it, or it lost its grip on them. When we sift through old family letters, Norman has to translate. He gets excited and short essays on school races ahead of movie site, us, photographs everything with his phone. What is he tapping into? What is he preserving?
One of my granddad’s brothers trimmed his name, changing it by deedpoll to the more palatable Goss. Short Essays On School. No dots. No ‘e’. No diminutive ‘i’ as in Müsli, Röteli, Käselädeli. Writing Jobs. Another brother just rolled with the pronunciation his friends and short on school acquaintances gave him, Gossey. ‘Who the fuck is movie site Daniel Goessi?’ his son Darryl was heard to exclaim, when by some unlikely chance a caller hit upon the original vowel sound. It’s a little like the on school men named Rangi who ended up rhyming with ‘tangy’.
Remove a person from family and culture, take down the struts of a languageby a Native Schools Act, by garden-variety xenophobia, by sheer inconvenienceand a name is answers to all math problems quickly unsettled. Sometimes it’s better just to go by an initial. Hans eked out a living in Helensville growing carnations and flicking on the odd bottle of contraband moonshine. But you can get a name back. Sometimes this means going home. Sometimes this means going to the other side of the short essays on school world. My Aunt Jane waitressed in a small ski town in Switzerland. After years abroad she came back via Europe and Asia by motorbike, with a Swiss man named Hans. And an umlaut. Jane Gössi.
Hans got dropped fairly quickly. The umlaut persisted, two black jewels in a little floating crown. Hans eked out a living in Helensville growing carnations and flicking on the odd bottle of movie site, contraband moonshine. He and Jane distilled a few batches together. ‘Jane make good Schnapps,’ Hans told me and Norman, as we sat at his kitchen table in short on school Chur, many years later, sampling his friends’ Pflümli and ratings Kirschwasser. It seemed like months, years, followed the evening in the hipster pub, where we would find ourselves shifting from table to short on school table, raising our glasses. Sampling the regional spirits of the Western world. About three years on from that early pub date we found ourselves with a fat, spirited baby, going through the pearson essay scorer ropes of getting him two passports. If the umlaut had been fascinating to me before, it now became something of a furious obsession. The difficulty in keeping an umlaut is essays a symptom of the difficulty in keeping a language. Besides Schweizer-Deutsch, my ancestors lost two further languages in New Zealand: French and Gaelic. What do we have left of those languages?
A surname. A gravestone. A one franc piece. Two recipes for biscuits, a recipe for rösti. (Without the umlaut, they’re ‘roasty’.) A small museum. Some dubious tartans. Is that really all?
Where did the to all math problems rest go? Time after time, Norman would have the same conversation with my grandfather. You spoke German as a child? So why can’t you speak it now? In the womb the essays children heard me calling biological facts across a lino’d lab. Out of it, they heard my half-remembered lullabies, my English baby nonsense. Before our children were born we were so sure times had changed. Answers To All Problems. Before our children were born we were sure they’d be one hundred per cent bilingual.
We hadn’t taken into account the hidden weight, in a family where a mother is the primary parent, of the term ‘mother-tongue’. Short Essays On School. In the womb the children heard me calling biological facts across a lino’d lab. Pearson Scorer Student. Out of short essays on school, it, they heard my half-remembered lullabies, my English baby nonsense. German came home from work in the evening, sometimes not until very late. It was a paternal T-shirt tucked into a bassinet, a wide rising chest to observation development fall asleep against in the wee small hours. German was on Skype, on a plane ride, on holiday.
It told them to stand up, to put on short their jackets, to brush their teeth. Nowadays they speak to their father in a mongrel mixture. Sometimes this is funny. Essay. Sometimes it’s infuriating. They’ll pick it up quickly if they ever live there, we tell each other. Sometimes it feels like standing next to short essays a swimming pool pipetting in a tiny drop of something other than water. A drop of Pflümli. What are the essay chances? The New Zealand passport office did not appear keen for anyone to leave the country, even if only for a few weeks’ holiday in short essays on school Australia. This photograph has a shadow under the chin. The baby’s lips are slightly parted.
Then there were my fuck-ups: the writing on the back of the photograph does not match the newspaper writing witness’s handwriting. The parent has forgotten to sign the form. Back and forth went the short on school documentation, with time running short, and the ex-pat parent, stressed by travel in general, becoming increasingly panicked. Then came the call explaining that the essays not on passport was now held up because ‘the name on the passport does not match the name on the birth certificate’. You may not have a umlaut in short on school a New Zealand passport. In fact, you may not have any diacritic. You may not have an acute, a grave, a breve, a cedilla. You may not have an ogonek or a hácek.
You may not have a circumflex, or a macron. A macron. One of our official languages, the indigenous language of Aotearoa, is, in its written form, full of macrons. And you may not have a macron. . an envelope arrived from the passport office addressed to their daughter, Hoeng?rangi. The start of her association with the state, they joked.
Some friends of ours found this out when an envelope arrived from the passport office addressed to their daughter, Hoeng?rangi. The start of her association with the state, they joked. The state, that great big bottle of homogenised milk. That Kiwi Corker bureaucracy. Not On Turnitin.com. Have a beaut day. The solution to not being allowed an on school umlaut, was, of pearson essay scorer, course, to short essays on school insert an e. No, said the passport office; then the name will not be the same as it is on the birth certificate (where it was spelled with a ü). Master Lukas Grübsch would just have to lose his dots and iconoclasm be Grubsch.
But that’s WRONG, I argued. What was I supposed to short essays do? I would have to find some way of proving that there were two ways of spelling the name, I was told. After a period of intense rage, I rang the German embassy. They answered, of course, in German. I did what I always do when faced with brisk, official High Germansaid ‘Guten tag,’ and then fell back on English, blabbling my story. I am not Germanbut my partner is Germanmy son was born here but he is also a German citizenwe have this problem with the New Zealand passports officeabout an umlautwhat do I do?
The man at the embassy, in the kind of clear, impeccable English used only by second-language speakers, and maybe the iconoclasm Queen at Christmas, said: ‘You will need to bring in short essays on school your partner’s passport which will show both spellings, as proof. Along the bottom of the passport on the first page it will show the international spelling.’ Whew. I did not need to write to the local council in newspaper writing jobs Schkeuditz. I did not need to essays compile a family history going back a thousand years. I did not need to answers to all math write an essay on the umlaut. So my son got to be Grübsch on his birth certificate, and in his Playcentre profile book, and on his school uniform and essays lunchbox and socks, and Gruebsch on his passport and at iconoclasm the doctor’s and anywhere where an short essays on school ‘ü’ on a hand-filled form might be swapped for an ‘u’ on a computer file. It would all work out somehow. But slowly, imperceptibly, as years went by, I was getting madder. I was no longer mildly annoyed about speaking to an audience to movie whom I’d been introduced as Aarony Bewtriss. I no longer let people spell my first name ‘Irene’ if they felt like it. I would carefully sound out ‘Kroopsch.
Kroopsch.’ The ‘g’ is more like a ‘k’. The ‘b’ is short more like a ‘p’. There’s a ‘sch’ at iconoclasm the end. Like in school, but it’s not ‘sk’, it’s more like ‘shh’. It is short essays not funny. It is not unusual. It is my family’s name. It is no more different than Smith. One of of child development essay, you is an apple core. The other makes horseshoes. Short Essays. Both those things are equally irrelevant.
And in movie ratings site turn I got madder every time I heard someone else’s name botched. Essays On School. And every time I heard someone say dumb shit about immigrants. And every time a redneck wrote to the local paper and said we had a referendum on this, and said it isn’t pronounced with an h anyway, and said I am a white guy who knows better and Wanganui has always been spelled this way. It’s always been this way. As I sat down and prepared to explain to the nurse that I was pissing blood, she asked me, ‘Did I say your name right?’ Recently, in the doctor’s surgery, a nurse walked into the waiting room and answers to all problems said my name correctly. A warmth swelled up in me that made me want to burst into tears. Ever so occasionally, this happens. I get a call centre operator who gets it.
Or someone says, ‘That was my grandmother’s name.’ Or ‘My daughter is short having a baby, I suggested that name.’ As I sat down and prepared to explain to the nurse that I was pissing blood, she asked me, ‘Did I say your name right?’ I affirmed. She said, ‘Oh, that’s just how you would say it in math my language, Shonafrom Zimbabwe.’ I said my name is Maori and that perhaps the vowels and the rolled ‘r’ are the same in both those languages. Despite my physical discomfort, I was beginning to feel soothed. I am a Pakeha with a Maori first name. I was named after Airini Gössi, the quarry labourer’s daughter who married a Stoney. To her Swiss parents, the name didn’t seem difficult. Not all dipthongs are pronounced the same in on school Maori and German, but ‘Ai’ is. Online Essay Scorer Student. I have a French surname, brought out on short on school a boat by a man of no history. It doesn’t mean shoemaker. It doesn’t mean apple core.
It doesn’t appear to mean anything. People said he’d been a fugitive criminal and had made it up, until the internet took off and we realised there were more of pearson online essay scorer student, us. There are ten people called Beautrais in New Zealand, and the rest are in Nantes. My s might be silent but no one is going to take it off me. It is okay to ask.
It is on school okay to make a mistake. Essay. And it is okay to on school be corrected. Spelling and pronouncing a name correctly is a matter of pearson essay, respect. It is essays on school a way of saying I give enough of a shit about you to honour who you are. It is a matter of listening carefully to vowel and consonantal sounds, and how they differ to those of one’s primary language. It is okay to ask. It is okay to make a mistake. Problems. And it is okay to be corrected. Short. ‘Whanganui’ does not rhyme with ‘conger’ and ‘Dewey’. Whanganui iwi would like an ‘h’ in the place name given by their ancestors. There’s no valid argument against this.
It is answers to all their name and their language. It is short on school about acknowledging colonisation, admitting to privilege, and saying we do not have to keep on walking that worn-out path. We can take that coat off and pearson essay student set fire to it. And what is the umlaut about? It is two dots, a diacritic, which turn the letter u into a smiley face.
But I hope the umlaut, for my kids, is about saying I am tauiwi. I am Pakeha, but I am only short a little bit British. I was born here, and I have come here from somewhere else. I have brought a few treasures with me. A coin. A tea-box. These small dots. Some of my waka were sailing ships. They had names like Jocelyn, Margaret, Gertrude, Spray, Baron Aberdare. Some of my waka were steamships.
One, my papa’s waka, was a waka rererangi, a Boeing 747 that hit the tarmac in 2005. Pearson Online Essay. I know where I am from. Short Essays On School. I know whose land I live on. I am keeping my diacritic. Pearson Online Essay Scorer Student. I will help you keep yours.
I will say bird names, tree names, place names as the first people gave them. I carry all this with me at home, and at my other homes, and when I pass ports. Airini’s essay appears in Landfall 232, which is on school available from independant booksellers. In 2017 Landfall will celebrate its 70th birthday. To mark the occasion, Otago University Press are launching the Charles Brasch Young Writers’ Essay Competition, open to writers aged 16 to 21.
The competition is named after Dunedin editor, poet and patron Charles Brasch, who founded Landfall in 1947 and was its editor for the next two decades. The competition opened on 1 December 2016. For further details visit the competition website.
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nmsc essay example Winning Essay Examples - College Scolarship Essays. Winning Essays for Scholarships. (Crabial, National Merit Scholar and Fulbright) Content provided by short on school EssayEdge's Harvard-Educated Editors.
This section contains three scholarship essays: Scholarship Essay One - Crabiel Scholarship Essay Two - National Merit Scholar Scholarship Essay Three - Fulbright. Scholarship Essay One. CRABIEL SCHOLARSHIP WINNER - won $3,000 scholarship. Like Mr. Crabiel, I literally work tirelessly in many academic and leadership roles. I sleep no more than six hours a night because of jobs my desire to expertly meet my many commitments.
Throughout my life, I have worked as long and as hard as I possibly can to effect beneficial changes in both school and essays on school, society. During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. Newspaper Writing! Similarly, during the summer following eleventh grade, I was one of ninety students from New Jersey selected to short on school, attend the Governor's School in movie ratings, the Sciences at short essays, Drew University. At Drew, I took courses in of child development essay, molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto.
With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the cosmological constant, which describes the short essays, curvature of space and the rate of the universe's expansion. In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on site, special relativity at the request of my physics teacher. After lecturing one class for 45 minutes, one student bought many books on both general and special relativity to read during his study hall. Essays! Inspiring other students to search for knowledge kindles my own quest to understand the world and the people around me. As president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. In addition, I am ranked number one in my class with an SAT score of newspaper writing jobs 1580 and SATII scores of 750 in essays, math, 760 in writing, and 800 in physics.
In school, I take the hardest possible courses including every AP course offered at the high school. Ratings! I am the leading member of the essays, Math Team, the Academic Team, and jobs, the Model Congress Team. In the on school, area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from not on turnitin.com a local rotary club, have been asked to attend the essays on school, National Youth Leadership Forum on Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C., and wrote the winning essay on patriotism for South Plainfield's VFW chapter. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the Spanish Club and the Spanish Honor Society. In addition, I recently was named a National Merit Scholar. Besides involvementin academic and leadership positions, I am active in athletics.
For instance, I lift weights regularly. Development! In addition, I am the captain of my school's varsity tennis team. So far this year, my individual record on the team is 3-0. Working vigorously upon being elected Student Council President, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the school store for the first time in short, nearly a decade. With paint and not on, wood, we turned a janitor's closet into a fantastic store. Essays! I also direct many fund raisers and charity drives. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about $1,500 for the family of newspaper jobs Alicia Lehman, a local girl who received a heart transplant. As Student Liaison to the South Plainfield Board of short essays on school Education, I am working to introduce more advanced-placement courses, more reading of philosophy, and more math and science electives into the curriculum. At curriculum committee meetings, I have been effective in making Board members aware of the need for essays not on these courses.
In addition, my speeches at public Board meetings often draw widespread support, which further helps to advance my plans for enhancing the curriculum. I have also been effective as a Sunday school teacher. Essays! By helping elementary school students formulate principles and essays, morals, I make a difference in their lives every week. The value system that I hope to instill in them will last them their entire lives. I find teaching first-graders about Christ extremely rewarding. Clearly, I have devoted my life both to working to better myself and to improving civilization as a whole. Throughout the rest of my life, I hope to continue in this same manner of unselfish work. Just as freeholder Crabiel dedicates his life to short essays on school, public service, I commit my life to helping others and to advancing society's level of understanding. Scholarship Essay Two. WINNING NATIONAL MERIT SCHOLAR ESSAY. Nothing in all the world is comparable to reading Ayn Rand beneath New York's skyline or to studying Nietzsche atop a mountain summit.
Since childhood, the studies of philosophy and science have interested me profoundly. Observation Of Child! Having read many books on relativity, quantum mechanics, existentialism, religion, capitalism, democracy and essays, post-Aristotelian philosophy, my quest for knowledge has only intensified. Certainly, the movie ratings, purpose of my life is to discover a greater understanding of the universe and its people. Short On School! Specifically, I plan to better grasp the interrelationship among forces, matter, space, and time. In addition, I hope to find a unified field theory and a convincing explanation for the birth of the universe. During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from observation development essay Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. Short Essays On School! My attendance of the New Jersey Governor's School in the Sciences is of child development, another accomplishment that exemplifies my dedication to knowledge. Short On School! During the summer following eleventh grade, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project.
For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of thecosmological constant, which describes the to all, curvature of space and the rate of the universe's expansion. In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on on school, special relativity at the request of my physics teacher. After lecturing one class for iconoclasm essay 45 minutes, one student bought many books on both general and special relativity to on school, read during his study hall. Inspiring other students to search for knowledge kindles my own quest to problems, understand the world and the people around me. Also, as president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. Moreover, I am ranked number one in my class, and I am the leading member of the Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team. In the area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from a local rotary club and have been asked to attend the essays, National Youth Leadership Forum on pearson essay student, Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C.
Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the essays, Spanish Club and the Spanish Honor Society. As student council president, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the school store for the first time in nearly a decade and is finding speakers to speak at not on, a series of colloquia on topics ranging from physics to short, politics. Directing fund raisers and charity drives also consumes much of my time. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about $1,500 for the family of a local girl in observation of child development, need of a heart transplant.
Consistent with my love of essays on school freedom and my belief in democracy, which is best summarized by Hayek's Road to Serfdom, I have recently initiated an movie application to become the liaison to essays, the local board of education. Also, in keeping with my belief that individuals develop strong principles and ideology, I teach Sunday school three months a year and have chaperoned for a local Christian school. Outside pure academics and leadership roles, I lift weights five times a week for an hour each day. In addition, I play singles for my school's varsity tennis team. Answers To All Math! Because I find extraordinary satisfaction in nature and have dedicated my life to its understanding, I enjoy mountain climbing. Essays! Among the notable peaks I have reached are Mt. Washington, Mt Jefferson, Mt. Madison, Mt. Marcy and iconoclasm, Mt. Katahdin.
Unquestionably, my life's aim is to dramatically raise the height of the mountain of knowledge so that my successors may have a more accurate view of the universe around them. Scholarship Essay Three. Fulbright Application Essay. On one hot late-summer day when I was in high school, my parents came back from a shopping trip with a surprise present for me: the legendary board game, Diplomacy. At first I scoffed at such an short essays on school old-fashioned game. Who would want to waste glorious sunny days moving armies around a map of iconoclasm pre-World War I Europe, pretending to short essays on school, be Bismarck or Disraeli? But after playing the game once, I became absolutely riveted by the nuances of statecraft, and soon began losing sleep as I tried to craft clever diplomatic gambits, hatch devious schemes, and better understand the game's ever-changing dynamics. As my friends and I spent the second half of the summer absorbed by the game, my parents grinned knowingly.
How could I resist being fascinated with Diplomacy, they asked me, when I incessantly read about international affairs, and liked nothing more than debating politics over dinner? How could I resist being fascinated, when I had spent most of my summers in Greece (and, much more briefly, France and England), witnessing first-hand the ways in which countries differ socially, culturally, and politically? Though my passion for foreign policy and international affairs undoubtedly dates back to high school, I never had the chance to online, fully develop this interest before college. Once I arrived at Harvard, however, I discovered that I could learn about international relations through both my academics and my extracurricular activities. Academically, I decided to concentrate in Government, and, within Government, to take classes that elucidated the forces underlying the relations of states on the world stage. Some of the most memorable of these classes included Human Rights, in which we discussed what role humanitarian concerns ought to play in short on school, international relations; Politics of Western Europe, in observation development, which I learned about the short on school, social, economic, and political development of pearson scorer five major European countries; and Causes and Prevention of short essays War, which focused on unearthing the roots of conflict and finding out writing, how bloodshed could have been avoided.
Currently, for my senior thesis, I am investigating the strange pattern of American human rights-based intervention in on school, the post-Cold War era, and trying to observation essay, determine which explanatory variables are best able to account for it. Interestingly, I think that I have learned at least as much about international relations through my extracurriculars in short essays on school, college as I have through my classes. For the past three years, for instance, I have helped run Harvard’ s three Model United Nations conferences. As a committee director at these conferences, I researched topics of global importance (e.g. the scorer, violent disintegration of states, weapons of mass destruction in short, the Middle East), wrote detailed study guides discussing these subjects, and then moderated hundreds of site students as they debated the essays on school, topics and iconoclasm, strove to essays, resolve them. Even more enriching for me than directing these committees was taking part in them myself. As a delegate at essay, other schools’ conferences, I would be assigned to represent a particular country on a particular UN committee (e.g. France on the Security Council). Essays On School! I would then need to research my country’ s position on the topics to be discussed, articulate my view in observation development, front of others in my committee, and convince my fellow delegates to support my position. Trying to short essays, peg down a country’ s elusive ‘ national interest, ’ clashing over thorny practical and philosophical issues, making and breaking alliances — - Model UN was basically a simulation of how diplomacy really works.
Thankfully, I have also found time over the past few years to cultivate interests and skills unrelated to Model UN and foreign policy. One of the newspaper writing jobs, most important of these has been community service. As a volunteer for Evening With Champions, an annual ice-skating exhibition held to raise money for children with cancer, and as a teacher of a weekly high school class on current events and short essays, international affairs, I have, whenever possible, used my time and talents to benefit my community. Another more recent interest of mine is the fascinating realm of business. Two years ago, my father’ s Christmas present to me was a challenge rather than a gift: he gave me $500,but told me that I could keep it only if I invested it in the stock market — - and earned a higher rate of return than he did with another $500. Since then, I have avidly followed the stock market, and become very interested in how businesses interact and respond to strategic threats (perhaps because of the similarities between business competition and the equally cutthroat world of diplomatic realpolitik). Essays Not On Turnitin.com! A final passion of mine is writing. On School! As the writer of scorer a biweekly column in the Independent, one of Harvard’ s student newspapers, I find very little as satisfying as filling a blank page with words -— creating from nothing an short elegant opinion piece that illuminates some quirk of college life, or induces my readers to consider an issue or position that they had ignored until then. Because of essay my wide range of short essays on school interests, I have not yet decided what career path to follow into the future. In the short run, I hope to study abroad for a year, in the process immersing myself in another culture, and deepening my personal and academic understanding of international affairs. After studying abroad, my options would include working for a nonprofit organization, entering the corporate world, and attending law school.
In the long run, I envision for myself a career straddling the essays, highest levels of international relations, politics, and business. I could achieve this admittedly ambitious goal by advancing within a nonprofit group, think tank, or major international company. Perhaps most appealingly, I could also achieve this goal by entering public service and obtaining some degree of influence over actual foreign policy decisions -— that is, becoming a player myself in the real-life game of Diplomacy. Click here for essays the free EssayEdge admissions essay help course. Use coupon code 10010101 for 10% off EssayEdge editing.
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Analysis Of Still I Rise By Maya Angelou Essays and short essays on school, Research Papers. college professor, dancer, activist, and movie star, Maya Angelou has overcome much in her life. From being raped by a family . Newspaper Writing. member at a very young age that made her speechless for years (Burns 1) and having to deal with the responsibilities of essays on school, being a mother in her teens (Burns 1), Maya Angelou has risen. She was a part of the Martin Luther King Jr. movement serving as the coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Burns 1). Movie Ratings. Maya Angelou has risen from the racism, discrimination, sexism. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people 965 Words | 3 Pages. Still I Rise by Maya Angelou: Exploring the on school, Poem. ' Still I Rise ' by Maya Angelou : the poem You may write me down in history With your . Not On Turnitin.com. bitter, twisted lies, You may trod me in the very dirt But still , like dust, I'll rise . Does my sassiness upset you?
Why are you beset with gloom? 'Cause I walk like I've got oil wells Pumping in on school, my living room. Just like moons and like suns, With the certainty of tides, Just like hopes springing high, Still I'll rise . Did you want to see me broken? Bowed head and lowered eyes? Shoulders falling down like teardrops. Alliteration , Assonance , Literary consonance 714 Words | 4 Pages. Phenomenal Woman and Still I Rise: Maya Angelou. Bibliography for Research Paper Angelou , Maya . And Still I Rise . New York: Random . House, 1978. Newspaper Jobs. Print. This is a book which originally published two of Maya Angelou's infamous poems, Phenomenal Woman and, Still I Rise . This book is strong and powerful, filled with many other well-known works done by Maya Angelou . Kornhaber, Spencer. Maya Angelou's Universal Struggle. On School. The Atlantic.
Atlantic Media Company, 28 May 2014. Web. 11 July 2014. Ratings. A great overview of Maya Angelou and short on school, who she really was. It. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Bantam Books , Historian 1129 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of the movie site, poem Still I Rise 2014 An Analysis of the poem Still I Rise by Maya Angelou . Short On School. African Americans have been oppressed for centuries. Iconoclasm Essay. Despite this discrimination, people of this race have fought hard for their freedom and respect. This pursuit of equality is evident inMaya Angelou’s poem, “ Still I Rise ”. Angelou integrates numerous literary ideas such as various sounds, poetry forms, and short on school, key concepts.The poetic devices incorporated in Maya Angelou’s work, “ Still I Rise ”,heightens the. Alliteration , Lyric poetry , Maya Angelou 1254 Words | 6 Pages. Still I Rise, Feminist Poem Analysis. Newspaper Jobs. Still I Rise is a poem written with Maya Angelou herself as the speaker. She is . speaking to her audience about short how she has overcome racism, criticism, sexism, and personal obstacles in pearson online essay student, her life with pride and grace. Still I Rise has a positive and strong tone throughout the entire poem. The words Angelou used also make it seem as though the short essays on school, she is talking to the readers. By doing so, Angelou got the readers to get more personally involved in iconoclasm essay, the poem emotionally which helps to short on school make readers realize. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 916 Words | 3 Pages.
Maya Angelou , a presence in United States society, has risen against formidable odds. After being raped at of child development, age eight and after . Short Essays. withdrawing for a couple years, with the help and inspiration of a grade school teacher, Angelou rose to revert herself. Eventually, she became the site, first African-American street car conductors in San Francisco. She traveled to Africa and asserted herself in short on school, dance. Despite the shortening of a brief marriage, Angelou continued to assert herself, drawing inspiration as the mother. African American , Arab slave trade , Black people 2030 Words | 5 Pages. Movie Ratings Site. “ Still I Rise ” Poem Analysis “ Still I Rise ” was written . by Maya Angelou , who is an African-American poet. A majority of her poems are written on slavery and life as a African- American woman. Short On School. “ Still I Rise ” is one of the many well known.
She discusses how she is treated differently and refers to her ancestry and relates to events they went through during the time of movie ratings site, slavery and the events she continues to go through during her time period of life. “This poem has been an inspiration to people. African-American Civil Rights Movement , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1699 Words | 5 Pages. Short. Analysis of Maya Angelou's Still I Rise The poem I have chosen to write a detailed description and interpretation of is of child development essay, Maya Angelou's ' Still . I Rise '. In analysing the chosen poem I will be considering the ways in which my own knowledge, experience and essays on school, cultural identity might have an influence in the way I have read and interpreted the poem. This poem is very strong and powerful, as a reader I can sense this in the title of the poem, ' still I rise '. If the reader does not know the origin of the author I guess that it will be hard to tell. Black people , Metaphor , Poetry 1873 Words | 5 Pages. An Explication I of Maya Angelou’s “ Still I Rise ” The name Maya . Angelou resonates with an entire race and culture. Movie. Of all her poems “ Still I Rise ” should be classified as the short, most introspective of them all. It is pearson, a personal journey into a world many of us have never seen or known. She speaks to an audience of oppressors and persecutors. She is short, allowing the reader to pearson online truly feel not only her pain but her boldness as well. Maya Angelou’s “ Still I Rise ” uses strong word choice and imagery to portray.
Black people , Maya Angelou , Race 1237 Words | 4 Pages. Stacey Miles Ms. Riccardo English Comp II 12 March 2012 “ Still I Rise ” “ Still I . Rise ” is a powerful poem written by Maya Angelou addressing her pride in herself and in her African American ancestor’s ability to rise above racism and segregation. Short Essays. The tone of the poem is strong and expresses different hardships that Maya Angelou has been faced with overcame. Angelou uses a wide range of similes and metaphors in her poem comparing herself to various natural elements such as the moon, sun and ocean. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , English American 1244 Words | 3 Pages. Maya Angelou : Still I Rise Maya Angelo writes about being a black woman . Observation Development. who rises each time she faces tyranny. Angelou tells of short essays, how she overcomes the to all problems, obstacles that she endures on a daily basis, yet still she continues to short rise . As With an African American woman, she realizes the pearson online essay scorer student, importance and cruelty of history.
She also mentions how she carries herself, portraying to essays on school the world as though she is rich, which she was not rich growing up. The quote, “ Still I’ll rise ” (M. Angelou 13), exemplifies. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou , Roots 866 Words | 3 Pages. Maya Angelou Maya Angelou paved the way for many of newspaper jobs, today’s black poets. She is famous for on school her . poems and series of essay student, autobiographies. Short On School. Angelou has had an interesting life filled with many accomplishments. Maya Angelou was born as Marguerite Johnson on April 4, 1928, in St. Louis, Missouri. (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd Ed.) Her parents divorced when she was 3, she then lived with her mother. Iconoclasm Essay. (Shaw, Taylor) At age 8 her mother’s boyfriend, Mr. Freeman, raped her.
Angelou hid her dirty. Alvin Ailey , I Know Why the short, Caged Bird Sings , James Baldwin 1228 Words | 4 Pages. And Still I Rise: Maya Angelou's Feminist Approach. potential meanings in Maya Angelou’s “And Still I Rise ”? Maya Angelou’s “And . Still I Rise ” gives a powerful message to the reader from the start of the collection with the title and the numerous, alternative meanings behind it. One potential meaning could be Maya’s rising up against oppression and her effort to try and escape from women’s traditional stereotypical roles in society. Another interpretation could be that the collection is seen as a rally call directed towards women, to to all problems rise up against male. Female , Feminism , Gender 1648 Words | 4 Pages.
Maya Angelou “I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget . how you made them feel.” These are the words of Marguerite Ann Johnson, better known as Maya Angelou , who is known as one of the most influential voices of our time. Short On School. She is essays not on turnitin.com, not only a poet but also a novelist, educator, dramatist, producer, actress, historian, filmmaker, and on school, civil rights activist. Essays. (http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/87) Although she experienced the short on school, negativity. African American , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1418 Words | 4 Pages. Maya Angelou You may shoot me with your words, you may cut me with your eyes, you may kill me with your hatefulness. But . Math. still , like air, I'll rise . Have you ever been so influenced by such a small amount of powerful words? This brilliant quote extracted from on school, Maya Angelou's own poem, Still I Rise , basically brings out the spirit and essay scorer student, nature of each of her publications.
Maya Angelou's works of poetry are seen as inspiration for those who have been discriminated for their public appearances. As. African American , Black people , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1001 Words | 3 Pages. An analysis of the Maya Angelou poem , To a man. 'To a man' is written by Maya Angelou , whose first novel was an autobiography of her varied life, (activist, singer, waitress, . dancer etc.) called ' I know why the caged bird sings'. She has written two collections of essays, prose, 'Wouldn't take nothing for my journey now' and 'Even the stars look lonesome'. Angelou has written several famous poems, including ' Still I rise ' and jobs, 'On the pulse of the morning' for the inaugeration of on school, President Clinton. Maya Angelou now has a lifetime appointment as . Cat , Change , Color 1252 Words | 7 Pages. Maya Angelou: Interpretation of Poetry.
Maya Angelou Dr. Maya Angelou , born April 24, 1928, was a phenomenal poet, memoirist, novelist, . educator, dramatist, producer, actress, historian, filmmaker, and civil rights activist known as one of the greatest voices of renaissance. She experienced harsh racial discrimination throughout her lifetime, and yet in the midst of her trials she never loses self-respect or confidence. Through her powerful delivery of words she dually embodies her captivating personality and demeanor. Altogether, her. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou , Poetry 1107 Words | 4 Pages.
Maya Angelou has dedicated her life to end prejudices faced by many black females in development, the 20th century. As an essays on school, author, poet, and . Writing. entertainer, she is known best for her strong portrayal of African-American women. Some of her most outstanding work is the series of autobiographies that she wrote telling about her childhood. Her work has contributed immensely to short essays Americans everywhere. Pearson Essay. She has also broken many barriers for on school black women in writing, entertainment, and in film making. Maya Angelou is. African American , Black people , President of the United States 710 Words | 5 Pages. Essay. BY; . MAYA ANGELOU Introductory I am going expound on the differentiating and the looking at of these two lyrics. Short On School. ALONE and to all math, STILL I RISE by Maya Angelou . Short Essays. I would include my most loved parts I like about these two ballads.
To start with I will advise what ALONE intends to me. The lyric is stating that to make it out of essays, dull, sinking places one can't make only it. You. African-American Civil Rights Movement , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , James Baldwin 1633 Words | 3 Pages. Maya Angelou: Rising Above Social Struggles. ? Maya Angelou : Rising Above Social Struggles Author of an autobiographical series, countless essays and stirring poems, a civil . rights activist, dedicated actor and producer, skillful dancer and short essays on school, singer, and iconoclasm, great cook, Maya Angelou is an inspiration to short essays on school every person, regardless of essay, his age, gender, race, or status in short, life. Maya Angelou , an African-American, was born in essay, St. Louis, Missouri, but was sent to Stamps, Arkansas, with her brother Bailey, to live with their grandmother (King 5). During her. On School. African American , Black people , Race 2298 Words | 7 Pages. more important idea in the text. Essays Not On. “ Still I rise ” a poem by Maya Angelou is about a . black woman’s point of short essays, view towards a white person in the 1900’s.
Angelou used various language techniques, rhetorical questions, metaphor, and jobs, similes to show us her thoughts at the time when she was being ruled over. Self-esteem was the reason that the on school, poet wrote this poem in the first place and it was self-esteem that she overcome the obstacles she faced in life. To All Problems. Firstly, Angelou uses similes to short essays compare herself to. Black people , Maya Angelou , Metaphor 525 Words | 2 Pages. Maya Angelou A Phenomenal Literary Poet. Date: Maya Angelou : A Phenomenal Literary Poet “I’m a woman, phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, that’s me”. This line from . Phenomenal Woman aptly describes the not on turnitin.com, literary giant that is short, Maya Angelou : she is answers math, a phenomenal poet. Short Essays On School. A poet, author, playwright, educator, artist and civil right activist, Maya Angelou is site, categorized among the most influential Renaissance women of the 21st century.
Famous for her poems and books such as “Gather Together in My Name” and “ I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings”, Angelou is. Family , Fiction , Grandparent 2185 Words | 7 Pages. Expository Essay Dr. Short Essays. Maya Angelou “ Still I Rise ” Cheryl Parker-Fields April 11, . 2010 Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, “Favor comes because for a brief moment in the great space of human change and progress some general human purpose finds in him a satisfactory embodiment.”(www.brainyquote.com) Throughout many centuries in American history, at movie site, some point or another there has been a great struggle for African- American people. A struggle filled with many disappointments embodied by short essays on school raw emotion. African-American Civil Rights Movement , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , James Baldwin 1241 Words | 5 Pages. Dig Deeper It’s a fact that Maya Angelou is known for writing poetry and novels that empower and inspire many people, . especially African Americans. Critics have different beliefs of the purposes of her poems. Movie Ratings. This research paper will focus on two of Angelou’s most famous works: “Caged Bird” and short essays on school, “ Still I Rise ”. Critics believe that the observation development, main focus on these two poems is reflected on African American history.
They go much deeper. These two poems reflect her life story as well, which is why so. Short Essays On School. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Bantam Books 1597 Words | 4 Pages. Maya Angelou’s tumultuous childhood in the South and the struggles that come with being black are the basis for her autobiographies such as . I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Through her rich, insightful literature she is able to record the black experience and essays, ultimately the black struggle. She “[is] always talking about the human condition – about what we can endure, dream fail at and still survive.”(Matzu 23) Angelou’s early life was full of short, hardships; making her strong and ready to fight for. Essay Student. Black people , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , James Baldwin 887 Words | 3 Pages. Dascia Turner Professor Kimberly Balding English 1010: Composition One 20 September 2010 Truly Inspirational I find Dr. Maya . Angelou to be a very interesting woman. Essays. She has lived a very productive life. Newspaper. She rose up in the face of short on school, adversary and succeeded in essays, making a life for essays herself.
Her numerous accomplishments testify to online this fact. She did not come from a promising background, but she defied all the odds. During her childhood, she absorbed the on school, faith and values of a traditional African American. Movie Ratings Site. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Domestic violence 994 Words | 3 Pages. ? Maya Angelou Abstract Maya Angelou , the prolific African-American author, is best . known for her serial autobiography and short, her several volumes of essays not on turnitin.com, poetry, which have generated great interest and critical acclaim because they embody her tenacity in overcoming social obstacles and her struggle for self-acceptance. Short Essays On School. Maya Angelou’s life experience proved to be a repudiation of iconoclasm, Euro-American cultural assumptions and an affirmation of African-American cultural norms. Short On School. She explores the discrepancy.
Abraham Lincoln , Barack Obama , Bill Clinton 921 Words | 3 Pages. Answers To All Problems. QUICK FACTS ABOUT : Maya Angelou --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Name : . Maya Angelou Occupation : Author , Poet Birth Date : April 04 , 1928 (Age : 84) Education : George Washington High School , California Labor School Place of Birth : St. Louis , Missouri Originally : Marguerite Johnson Zodiac Sign : Aries ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Maya Angelou was BEST KNOWN FOR. African-American Civil Rights Movement , George Washington High School , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 844 Words | 3 Pages. Maya Angelou : Poet, Author, Actress and short essays, Dancer Maya Angelou : Poet, Author, Actress and Dancer . Noel Alford University of Phoenix Maya Angelou : Poet, Author, Actress and Dancer On April 4th, 1928 an extraordinary woman was born in St. Louis Missouri to problems the late Bailey Johnson and Vivian Baxter Johnson when they seen her gorgeous face she was given a beautiful name Marguerite Ann Johnson. At the time of her birth no one knew how great she would be in our history of poetry, novels, movies. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Alvin Ailey , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1551 Words | 5 Pages. Analysis of the poem, “ Still I Rise ” Maya Angelou’s poem, “ Still . I Rise ” may contain different meanings depending on the reader who interprets it.
It is a poem that talks about keeping one’s head up no matter how hard the situation they come from and not being affected by short the problems on movie the side. Maya Angelou was part of a generation wherein the black race was still seen as “inferior”. During that time, the “truth” is usually kept hidden favoring the more superior groups of people. Hence, the. Black people , Child abuse , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1055 Words | 4 Pages. Short On School. ? Maya Angelou Biography Poet, Author, Civil Rights Activist (1928–2014) Maya Angelou is a poet and . Ratings Site. award-winning author known for short her acclaimed memoir I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings and her numerous poetry and essay collections. Synopsis Born on April 4, 1928, in St. Louis, Missouri, writer and civil rights activist Maya Angelou is known for her 1969 memoir, I Know Why the pearson online essay scorer, Caged Bird Sings, which made literary history as the first nonfiction best-seller by short essays on school an African-American woman. In 1971, Angelou. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Barack Obama , Bill Clinton 1473 Words | 6 Pages. I choose “ Still I Rise ”, by Mya Angelou because of the inspiration and iconoclasm essay, strength that . arises from essays, it when it as it is read, which syncs with that of my own.
The first time I heard it was in an assembly of minority young women during a Black History month celebration presentation. The lights were deeming as a screen of observation development, Angelou reciting her poem through a projection. It showed of a woman recalling the struggles of her ancestries, which is something I was not familiar with, these struggles. On School. I understood. Not On Turnitin.com. Malcolm X , Martin Luther King, Jr. , Southern Christian Leadership Conference 875 Words | 3 Pages.
Close Reading Assignment #2 Christian Jacob The following passage that I have submitted to a “close” analysis shows the . pain and thoughts of the author as she replays the feelings she had as she is reflexing and reminded of the essays on school, conditions she and other Blacks were going through. “Then I wished that Gabriel Prosser and Nat Turner had killed all the whitefolks in their beds and that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated before the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, and that Harriet. Abraham Lincoln , Black people , Emancipation Proclamation 893 Words | 3 Pages. Newspaper. Sohyun Kim Mr. Essays On School. Sayed ENG 3U0- 7 October 2011 Analysis of “ Still I Rise ” The theme in . Maya Angelou's poem Still I Rise emphasizes a strong African-American perspective to illustrate how hardships of past events can give confidence for one to overcome them. Angelou has written this poem in an African American’s point of not on, view, and essays, herself as well. She has written this poem in first person because it portrays more emotion than a poem in third person point of math problems, view.
For example, the second stanza. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people 519 Words | 2 Pages. Essay of on school, Poem Still I Rise by to all problems Maya Angelou. understand life and essays, their situations. Iconoclasm Essay. The purpose of this writing is to discuss a literary work through a personal experience. The poem that will be . Short Essays. discussed in this essay will be “ Still I Rise ” by Maya Angelou . Answers Math. This is her famous poem ever known. This author is a very good writer, I am reading her poems for the first time and I liked her poems so much.
This poem suggests that we can overcome difficulties in short on school, life, despite rejections and injustice. It also discusses racism and all the problems black people. Newspaper. Black people , Literature , Maya Angelou 618 Words | 2 Pages. On School. Still I Rise by iconoclasm essay Maya Angelou Literary Analysis Essay. In the essays, poem ‘ Still I Rise ’ by Maya Angelou , the poet uses repetition, metaphors and . similes to express to her audience about ratings how she has overcome racism in her life through demonstrating a strong, proud and defiant attitude to inspire others. On School. The poet uses repetition of the word ‘ rise ’ to show that she has overcome and risen above racism. In the essays turnitin.com, line, ‘you may trod me in the very dirt but still , like dust ill rise ’ it expresses to the reader one of the key ideas in essays on school, her poem, that no matter how. Analogy , Maya Angelou , Metaphor 741 Words | 2 Pages. Maya Angelou Biography Maya Angelou is an amazing American author, poet, entertainer, actress, . playwright, producer and director, historian and civil rights activist. Essays Turnitin.com. She is best known for her portrayals of strong African American women.
Born April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. Maya Angelou's given name was Marguerite Johnson, Maya and her brother Bailey spent most of their childhood living with their grandmother in rural Arkansas. Maya grew up in short, Stamps and online essay, learned what it was like to. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 951 Words | 3 Pages. Short. Still I Rise - Maya Angelou (Reading Log) Still I Rise Maya Angelou The poem ‘ Still I . Rise ’ written by American author Maya Angelou is written from the perspective of Maya herself. She is speaking to her audience of oppressors about how she has overcome racism, criticism, sexism, and personal obstacles in answers math, her life with pride and grace. It describes her personal struggle through life and how she managed to pull through and essays, how she will continue on her life journey. This poem is to all problems, historically rooted with mentions of slavery, a “past of pain”. African American , Black people , Maya Angelou 885 Words | 2 Pages. Maya Angelou : A woman of hope “ I decided many years ago to invent myself.
I had obviously been . invented by someone else – by a whole society – and short essays on school, I didn’t like their invention”, said Maya Angelou , a subaltern woman with strong determination to overcome all the obstacles in site, her life. A Subaltern is a primarily British military term for a junior officer, literally means “subordinate”. On School. In critical theory and movie, post colonialism, subaltern is a social group who is socially, politically, geographically. Essays. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1463 Words | 4 Pages. Maria Alejandra Silva Ms. Bailey English I Block A 17 January 2013 Maya Angelou , within amazing stories has . revealed the importance of perseverance, staying strong in moments of struggle, having the will to overcome difficulties, as well as having dreams that sometimes seem unreachable and yet believing that it is essays not on, a gift to survive.
In many of her motivating quotes, she expresses, “I’m always inspired by essays men and women who rise …That ability to rise is nobleness of the answers problems, human spirit.” This clearly. On School. Cotton , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Life 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Maya Angelou Maya Angelou , born Magarite Johnson, was and author, playwright, . professional stage and screen performer, and a singer. She has written five volumes of of child essay, autobiography, four volumes of poetry as well as written plays, screenplays, and numerous periodical articles. She has overcome a difficult and traumatic childhood to become a prize-winning poet and author of short, several best-selling autobiographies. “Dr. Maya Angelou is one of the most renowned and influential voices of our. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Barack Obama 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Legacy of Maya Angelou Maya Angelou , an inspirational American author, poet, and civil rights . activist, was born on writing April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri, and died on May 28, 2014 at essays, the age of 86. Newspaper Jobs. Growing up, Angelou endured an short on school, abounding number of answers to all, hardships from racism to sexism and poverty.
However, regardless of the numerous hardships she encountered throughout her life, she still managed to short on school be successful. Angelou received several honors for her outstanding literary work. Essays. Maya Angelou is a significant. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Barack Obama 706 Words | 3 Pages. ? Maya Angelou was a black child living with her grandmother in the American south in the 1930’s. In her autobiography . “ I know why the caged bird sings” she takes the reader on a journey throughout her childhood, growing up where racism towards the black people was rife. The opening lines introduce a crucial theme heavily laced with rhythm, dialect, alliteration and imagery. It shows Maya’s natural gift on her use of language and her use of upbeat, gentle self-deprecation that she uses when she writes. Black people , Child , Love 1941 Words | 5 Pages. Short. Smith Language Arts 10 – Period 6 8 December 2011 Maya Angelou Maya Angelou is a black female . Newspaper Jobs. who had a tragic childhood, but fought through it and ended up extremely influential, prestigious, and successful. On School. She spent her childhood being tossed back and forth between California and Alabama with her older brother.
During her middle years she had to learn how to grow up fast and make a living on her own. American poet/writer Maya Angelou pulled through a difficult life to write beautiful poetry. Movie Ratings. African-American Civil Rights Movement , George Washington High School , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 1173 Words | 4 Pages. Short. Maya Angelou and Langston Hughes, pillars of society. Hughes nor Maya Angelou were just poets in observation of child development essay, the world of the twentieth century but instead heroes and leaders who showed the world . that race wasn't what made you but whom you are instead. Though both grew up during times and events in the world, both have similar ideas while also different. Though both poets were put down by society, neither let what people said get to them. Both instead wrote poems about how what people say doesn't matter. Essays On School. Maya told those people that despite what you say, I will still. African American , African American writers , African-American Civil Rights Movement 1016 Words | 5 Pages.
Maya Angelou Marguerite Ann Johnson was born on April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. After her parents divorced, she and her . older brother Bailey lived with their grandmother in the racially segregated town of Stamps, Arkansas. In this town and during this time, African Americans depended on one another for social, economic and development, religious sustenance. Marguerite and short essays, Bailey formed a strong bond; it was during their youth that he gave her the nickname Maya . At the answers problems, age of seven, Maya was molested. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Bantam Books 1108 Words | 3 Pages. Song Flung Up to Heaven”, which was published in 2002, begins with Maya Angelou’s return from Africa in short essays on school, 1965, shortly before the assassination . of Malcolm X, with whom she had intended to work with.
The book covers those devastating periods of her life in to all, civil rights work as the northern coordinator for Marin Luther King, as well as other events of the 1960s. People died and get injured, and thousands of people got arrested. Angelou vividly recalls scenes of rioting in the Watts area of on school, Los Angeles. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people 839 Words | 3 Pages. Sujet Maya Angelou , an African American writer, is visiting Ghana, in Africa, for iconoclasm essay the first time. After a few . seconds of studying me, the woman lifted both arms and lacing her fingers together clasped her hands and short on school, put them on the top of her head. She rocked a little from side to side and issued a pitiful little moan. In Arkansas, when I was a child, if my brother or I put our hands on our heads as the woman before me was doing, my grandmother would stop in her work and come to remove. Movie Ratings Site. Maya Angelou , Slavery , Woman 2146 Words | 6 Pages.
Maya Angelou is short, one of the most famous African-American women figures. As well as an inspiring figure as a poet, . Maya is also well known to have been a great actress, educator, historian, author, playwright, director and producer. At the time of Dr. Writing Jobs. Martin Luther King Jr., Maya was also inspired to become involved in the civil rights movement. Maya Angelou's former name was Marguerite Ann Johnson. Maya got the nickname from her older brother bailey, which had a speech issue and couldn't pronounce. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Bayard Rustin 925 Words | 3 Pages. Maya Angelou: A Remarkable Renaissance Woman. ? Maya Angelou : A Remarkable Renaissance Woman Maya Angelou : A . Remarkable Renaissance Woman Maya Angelou is a poet, educator, historian, best-selling author, actress, playwright, civil-rights activist, producer and director. Throughout Angelou’s writings, she expresses the on school, realities of growing up in difficult circumstances and has now become one of the most influential figures of American literature. The works of Angelou reflect the strength of womanhood and. African American , African American poets , African-American Civil Rights Movement 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
Maya Angelou is a phenomenal woman. She was born into a devastating decade, that suffered numerous tragedies. Not only had . To All. society shaped her as a woman, she has also shaped our society and on school, influenced many lives. Site. She is still living today, yet I believe her legend will never die. Furthermore I will share with you what motivated her and some of her gratifying experiences. How she was effected by society, and what she did about it. Also how the time period she was born into essays, made her the movie ratings site, extraordinary. I Know Why the short essays on school, Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou , Oprah Winfrey 1248 Words | 3 Pages. Poetry Analysis Poor Girl by Maya Angelou. can love you like I love you! Maya Angelou , the iconoclasm, author of the poem, “Poor Girl,” wrote a poem illustrating her . loneliness and hurt from the loss of an ex-boyfriend.
This poem is about Maya , who also went through similar experiences of loss with an ex-boyfriend. Essays. Now it seems like the man is just using this new love as a rebound to forget about newspaper writing Maya ; however, Maya knows that he is going to break the short on school, girl’s heart, just like he broke hers, and of child, she is going to feel the on school, pain Maya feels. The poor girl. American films , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Debut albums 878 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Determination: Comparison Between “Mother to Son” by: Langston Hughes and Still I Rise by: Maya Angelou. overcome the obstacles that stand in their way. “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes and “ Still I Rise ” by . Maya Angelou are two different works written by site two different authors yet they both convey the same message. Together, the short essays on school, two authors stress the significance of pushing harder when faced with conflicts rather than simply giving up. Pearson Online Scorer. Using figurative language and short essays, repetition, Langston Hughes and Maya Angelou effectively emphasize this message in both of their poems. In both poems, both authors. James Baldwin , Maya Angelou , Metaphor 686 Words | 2 Pages. Maya , a Poetic Angel Just one person can have an evident effect, good or bad, on the lives of many people.
One person who has influenced . the lives of millions is Maya Angelou , a world-renown African-American author and poet. Observation Of Child Essay. She has battled with struggles such as racism, sexism, and prejudice all of her life. Angelou quotes, “I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” With her courage and determination. African American , Afro-Latin American , Black people 2338 Words | 6 Pages. Short On School. How Do Maya Angelou and problems, Grace Nichols Communicate What It Means to short essays Be a Black Woman in Today's Society? How do Maya Angelou and Grace Nichols communicate what it means to be a black woman in online essay scorer student, today’s society? In this essay . I will compare two poems. The two poems I will compare is Maya Angelou’s ‘ Still I rise ’ to Grace Nichols’ ‘Of course when they ask for poems about the ‘realities’ of Black women’. I think Maya Angelou’s ‘ Still in rise ’ has a rather different message to Grace Nichols’ poem. Short Essays. I think they are interesting to compare because Maya Angelo is lively and jobs, spirited about writing a poem about.
Black people , Miscegenation , Race 3219 Words | 7 Pages. This poem is written with Maya Angelou herself as the speaker. She is on school, speaking to her audience of oppressors about how she has . overcome racism, criticism, sexism, and personal obstacles in pearson online essay student, her life with pride and short on school, grace. Essays Not On. This poem is historically rooted with the mentions of slavery, a “past of pain,” and “gifts of ancestors,” however she is short, speaking in the present having overcome all of the hardships of iconoclasm, her past and embarking on the rest of essays on school, her journey with the knowledge that she is a strong African. African American , Black people , Race 600 Words | 2 Pages. And Still I Rise/Presents from observation, My Aunt in on school, Pakistan Comparrison. The poem `and still I rise ` was written by Maya Angelou in math, the 1960’s in America. . During which time the black civil rights movement was very prominent and short, Dr Angelou was a very prominent part of it. Coming off the back of years of slavery of her people due to there skin colour and years of oppression she herself may have faced due to her gender Dr Angelou had a lot to say. The poem `presents from of child development, my Aunt in Pakistan` was written by short essays on school Pakistani born poet Moniza Alvi who currently resides in newspaper, London.
Bangladesh , Feeling , Maya Angelou 1094 Words | 3 Pages. Short On School. Maya Angelou - Yet to ratings site be United States. When Dr. Maya Angelou read her poem, On the Pulse of short essays, Morning, written especially for essays turnitin.com President Bill Clinton's inauguration in short, . 1993, the 'best kept secret in literary circles' was thoughtfully revealed to the whole world. She is arguably the pearson, most influential woman of her race, but there is more to Maya Angelou than being an African American female. Born Marguerite Johnson in St. Louis in 1928, she has lived many lives in one, escaped a torturous and impoverished childhood to become a performing. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , I Know Why the short, Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Still I rise Introduction: Good morning, Mrs. Roberts and classmate.
Today I am going to perform . the poem” Still I rise ” by Maya Angelou . Not On Turnitin.com. Firstly, I would like to talk briefly the short, poet. Movie Ratings Site. Maya Angelou was born in 1928. At a young age Maya had to deal with many issues such as rape her identity as a black person. However, encouraged by her grandmother, who introduced her to literature and she gradually emerged as a talented artist. Short Essays On School. In the 1960s, Angelou began to pearson essay student focus on writing. She became one. African American , Metaphor , Meter 716 Words | 2 Pages. ENC 1102 16 October 2012 Still I Rise In the poem “ Still I Rise ” by . Maya Angelou , Angelou uses strong words to describe how she feels. Essays. She uses words like sassiness, haughtiness, and problems, sexiness, to describe herself. On School. She asks her enemy does her sassiness, haughtiness, and answers to all problems, sexiness upset or offends them. Angelou is short essays on school, speaking to her audience of oppressors about online scorer student how she had overcome racism, criticism, sexism, and personal obstacles in her life with pride and essays, grace.
Angelou uses literary elements such. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou , Poetry 636 Words | 2 Pages.
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cooling system essay Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in essays on school, legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the pearson online essay scorer student miracle cure, the short essays secret passage, the magic password, the single hero who turns the newspaper tide of history. The nearly effortless way to short essays cut through or leap over huge obstacles. We not only want to believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to essays get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about leverage points. Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at MIT have all absorbed one of his favorite stories. “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of a company, and essays, I’ve figured out a leverage point — in writing jobs, inventory policy, maybe, or in short essays, the relationship between sales force and productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to development the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!”
The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the short essays world model. Asked by the Club of Rome to show how major global problems — poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth. Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the answers costs — among which are poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the whole list of short on school problems we are trying to solve with growth! What is needed is problems, much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. 2 The less of it there is, the better off the city is — even the low-income folks in the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in city after city. Counterintuitive.
That’s Forrester’s word to on school describe complex systems. Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to iconoclasm essay solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for finding leverage points. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed.
Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the short on school system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to make the world work better. So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to make the world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is likely to make the world work worse. The more I listened, the more I began to iconoclasm simmer inside. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. “They haven’t the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the system in the wrong direction — it’s aimed at growth, growth at any price!! And the control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to the flip chart, tossed over to a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops.
6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. Information flows. 4. On School? The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of power over the rules of the system. 2. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises.
Everyone in the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of newspaper explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. As with most of the short essays stuff that come to me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. Movie Ratings Site? As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and activists who wanted to put the list to immediate use, questions and short on school, comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and iconoclasm essay, delete items, change the on school order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the iconoclasm essay list I ended up with, explain the jargon, give examples and exceptions.
The reason for this introduction is to essays on school place the list in a context of humility and to leave room for evolution. What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from movie, decades of rigorous analysis of many different kinds of on school systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. It’s dangerous to generalize about them. What you are about to ratings site read is a work in progress. It’s not a recipe for finding leverage points.
Rather it’s an invitation to think more broadly about system change. Here, in the light of a cooler dawn, is a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards). 11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change. 8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to short the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops.
6. The structure of ratings site information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of short which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and newspaper, so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram.
The “state of the system” is whatever standing stock is of importance — amount of short on school water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of newspaper writing people in short essays, the population, amount of essay money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the short essays stock and outflows that decrease it. Pearson Online Essay? Deposits increase the money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. River inflow and rain raise the water behind the short essays dam; evaporation and discharge through the spillway lower it. Births and immigrations increase the population, deaths and emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it. Insofar as this part of the system consists of physical stocks and flows — and they are the bedrock of newspaper any system — it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the short system) and an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is essay student, higher than the outflow rate, the on school stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is higher than the inflow, the stock gradually goes down.
The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in the input and output valves is essays not on, typical — it takes time for flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for short on school water to fill up or drain out of the tub. The rest of the diagram is the information that causes the flows to online scorer change, which then cause the stock to short essays on school change. If you’re about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. Essay Scorer Student? You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and short on school, watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the discrepancy between the desired and iconoclasm, the actual state of the system is zero). Essays? Then you turn the water off. If you start to get in the bath and math, discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and on school, are about to iconoclasm produce an overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to short on school your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the pearson student outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the water level to your goal. Notice that the goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. Essays On School? If you were an extraterrestrial trying to figure out not on turnitin.com, why the tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to short essays figure out that there’s an of child development invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the creature manipulating the faucets.
But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far. Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and a cold, and that you’re also adjusting for another system state — temperature. Suppose the short essays on school hot inflow is connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. And you’re making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to movie ratings the water level. And, of short essays on school course, the inflow pipe is connected to a reservoir somewhere, which is connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to of child get complex, and realistic, and interesting.
Mentally change the bathtub into short your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in a little interest and a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of those banks into a federal reserve system — and you begin to development essay see how simple stocks and flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. And that’s enough systems theory to proceed to the list. 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in systems jargon means the numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to short on school get the water flowing or to pearson online essay scorer student turn it off. Short Essays? Maybe the newspaper jobs drain is blocked and can allow only short a small flow, no matter how open it is.
Maybe the faucet can deliver with the newspaper jobs force of short essays a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of essays not on which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the national debt. On School? It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. Observation Development Essay? The rate at which it sinks is called the short essays annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Congress and the president spend most of answers problems their time arguing about the many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and essays, spending drains. Since those faucets and drains are connected to observation development essay us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the short money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates. To adjust the essay dirtiness of the air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards.
To assure some standing stock of forest (or some flow of money to essays logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an essays not on eye on the level in their profit bathtub — the bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for conservation. Essays? The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from newspaper writing, your account. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. Short On School? So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on newspaper writing jobs the faucets may change the rate at short, which the problems faucets turn, but if they’re the essays same old faucets, plumbed into essays not on the same old system, turned according to the same old information and short essays on school, goals and rules, the system isn’t going to change much. To All Math? Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into short on school the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in not on turnitin.com, that system would make much more of short essays on school a difference — but I’m getting ahead of myself on this list.) Parameters are dead last on my list of powerful interventions.
Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on not on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of our attention goes to parameters, but there’s not a lot of leverage in them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in the short term and to on school the individual who’s standing directly in essays not on, the flow. People care deeply about essays, parameters and fight fierce battles over them. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the system is iconoclasm essay, chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.
If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in short essays on school, a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into ranges that kick off one of the items higher on this list. Interest rates, for pearson essay student example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to short what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.
Most systems have evolved or are designed to stay far out of answers to all math critical parameter ranges. Essays On School? Mostly, the numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and energy trying to figure out what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the not on turnitin.com relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and cash flow needs, which expenses were for short essays on school upkeep and which were capital expenses, the of child equity versus the interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc. I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to someone who specializes in giving money advice. She said: “You’re acting as though there is a fine line at short, which the rent is fair, and at writing jobs, any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and essays on school, get on with your life.”
11. The sizes of development essay buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows. That’s the difference between a lake and a river. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of calling for essays on school new stock just as customers carry the answers to all math old stock out the short essays door. It’s why we need to maintain more than the online essay scorer minimum breeding population of an endangered species.
Soils in the eastern U.S. Short On School? are more sensitive to acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the capacity of essay a buffer. 4 But if a buffer is too big, the essays on school system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. Movie? And big buffers of short on school some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to fluctuations or screw-ups is cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in changing the size of buffers.
But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is not a leverage point for alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of a dam is iconoclasm essay, literally cast in concrete. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of leverage points. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows and nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an enormous effect on how the system operates.
When the essays on school Hungarian road system was laid out so all traffic from one side of the nation to the other has to online scorer pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about short essays, air pollution and iconoclasm essay, commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to short essays on school fix a system that is laid out wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by ratings straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and short essays, most expensive kind of change to make in a system. Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. Iconoclasm Essay? The baby-boom swell in short on school, the U.S. population first caused pressure on the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and housing, and now we’re looking forward to essays not on supporting its retirement. Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for short the rate at which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for the fact that an inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in essays not on, a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple.
The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from essays, fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. The lengths of delays, relative to answers math the rate of system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in the basement? I actually experienced one of those once, in an old hotel in short on school, London. It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity.
The water temperature took at online scorer student, least a minute to respond to my faucet twists. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to cold and back to hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. Short? They are common causes of oscillations. If you’re trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only receive delayed information about what the system state is, you will overshoot and undershoot.
Same if your information is timely, but your response isn’t. For example, it takes several years to build an electric power plant, and then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Those delays make it impossible to build exactly the right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and essays not on turnitin.com, undercapacity. A system just can’t respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays.
That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly. Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the time when a pollutant is dumped on the land and when it trickles down to the groundwater. The delay between the birth of a child and the time when that child is ready to have a child. The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and the time when that technology is installed throughout the economy. Short? The time it takes for a price to essay adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is short on school, critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the online essay response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long. Short? At the answers math extreme they cause chaos.
Overlong delays in short essays, a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for iconoclasm the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. Short Essays? You can’t do a lot about the construction time of a major piece of capital, or the maturation time of a child, or the growth rate of a forest. It’s usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.
That’s why growth rates are higher up on answers the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to speed up the rate of adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the short essays on school concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in iconoclasm, the face of new prices or new ideas — and prices and ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and prices can keep up with it, than there is in wishing the delays away. But if there is a delay in your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in the right direction! (For example, the on school great push to reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is just asking for wild gyrations)
8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to essay scorer student correct against. Now we’re beginning to essays move from the physical part of the system to the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and essay, humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. Essays? A thermostat loop is the classic example. Its purpose is to movie ratings keep the short essays on school system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level. Essay? Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time — like the emergency cooling system in a nuclear power plant, or your ability to sweat or shiver to maintain your body temperature — but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system.
One of the big mistakes we make is to strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to be costly. In the short term we see no effect from doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over which the system can survive. One of the most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on the habitats of endangered species. Another is in encroaching on essays on school our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The “strength” of a negative loop — its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal — depends on newspaper jobs the combination of all its parameters and links — the accuracy and short essays, rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of observation of child essay response, the directness and size of corrective flows. Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for example, the essays on school negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by iconoclasm essay economists — and they can indeed be marvels of self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and short essays, demand and keep them in balance. The more the price — the central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and iconoclasm essay, truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers.
Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of them determinedly pushing it in the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and essays on school, other forms of confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by twisting information in their favor. The REAL leverage here is to keep them from doing it. Problems? Hence the necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and on school, other ways of essays not on turnitin.com leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of democracy. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.
The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in or out of office. On School? The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and bias and dominate that flow. Writing? Give the people who want to distort market price signals the power to pay off government leaders, get the channels of communication to be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. Both market and short on school, democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. Essay? If the impact increases in strength, the feedbacks have to be strengthened too. A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the windows and its corrective power will fail. Democracy worked better before the advent of the brainwashing power of centralized mass communications.
Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and drift nets and other technologies made it possible for a few actors to wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to short encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to report on environmental damage, protection for whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and performance bonds to recapture the externalized public costs of site private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is essays on school, self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the flu, the of child more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies. The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the more money you have in the bank. The more the soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and leaves to soften rain and essays on school, runoff, the more soil erodes.
The more high-energy neutrons in the critical mass, the more they knock into nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of math problems growth, explosion, erosion, and collapse in systems. A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself. Short? That’s why there are so few of them. Usually a negative loop will kick in sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to essay student equal the birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and stop the erosion. In all those examples, the first outcome is what will happen if the positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if there’s an intervention to reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the short essays on school gain around a positive loop — slowing the growth — is usually a more powerful leverage point in movie ratings, systems than strengthening negative loops, and much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and short on school, economic growth rates in not on, the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of adaptation, all of which have limits and delays, time to function.
It’s the short on school same as slowing the jobs car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in on school, society that reward the winners of a competition with the iconoclasm essay resources to win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Short Essays On School? Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Rich people pay accountants and answers to all problems, lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out. Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to short essays on school weaken the positive loops. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of iconoclasm measures, the essays on school government, instead of balancing “success to the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is chaos.
This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from answers math problems, exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into essays chaos. I don’t expect the world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway). That behavior occurs only in unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to doubling the size of the newspaper economy within a year. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to control, and short essays on school, control must involve slowing down the positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to problems the successful” loops, any place where the more you have of something, the more you have the possibility of having more.
6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). There was this subdivision of essays on school identical houses, the site story goes, except that for some reason the electric meter in some of the houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in short on school, the front hall, where the residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in math problems, the houses where the meter was in the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of a high leverage point in essays on school, the information structure of the system. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an existing loop. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory — the U.S. Turnitin.com? government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out precisely what was coming out of the smokestacks in on school, town.
There was no law against pearson essay student, those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by short 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to go down since, not so much because of answers citizen outrage as because of corporate shame. One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the short essays most common causes of system malfunction. Turnitin.com? Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is no feedback from the on school state of the fish population to not on turnitin.com the decision to invest in fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the price of short on school fish doesn’t provide that feedback.
As the fish get more scarce and of child development, hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and short essays, catch them. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to collapse.) It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the commons, it’s not enough to inform all the ratings users of an short essays aquifer that the groundwater level is dropping. Iconoclasm Essay? That could initiate a race to the bottom.
It would be more effective to set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to short on school specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in a nuclear power plant got the waste from that plant stored on his/her lawn. Turnitin.com? Suppose (this is an old one) the short essays on school politicians who declare war were required to answers to all math problems spend that war in the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on the part of human beings to avoid accountability for essays on school their own decisions. That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and effective, if you can get the development powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the short essays on school system (incentives, punishments, constraints). The rules of the answers to all math problems system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of free speech.
Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of them. Nine people on a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and you’re out. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR and opened information flows ( glasnost ) and changed the economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of social rules. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules. To demonstrate the short power of rules, I like to ask my students to imagine different ones for a college.
Suppose the students graded the teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and you leave when you’ve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to professors according to their ability to solve real-world problems, rather than to of child development essay publish academic papers. Short On School? Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and newspaper, what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the power of rules. They are high leverage points. Power over short on school the rules is real power. That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and delineates the Constitution — the ratings site rules for short essays writing the rules — has even more power than Congress. If you want to understand the deepest malfunctions of essays turnitin.com systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the short essays on school new world trade system was explained to turnitin.com me.
It is a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of short on school corporations. Of Child Development Essay? Its rules exclude almost any feedback from any other sector of society. Most of short essays on school its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). It forces nations into essay positive loops “racing to the bottom,” competing with each other to essays on school weaken environmental and social safeguards in order to attract corporate investment. It’s a recipe for unleashing “success to jobs the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons.
4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. The most stunning thing living systems and some social systems can do is to essays change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is called evolution. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to self-organize is the iconoclasm essay strongest form of system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the essays power to develop new responses to (some kinds of ) insults it has never before encountered.
The human brain can take in new information and pop out to all math, completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from short on school, heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an economy by some steady percent each year. For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of nature with the same awe. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. Newspaper Jobs? He, she, or it just has to essays on school write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and what the jobs system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. As hundreds of self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only that they can be.) The genetic code within the on school DNA that is the basis of ratings site all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each.
That pattern, and the rules for replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from which to select possible patterns — and a means for experimentation, for selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the raw material is DNA, one source of variety is spontaneous mutation, and short essays on school, the testing mechanism is something like punctuated Darwinian selection. For technology the raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in movie ratings site, libraries and in the brains of its practitioners. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.
When you understand the power of system self-organization, you begin to understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. On School? The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and universities where scientists are trained are the source of technological potential. Allowing species to go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of iconoclasm essay scientists, would be. The same could be said of human cultures, of course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of every genetic variation in the world’s ground squirrels. I guess that’s because one aspect of short on school almost every culture is the movie ratings site belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of innovation, is doomed over the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.
Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and push this leverage point in the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of a system is a leverage point superior to on school the self-organizing ability of a system. If the goal is to bring more and more of the observation world under the control of one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the People’s Republic of China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.
That’s why I can’t get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is a “good” or a “bad” thing. Like all technologies, it depends upon who is wielding it, with what goal. The only thing one can say is on school, that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for evolution than anything the planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the bathwater at the right level, to keep the answers to all room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Those goals are important leverage points for pieces of systems, and most people realize that. On School? If you want the room warmer, you know the answers to all math thermostat setting is the place to intervene.
But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in the game. What is the point of the game? To grow, to increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the essays control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to engulf everything — long ago. Newspaper? 5 It’s the goal of essays on school a cancer too.
Actually it’s the goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world. The goal of development keeping the market competitive has to trump the goal of each corporation to eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the goal of keeping populations in short essays, balance and evolving has to trump the goal of answers math each population to reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the essays on school players in the system is essays not on, a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the power to change the system’s goal. I have watched in wonder as — only very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in short, a new direction.
That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government,” and no one even laughed. To All Math? Reagan said over and over, the goal is not to get the people to essays on school help the government and not to get government to help the people, but to get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of newspaper writing jobs corporate power over government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the public discourse in the U.S. and essays, even the world has been changed since Reagan is testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is a shared idea in the minds of the society about what a “fair” distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the essays rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by constant sniping at the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of short essays on school society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of turnitin.com beliefs about short essays, how the world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs.
Money measures something real and has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to pearson online student be converted to on school human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of newspaper writing Homo sapiens . Short? One can “own” land. Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the not on turnitin.com least bit obvious. Paradigms are the sources of systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the nature of reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and everything else about essays on school, systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to … their state of thought.
Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into essay convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in the minds of many persons…. It follows, of course, that the essays on school least enlargement of ideas … would cause the most striking changes of external things. Essay? 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. Short On School? We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is enormously valuable. Newspaper Writing Jobs? (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the earth is not the essays on school center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of individual players in markets wonderfully accumulate to the common good, people who have managed to intervene in systems at the level of not on turnitin.com paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to change than anything else about a system, and short, therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest.
But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of paradigm change. Newspaper? In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in the mind, a falling of scales from eyes, a new way of seeing. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else. So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the short on school great paradigm shifts of pearson science, 7 has a lot to say about short essays, that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and writing jobs, power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and with the vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by modeling a system, which takes you outside the on school system and forces you to see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way.
1. Movie Ratings? The power to transcend paradigms. There is yet one leverage point that is even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in short essays, the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to realize that NO paradigm is “true,” that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an essays turnitin.com immense and short essays on school, amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension. It is to “get” at writing jobs, a gut level the paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. It is to let go into Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about all of us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is guaranteed to essays be nonsense and pedal rapidly in the opposite direction. Surely there is no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is no certainty in any worldview.
But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to be the jobs basis for radical empowerment. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in on school, this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from enlightenment to caveats.
There is so much that has to be said to qualify this list. It is jobs, tentative and its order is slithery. There are exceptions to every item that can move it up or down the essays order of leverage. Having had the list percolating in my subconscious for years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the more the pearson online scorer student system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them.
There are no cheap tickets to mastery. You have to work hard at essays on school, it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into the humility of Not Knowing. Online? In the essays end, it seems that mastery has less to observation of child do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Short Essays On School? Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Essay? Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969.
Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile. For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Short On School? Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. Newspaper Writing? John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works , vol. XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. Short? 177. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962.
About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the writing Donella Meadows Project is to preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadows’s legacy as an inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to manage the intellectual property rights related to essays on school Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and essays not on turnitin.com, easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to develop new resources and short essays on school, programs that apply her ideas to online scorer student current issues and make them available to an ever-larger network of students, practitioners, and leaders in social change. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the organization, updates on essays the work of our fellows, and more. Iconoclasm Essay? Sign up here if you'd like to hear about short, what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.
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