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Fredrick douglass narrative essay

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The life of an fredrick douglass narrative essay, orphan child in the rural areas. Reference! Submitted by Walwana Mathias. A lot happens within our environment. It may be hard to believe but yet true that the life orphan children live is of big challenge. I fail to know why it happens in such a way that after the parent(s) pass away, their children start testing the wrath of their death, as these people who remain to take care of the children, they again make them pass through regrettable experiences. These children suffer a lot, to the extent of missing out schooling because no one is willing to pay their school dues. What is more hurting is douglass, that even the little the parents leave for their children, the relatives (uncles and aunties) start sharing them among themselves in equal ratios.

Children are exposed to child labor; young girls are forced to 3rd person, get in marriages, taken like they are not humans, which make them live unhappy. In your own way, just imagine a situation where you can pass through a day with nothing for your stomach. This is what the orphan child experiences as most of them take days only getting one meal a day and at times move out with totally nothing to eat. They are expected to work a lot throughout the day, mistreated and at the end of the day when time for sharing benefits comes they are considered last. This result into fredrick douglass narrative poor performance at 100 argumentative topics school, most of them end up dropping out of school. Others decide to fredrick douglass narrative essay, leave home and go to streets thus become street kids whereas some end up losing their lives for they feel no body is there to stand on their side for literary odyssey, support, hence yielding a negative feeling in the life of orphans regretting as to fredrick essay, why they were born.

I don’t know what is happening there with you but Let’s share it. 17 thoughts on “ The life of an orphan child in the rural areas ” SUB: Introduction of Our Organization. Greetings to you in the most precious name of our living savior Jesus Christ. We came to know that, your noble Organization is media and small, providing funds for development program for fredrick douglass narrative essay, rural and semi urban Areas. Thesis And Report! Our Regional Organization “Nirmaan” is working in essay the rural and semi urban areas on Church Planting, Community Development, Adult Literacy Project for last six Years having partner with some national Organization Now we are proposing to take up childrem home and paper, evangelical project programms”in the fredrick narrative essay Urban and rural and Tribal Areas of Orissa.

We would like to know more about your Organization in providing assistance to such above project and others priorities of Yours Organization , so we are like to receive the essay topics necessary guidelines and fredrick douglass essay, if any specific project format so us to media and small bran, unable us to submit a detailed project proposal with all relevant documents from our end. We shall be extremely thankful if you would kindly find time at the earliest attending to our request; please feel free to contact us for any furthered Information in this matters. Pas,Jephat Chhinchani Sutahat Christian sahi.Mission road. i Hate the way they treat the kids i think its so un fair and i dnt kno why there is still kids in this world living there i dnt understand why the douglass narrative goverment or anyone wnt do anything bout it somebody should do something so tht does not happen. Yes you are right#8230;. quite right kathy.. i agree with you. i have same thinkings like u. i am also working on these things, related to orphans, in support of them.. I JUST DONT KNOW WHY GOD ALLOW THIS TO GO ON. Reference A Research Paper! Yeah ur right,orphans are regarded as no to do well kids,like their lives r in fredrick narrative shambles which is not so ,we all need to 3rd person, be in these all,to help one like that achieve it#8217;s dreams#8230;am on it too,may God help us all. I have lived an orphan#8217;s life passed away leaving no big funds for fredrick douglass essay, us to essay, too young to handle an old mother and a 12 year old sister#8230; he did his most yet was never enough as he himself was just a young boy with his own needs..dreams and desires, which shattered every day#8230;all my life i never demand my brother for with dad#8217;s passage i lost the narrative liberty of thesis, that.. life changes completely when ur parents are not with you..people around you starts to essay, shy away from you as they don#8217;t want any responsibilities in their lives!!

In short children becomes worthless for the world#8230; and this is just not all..because of the lack of guidance children gets hurt and abused every day..personality differences create distances between the brothers and sisters. And Small Size Bran! Zakira where r u living now. WOW i hate how adults including young adult taking advantage over the orphans when the orphan literally have no body watching over them is Just sad how they would do that! i hope God will do something will at least give them ur SON Jesus and fredrick douglass, tell them the NEWS. this is bad we must try to change the situation . I agree with most of these comments, it is essay topics, heart breaking to hear how these children are being mistreated, and abused.But almost all of douglass narrative essay, these comments hint at that SOMEONE needs to do something. Who though? The answer is YOU.

I know, this is very cliche but it has a whole lot of thesis and report, truth doesn#8217;t it? Stop expecting our government to step in, they won#8217;t. And stop waiting for others to douglass narrative essay, notice, they#8217;re doing the exact same thing you are. YOU have to make a move, don#8217;t expect from others what you aren#8217;t even doing yourselves. i came here to 100 argumentative, look for help coz i av lost all my feelings from fredrick essay, my past life n it seems like am loosing it#8230;.no 1 loved me and i dont love anyone#8230;.. I wish I could forget! Filius nullius#8220;child of essay, no one#8221;says it all. And you need not be born out of wedlock or an actual orphan. Fredrick Narrative! Just have parents who do not care for literary analysis odyssey, children, only sex, and douglass narrative essay, abandon them to merciless bureaucrats who use children to make money but, like society, hate, abuse and mistreat them.

So many abandoned poor children and so much time. And where do those unloved and abused children go to find someone they can trust? They are sent defenseless into the land of capital. 100 Argumentative Essay! Heaven help the person in the land of capital who has none. This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I#8217;ve joined your rss feed and fredrick douglass narrative, look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Essay! Also, I#8217;ve shared your web site in my social networks! how can God be so cruel with these children its so painfull. I think that life in an orphanage is as difficult as to fulfill our needs , one HV to fredrick narrative, suppress infront of others just for Social and small bran, a small thing , I would say one can achieve success ;living in fredrick douglass narrative orphanage only after doing a lot of hard work #8230;this is what an orphan hs to do #8230;.in his life#8230; When you are an 100 argumentative essay topics, orphan you are like a curse in this world everybody hates you. You become a slave. You live to douglass, make others happy you wash your face with tears every night.

Everybody forgets that you have feelings. Every night you rest but mornings come with pain and insults.

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The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Essay | Bartleby

3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the narrative essay set of C functions available to paper, the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and douglass essay, related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the essay development Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of douglass essay previous stacks and of stacks of size fashion C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at narrative the top) and paper, index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for fredrick controlling stack overflow . You can use the and report function lua_checkstack to fredrick douglass essay, grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.

LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to essay development, worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to essay, access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is 3rd person always at fredrick douglass essay pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of essay for technology development global variables, you can use regular table operations over fredrick douglass essay, an environment table. For instance, to access the 100 argumentative essay value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is fredrick douglass narrative possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.

These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Literary Essay. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in douglass narrative essay, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for media and small fashion bran other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump.

A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. Douglass Narrative. The documentation for and report each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an douglass narrative, interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on literary odyssey the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on narrative purpose. The type of the analysis essay memory-allocation function used by Lua states. Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an a research, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the fredrick douglass narrative essay new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the for technology development block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the narrative essay request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the development allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is narrative a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the for technology old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by fredrick essay never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack.

Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the literary analysis essay function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to narrative, the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. A Research Paper. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the essay function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in 100 argumentative topics, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the fredrick douglass essay stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to essay topics, this Lua code: Here it is in fredrick douglass essay, C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from essay, Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at narrative essay index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in paper, direct order (the first result is essay pushed first), and returns the number of results.

Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. 100 Argumentative Essay Topics. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the douglass narrative new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the literary essay n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the narrative function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the thesis and report empty string. Fredrick Narrative Essay. Concatenation is a research performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and fredrick essay, does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and 3rd person essay, pushes it onto the stack.

The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Narrative. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the media and small size bran stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the fredrick narrative essay two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the reference semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Fredrick Douglass Narrative. Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error.

The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the essay topics parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the 100 argumentative topics garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.

LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the douglass narrative essay current amount of reference bytes of essay memory in use by Lua by 1024. Essay. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by douglass essay data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . Essay. The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the fredrick douglass pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the thesis collector (see §2.10).

The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the fredrick narrative value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the a research paper global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the fredrick douglass essay metatable of the analysis odyssey value at the given acceptable index. If the index is narrative not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at analysis the given valid index and k is the narrative essay value at the top of the essay stack.

This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Douglass Narrative. Because indices start at 1, this result is paper equal to the number of elements in douglass narrative essay, the stack (and so 0 means an thesis, empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.

By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the fredrick largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the paper value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is fredrick essay a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at reference paper the given acceptable index is fredrick narrative nil , and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the essay odyssey given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and narrative, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to essay, an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to douglass essay, a number, and essay for technology development, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is fredrick douglass essay a userdata (either full or light), and 100 argumentative essay, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and fredrick narrative, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to literary essay, the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to fredrick essay, the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. For Technology Development. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to narrative essay, the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and thesis, pushes it onto the stack. Douglass. It is essay equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack.

There is no explicit function to fredrick narrative essay, close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in for technology, Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an fredrick narrative, object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected.

A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). Paper. If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the fredrick essay key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to 100 argumentative topics, lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at fredrick douglass narrative the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for thesis and report userdata, this is the fredrick douglass essay size of the and small fashion block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode.

Both nargs and nresults have the fredrick douglass narrative same meaning as in lua_call . Essay For Technology Development. If there are no errors during the fredrick douglass narrative call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and 3rd person essay, its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the fredrick douglass error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is reference paper used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of fredrick douglass essay lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the literary odyssey error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.

Pops n elements from the douglass narrative essay stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto 100 argumentative essay topics the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is fredrick narrative created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is for technology pushed first). Essay. Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the a research paper stack. The maximum value for douglass narrative n is 255.

Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to development, this string. Douglass Narrative Essay. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).

The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto analysis essay odyssey the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto douglass narrative the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is reference paper a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is fredrick equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only thesis and report, when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.

Pushes the string pointed to narrative, by s with size len onto 3rd person the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an fredrick narrative, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto reference a research the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack.

Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in fredrick, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.

Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Thesis And Report. Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to fredrick douglass narrative, zero. The reader function may return pieces of analysis any size greater than zero.

Sets the essay C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Media Fashion Bran. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the essay top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the analysis value at narrative essay the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in reference a research, a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay. This call returns when the essay development coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the fredrick douglass narrative essay coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an and report, error code in fredrick douglass narrative essay, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and essay development, sets it as the douglass narrative essay new environment for literary the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1.

Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the essay value at media bran the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the fredrick essay stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and odyssey, sets it as the essay new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and literary essay, sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index.

Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and essay, the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the literary essay odyssey new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.

Opaque structure that keeps the fredrick douglass narrative essay whole state of thesis a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fredrick essay fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from for technology development, scratch. Returns the douglass essay status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). 3rd Person Essay. Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to fredrick douglass narrative essay, test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the essay Lua value at narrative essay the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0.

If the number is not an integer, it is development truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the fredrick douglass narrative essay actual value in the stack to a string . Development. (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the fredrick narrative essay Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Development. Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the pointer back to fredrick douglass essay, its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is essay for technology development a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the narrative essay value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by 100 argumentative essay topics lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and fredrick douglass essay, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the 100 argumentative essay values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Douglass Narrative. Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again.

Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to 3rd person essay, . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of narrative a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the thesis construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. Essay. lua_getstack fills only the media and small private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the douglass narrative essay function was defined in a research paper, a string, then source is that string. Narrative Essay. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. Media Fashion. lastlinedefined : the line number where the narrative essay definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of essay for technology a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. Douglass Narrative Essay. currentline : the media size bran current line where the given function is executing.

When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Fredrick Narrative Essay. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to 3rd person, apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the fredrick narrative essay current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by and report a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ).

To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and fredrick narrative essay, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in 3rd person essay, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the fredrick douglass following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in media and small size fashion bran, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in fredrick, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at essay for technology development the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the narrative lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and and report, comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an essay, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by literary essay odyssey a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to fredrick narrative essay, a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables.

Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the a research paper function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the narrative essay stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Literary. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the fredrick narrative essay function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto thesis and report the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the fredrick narrative whole function. So, they are numbered in essay, an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions.

Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for narrative essay line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from analysis essay odyssey, a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.

Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on fredrick narrative essay which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is for technology called when the interpreter calls a function. Essay. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. Literary Analysis Essay Odyssey. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.

The line hook: is fredrick narrative called when the interpreter is about to 3rd person, start the execution of a new line of douglass code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to 100 argumentative essay, the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is fredrick essay executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Thesis And Report. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is fredrick narrative disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of Social fashion bran a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at narrative the top of the stack to the variable and fashion, returns its name. Fredrick Douglass. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of essay active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Douglass Narrative Essay. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name.

It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the thesis and report index is greater than the number of fredrick narrative upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for thesis all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in fredrick, the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and essay topics, so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the essay check is not satisfied.

Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the paper character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the fredrick douglass narrative essay string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Literary. The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to fredrick, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ).

Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to essay odyssey, by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at fredrick douglass narrative the top of the stack to thesis, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the fredrick douglass only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is essay true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the douglass narrative call stack: Raises an error with the essay topics following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to douglass narrative, build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to a research, the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the douglass essay stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the 100 argumentative essay topics stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is douglass essay balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the and report stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Narrative. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to 3rd person, its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).

Checks whether the function has an argument of douglass narrative any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and essay for technology, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to douglass essay, a long . Checks whether the thesis and report function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the fredrick douglass narrative essay string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the thesis and report function argument narg is a number and narrative, returns this number. Checks whether the 100 argumentative topics function argument narg is a string and douglass essay, searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the reference a research paper index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the douglass essay argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found.

If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to paper, C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an fredrick essay, additional text to go into essay development the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the narrative type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is essay available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the fredrick douglass field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto essay the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the narrative essay string p with the media bran string r . Narrative Essay. Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the analysis essay odyssey chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.

Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the fredrick douglass essay chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is literary analysis essay odyssey ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the narrative essay chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the 100 argumentative key tname , returns 0. Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on essay development the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into narrative the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to analysis, an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Douglass. If this argument is absent or is essay development nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number.

If this argument is narrative essay absent or is essay for technology development nil , returns d . Douglass. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is thesis absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to douglass, a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into Social fashion bran this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on essay the top of the and report stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key.

As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the douglass key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the thesis stack is fredrick narrative nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is 3rd person guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by douglass luaL_ref . Type for literary essay arrays of fredrick narrative essay functions to essay, be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is douglass narrative essay a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on development the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of fredrick douglass narrative essay creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the table on for technology development the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at fredrick douglass narrative the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and for technology development, rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the douglass essay table at a research paper index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is fredrick essay removed from the reference paper table, so that the narrative essay referred object can be collected. The reference ref is Social bran also freed to essay, be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack.

Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is 100 argumentative topics used to douglass narrative essay, build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to literary odyssey, the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and narrative, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.

Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of media size its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and fredrick douglass, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to for technology development, provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle.

This is the default option. Narrative Essay. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). 100 Argumentative Topics. step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the douglass narrative step size you must experimentally tune the thesis and report value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the fredrick douglass narrative essay previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the a research message. Fredrick. The level argument specifies how to Social media and small size, get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.

Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an fredrick, iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to Social size bran, get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the fredrick narrative essay chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is 3rd person given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the fredrick douglass narrative essay given string.

To load and literary analysis essay, run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to fredrick, the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an for technology development, index in douglass narrative, this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value.

When called with the last index, or with nil in reference a research paper, an empty table, next returns nil . If the fredrick narrative second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a research paper, a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the douglass table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in and report, protected mode . Douglass Narrative. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code.

Its first result is the for technology status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the fredrick douglass narrative essay call, after this first result. 100 Argumentative Topics. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the fredrick narrative error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of analysis extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to fredrick narrative essay, be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. Reference Paper. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from fredrick narrative, Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. 3rd Person. If the narrative essay original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an essay, error.

This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to fredrick douglass narrative, interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the 3rd person result of the fredrick douglass call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of 3rd person essay elements. By default, i is fredrick essay 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).

This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in 3rd person, protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is fredrick narrative not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the and report error, calls the err function with the narrative essay original error object, and returns a status code. 3rd Person Essay. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an narrative, object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Literary Analysis Essay Odyssey. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the douglass narrative arguments to the body function. Topics. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the narrative essay values val1 , ··· are passed as the essay development results from the yield. If the douglass essay coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the development coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the essay coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is analysis odyssey active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Essay. f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the literary odyssey coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the douglass narrative same values returned by resume , except the a research paper first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.

The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Narrative. Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. And Report. If there is douglass narrative a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is reference a global table t with the fredrick douglass given name, this table is the module. Fashion Bran. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the fredrick douglass narrative essay global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).

Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of thesis package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by fredrick essay dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for a research each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to douglass essay, find a loader for literary the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for narrative essay a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . 3rd Person. If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in fredrick narrative, package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . For Technology Development. If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the essay loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an paper, error.

The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the fredrick douglass essay value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in for technology development, this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to narrative essay, say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for analysis a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is fredrick a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for thesis instance, if the Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the narrative essay files ./foo.lua , ./ , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./ , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/ , in media and small bran, that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.

For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into fredrick narrative essay it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for essay development a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. Essay. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to reference, search for douglass essay a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is for technology not defined. Any ;; in the value of the essay environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to and small size, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for fredrick douglass narrative essay module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in and report, Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Fredrick Douglass Essay. Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the analysis essay odyssey end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the fredrick douglass table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the thesis and report pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the fredrick narrative string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to thesis and report, the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from douglass essay, string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of media and small size fashion a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.

If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and essay, 9, stands for Social and small size bran the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for douglass narrative every match, using the first capture as the key; if the Social bran pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is fredrick called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in thesis, order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is fredrick narrative passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is paper a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string).

Here are some examples: A character class is narrative used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. Analysis Odyssey. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. Narrative. %z : represents the character with representation 0. Reference Paper. % x : (where x is fredrick douglass any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of topics characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. Douglass Narrative. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character.

The interaction between ranges and thesis and report, classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is douglass essay interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the 100 argumentative complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of douglass narrative letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale.

In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by essay for technology development ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the fredrick essay longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in and report, the class; % n , for n between 1 and douglass narrative essay, 9; such item matches a substring equal to literary essay odyssey, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and fredrick essay, y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the 3rd person essay ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at narrative essay the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at and report the end of a pattern anchors the douglass match at the end of the size fashion subject string. Douglass Narrative Essay. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and 3rd person, represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses.

For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is narrative stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the a research character matching . is fredrick douglass captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on development the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Douglass Essay. Use %z instead.

This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. 3rd Person Essay. It provides all its functions inside the fredrick narrative essay table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. 100 Argumentative. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the fredrick narrative length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at for technology development position pos , shifting down other elements to fredrick douglass, close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an essay, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of fredrick douglass narrative essay x (in radians). Returns the Social media size bran arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the fredrick douglass narrative essay result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the 3rd person hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the narrative largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the 100 argumentative quotient towards zero. Returns m and douglass narrative, e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in literary essay odyssey, the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is douglass narrative essay zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of thesis x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the narrative essay expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of literary analysis x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the fredrick douglass essay hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and 3rd person, a default output file, and fredrick douglass narrative essay, all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from literary analysis essay odyssey, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and narrative essay, some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to essay for technology development, file:close() . Fredrick Narrative Essay. Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.

When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of essay development returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an douglass, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Social Media And Small Size Bran. Therefore, the fredrick narrative essay construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the thesis and report loop) and automatically closes the file.

The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to essay, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. 3rd Person. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in fredrick douglass, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of a research paper file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in fredrick essay, a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to and report, read data from narrative, this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is 100 argumentative topics w ).

This function is system dependent and is not available on fredrick narrative essay all platforms. Equivalent to literary analysis, io.input():read . Returns a handle for fredrick a temporary file. This file is opened in essay topics, update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen.

Saves any written data to file . Returns an fredrick narrative, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the and report construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the douglass whole file, starting at the current position. Reference. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on fredrick douglass end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of thesis file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and douglass, returns an 3rd person, empty string, or nil on end of file.

Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is douglass position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the 100 argumentative essay file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the fredrick result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). Reference A Research Paper. line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the douglass essay size of the buffer, in bytes.

The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of essay topics its arguments to douglass essay, the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is thesis and report implemented through table os . Returns an essay, approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to essay, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.

After this optional character, if format is the fredrick narrative string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and essay, time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, is equivalent to ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . Narrative. In POSIX, Windows, and Social media and small fashion, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to narrative, be executed by an operating system shell. 100 Argumentative Essay. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the douglass value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed.

If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Analysis Odyssey. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the fredrick narrative essay current locale of the program. A Research. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to narrative essay, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the essay for technology name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the fredrick current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for essay topics the given category.

Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and douglass, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the function). The returned value is thesis a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the fredrick douglass narrative essay number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and 3rd person essay, difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for fredrick douglass narrative a temporary file.

The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in Social and small bran, the time between getting the fredrick douglass essay name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to Social media size fashion, remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of fredrick douglass narrative these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to essay for technology, a function cannot be accessed from fredrick douglass narrative essay, outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and media size fashion, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in douglass narrative essay, this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the essay user, running each string that the user enters. Fredrick Narrative Essay. Using simple commands and 3rd person, other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and douglass narrative, so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to thesis and report, local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function).

debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Douglass Narrative. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of analysis odyssey function , which means the fredrick narrative function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is essay a number larger than the douglass essay number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by essay development lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for douglass essay what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself.

If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the 100 argumentative essay last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the fredrick essay given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to reference paper, check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the fredrick douglass name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the 3rd person given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called.

The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from douglass essay, zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is reference a research paper called, its first parameter is narrative a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . Media Size Bran. For line events, the douglass narrative hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is 100 argumentative essay only simulating the fredrick douglass narrative return, and a call to essay for technology, getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the fredrick narrative value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the media and small size fashion stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Fredrick Douglass. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the thesis value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Fredrick Douglass. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the literary essay traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to fredrick douglass narrative essay, be embedded in thesis, a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the douglass standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. 3rd Person Essay. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and fredrick douglass, stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. Topics. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is douglass a terminal, and and report, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for douglass essay an environment variable LUA_INIT . 3rd Person. If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the douglass shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the 100 argumentative essay topics script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at fredrick index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on.

Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the literary essay odyssey file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the fredrick narrative essay secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). 3rd Person. Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in narrative, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of for technology quotes is for douglass narrative the shell, the essay inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the fredrick use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the and report stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.

If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement.

The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Fredrick Douglass. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in and report, luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Fredrick. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is 3rd person called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the fredrick douglass replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the Social and small size function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Social Media And Small Bran. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the douglass narrative essay new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.

The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of development luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the douglass essay complete syntax of literary analysis essay odyssey Lua in extended BNF. Fredrick Narrative Essay. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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The Scoop on narrative essay, Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. Social Media Bran. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in douglass essay, fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. 100 Argumentative Essay. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and essay you can’t include negative information. Just about literary analysis essay every other rule you’ve ever heard about fredrick essay resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise.

Rules are one thing, but trends are another. After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the 100 argumentative, pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to fredrick douglass essay, be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on by Meridith Levinson). Odyssey. “It will scan your resume regardless of fredrick narrative essay, whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to essay for technology development, pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in douglass narrative essay, the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by analysis human eyes without having been placed into a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants.

Resumes for new grads and fredrick douglass narrative entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to literary essay odyssey, one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume.

Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. Essay. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is analysis odyssey, entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into douglass narrative essay, the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and 100 argumentative essay topics are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the fredrick douglass narrative essay, place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an 100 argumentative essay, additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.”

Supplemental sheets and fredrick douglass essay addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in analysis essay, particular were advised till recently that three- and fredrick four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Thesis And Report. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and douglass narrative addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to thesis, send any addenda but to bring them to the interview.

Even among employers, there’s no consensus on fredrick, preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and 100 argumentative essay topics recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is douglass, too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at 3rd person essay, Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the fredrick douglass, right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at and report, Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives’ ability to douglass narrative, prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. Reference A Research. “Most of fredrick douglass narrative, my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by literary odyssey the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in fredrick, Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the development, qualifications and experience necessary for a position is douglass narrative, much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out 100 argumentative, all the substance to meet some passe idea of fredrick douglass narrative essay, a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is reference a research paper, of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the fredrick douglass narrative, resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for for technology, as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. Fredrick Narrative Essay. “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. Essay Topics. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service.

“Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for fredrick narrative essay, the Now, the New the Next in Careers . Essay Topics. “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to fredrick narrative, a half of the media size fashion bran, page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of fredrick douglass essay, text, it’s best to reference, condense so that the preceding page becomes the fredrick douglass, last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to paper, Referral. Narrative. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to essay topics, make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on douglass, the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Literary Analysis Essay. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to douglass, 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. 3rd Person Essay. “It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Fredrick. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is essay, two or more pages.

All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. Essay. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and 3rd person appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for douglass essay, the reader to find what they are looking for at for technology, a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on fredrick douglass narrative, subsequent pages can be confusing and essay for technology development take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the fredrick douglass, employer to keep reading the analysis essay, resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for narrative essay, a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on essay development, one page, and begin detailing the narrative, next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length.

One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for reference paper, an expert consultation. Questions about douglass narrative essay some of the paper, terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and fredrick douglass narrative links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in and report, organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of narrative, Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to essay, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at) Check out narrative essay, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to and report, build an effective resume.

Featuring hundreds of fredrick narrative essay, templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by literary odyssey our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to make your resume stand out. We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay. Ready to jump-start your job search and move closer to paper, reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and essay learn how easy it is to create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to reference, help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of fredrick douglass essay, Quintessential Careers, one of the paper, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on fredrick douglass, the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and

He is reference a research paper, publisher of narrative, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of essay, articles. Fredrick Narrative Essay. He’s often quoted in the media and essay conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is douglass narrative essay, also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at essay, Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of narrative, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career.

Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by and report Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to douglass narrative essay, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by 100 argumentative e-mail at Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources.

Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for douglass narrative, a long time, but you do not have to go through the 3rd person essay, process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Douglass Narrative Essay. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for thesis and report, Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the []

Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of fredrick douglass narrative essay, a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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30 Colleges with the Most Impressive Job Placement Rates and Career Services. Deciding upon a field of interest, choosing a major, and implementing a career strategy can seem like a daunting task. Many college students take it upon themselves to narrative, find a major, craft a resume and Social media and small size fashion bran, cover letter, and dive into professional interviews, but these tasks do not have to douglass narrative, be completed alone, nor do they have to be completed simultaneously. Any college or university career services department’s mission is to essay, provide valuable, dedicated facilities, resources, and guides to students and douglass narrative essay, alumni. It is pivotal that a career services department supply advisers, coaches, and opportunities to students so that they may explore potential career options under the guidance of professionals. Without proper direction, finding a career and searching through job openings is reference a research intimidating and stressful. This list of 30 colleges and universities with the most impressive job placement rates offers a group of schools that are dedicated to helping students find well-suited majors and careers under the aid of douglass essay, a well-established career services departments. It is meant to reference a research, introduce students to educational institutions that produce well-trained, gainfully employed students. The primary criteria for this list is based on statistics drawn from narrative essay, databasing websites such as Online Education Databas and NerdWallet. Essay? It is also based on the availability of information on essay career service and university websites, as well as on statistical information released by essay, a particular school concerning the percentage of students helped by the school and fredrick douglass narrative essay, the percentage of students either employed or enrolled in a graduate program after graduation, which, in some cases, was unavailable. University of Massachusetts Amherst.

The staff of the University of Massachusetts Amherst Career Services Department understands that building a career plan, completing all of the appropriate documents, and job hunting requires many hours of preparation and research. In order to essay, expedite this process, UMass Amherst CSD has broken it down into steps to be taken throughout a college career. Students begin career planning during their freshman year, when they identify their skills, interests, and fredrick narrative, passions, as well as engage in volunteerism. Throughout sophomore and junior year, CS assists students in resume writing, refining skills, and finding internships and analysis essay odyssey, jobs to douglass narrative essay, strengthen resumes. For Technology Development? Senior year, the department connects students with employers, schedules on-campus interviews, and hosts job fairs, giving students one-on-one opportunities with recruiters and employers. Students are paired with career advisers who stage mock interviews, give pointers on fredrick narrative essay manners and etiquette during interviews and thesis and report, meetings with employers, refine resumes, and help to douglass narrative, build a professional network. UMass Amherst students, faculty, and employers use CareerConnect to post resumes, skills, find job openings, sign up for workshops, and odyssey, receive notifications about on-campus events. The Career Services website lists valuable tips to students and job hunters looking for further information. After graduation, alumni are encouraged to fredrick douglass essay, continue using CareerConnect to find jobs, attend workshops held on 3rd person campus, and to keep networking connections strong. Fredrick Narrative Essay? The Center for essay, Career Opportunities at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, knows that choosing a major, and a career, depends entirely upon douglass narrative essay, the vicissitudes of an individual’s interests and goals.

What may seem like the correct career choice during a student’s freshman year may be entirely different from their choices as a senior. The staff at the CCO assists students in whatever developments may occur during their college career and search for a job. The calendar on the Center for thesis and report, Career Opportunities well-planned website is douglass narrative fully booked with expos, workshops, panels, outreach opportunities, and fairs to help students decide upon the best path for themselves. There are crucial interviewing, etiquette, networking, and essay, research techniques outlined on the website as well. Narrative Essay? Drop-in services are available for students with any questions, and they can also schedule Career Appointments to discuss in detail their problems, concerns, goals, and plans with an experienced professional. The Career Closet is topics a clothing service available for students who require professional attire for meetings, interviews, or other important events. The Princeton Review’s Best 379 Colleges: 2015 Edition, lists Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas, as the #8 school with the best Career Services Department. Individual advising at fredrick douglass essay Southwestern’s CSD allows students the freedom to assess themselves and to discover what makes them feel the most fulfilled. Advisers help students identify what is unique about their personality, and apply that to a major and/or a job search, so that a career coincides with one’s interests and passions, which is of pivotal importance.

Once students have accurately assessed themselves, they can discover what paths might best suit them with the university’s extensive career research resources, as well as in the fairs and workshops scheduled throughout the year. The CSD assists students in finding internships and volunteer and for technology development, leaderships opportunities to learn more about particular interests, and to start building an impressive resume. For alumni, CSD has tools, workshops, free assessment resources (such as access to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for narrative, gauging personality types), and literary, training seminars. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign offers world-renowned on-campus and online degree programs for fredrick, its students that all result in massively successful employment rates/career paths (around 88% or higher). The UIUC Career Center hosts numerous exciting opportunities for students to connect with employers through literally record-setting job fairs at which hundreds of companies attend, such as the annual Illini Career and Internship Fair! UIUC provides programs that are specifically catered for undergraduate, graduate, and international students to assist them throughout their job search both inside and outside of their programs. The Career Center is also largely focused on improving student diversity, and paper, connects students of color, as well as LGBT students, disabled students, and Veterans with intriguing groups, organizations, and workshops. This marvelous academic institution has particularly exciting opportunities for Health Profession students, and supplies them with special accommodations and career preparation in a unique field that requires a more specific understanding of the industry.

All students have access to career development professionals that dutifully assist in counseling and advising, interview preparation, resume and essay, cover letter writing, and more! University of Southern Mississippi. Career Services at the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg, works to essay topics, establish deep connections and networking availability between students, alumni, and employers. Their mission is to create an environment in which employers and douglass narrative, potential employees, students and alumni can interact and communicate about job opportunities across the nation, easing the transition between graduation, or unemployment, to a career. Counseling is available for help with difficult decisions and documents, and reference paper, a team of professionals is douglass essay available to help with all of the processes involved in executing a successful job hunt—resume building, cover letter writing, and interviewing and salary negotiation techniques. The Resource Center has all of the 3rd person essay, books, articles, periodicals, and self-assessment tests and survey any job hunter might need during their exploration. Essay? The Cooperative Education Program connects students with employers within their major and assimilates them into a particular field, which not only gives a student invaluable experience, but also financially supports their education. Many employers often come to USM campus to conduct interviews, which can potentially save students a large amount of time and energy. Eagle Employment is a fabulous resource for students and essay topics, employers, in which students can find job and internship listings, locate a mentor through the mentor network, as well as increase networking connections.

Eagle Employment is also open to fredrick essay, employers who can post jobs and find resumes that meet their qualifications for a certain position. USM also has regularly scheduled workshops, and literary analysis, twice a year Career Services hosts a job fair where over 85 employers are in attendance. Once students graduate from Everest University online, they are inducted into a national network of fredrick douglass narrative, schools, giving them access to job postings across the country through a networking database. EU also has over thesis 100 locations throughout the country, which drastically increases the availability of information concerning job openings. Career Services at EU online gives students access to helpful career planning and testing websites, and students also have access to nationwide salary ranges, job titles and descriptions, statistical programs, and more. The Career Services staff assists every job hunting student or alumnus with interviewing, resumes and cover letter writing, job leads, references templates, salary negotiation, and douglass narrative, has access to paper, valuable industry and company information. Everest students are dutifully trained in #8220;skills that are current and fredrick douglass narrative, desired by thesis, employers,#8221; and reports an 80% employment rate. EU Career Services ensures that students and graduates are prepared to enter the job market and are available to assist them throughout the process.

Many students want a degree that will land them the highest paying annual salary, in which case they should attend Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania where the average salary for employed students after graduation was around $76,000 in fredrick douglass 2013, and the highest reported salary was $175,000! Carnegie Mellon educates a large number of computer science and engineering majors, thus a large number of employers seeking Carnegie Mellon graduates include companies such as Apple, IBM, and Google. The Career Services staff have created templates for resumes, cover letters, networking emails, references, and portfolios for students and literary analysis essay odyssey, alumni compiling job documents. Students can schedule meetings with Carnegie Mellon Career Consultants to review resume drafts and receive training on interviewing and networking. TartanTRAK, the university’s database for listing job openings, streamlines job hunting for both employers and employees. Experiential Learning is an exciting CMU program in essay which students spend a short time in a college or federal community service position to gain more experience and understanding of what it means to be a diligent employee.

Carnegie Mellon University not only has fabulous resources for building resumes and interviewing skills, but for real-world involvement in full or part-time positions. In Hanover, New Hampshire, Dartmouth College has a massive alumni network and career service resources. The Dartmouth Career Network is a group of over 23,000 Dartmouth alumni who can offer guidance to students. The Center for Professional Development website includes a calendar of events that guide students through implementing strategies for media size fashion bran, reaching goals outside of college. Of students that have dropped-in for appointments at the CPD for essay, help with resumes, interviewing tactics, networking availability, and applying to graduate programs, 98% have reported a successful and helpful experience. Students who visit the CPD for job search guidance have have been recruited by companies such as Google, Facebook, and Goldman Sachs. Dartboard is the unique social networking website that connects students with potential employers and and report, has helped over 3,400 people find work from over 1,700 employers. Fredrick Narrative? The Professional Development Accelerator is a new, two-year preparedness program for incoming students that implements a custom phone app, giving them an early start in 100 argumentative essay career exploration. The Startup Experience collaborates with The Rockefeller Center in a two-day crash course on the needs, requirements, and plans in starting a new business. In 2011, the Wall Street Journal called Texas AM University in College Station, #8220;the 2nd most popular university in hiring college talent.#8221; Partnered with over fredrick 4,000 companies seeking employees, including several multi-billion dollar industries such as BP, Union Pacific Railroad, and CenterPoint Energy, in 2013 there were over 13,700 job posting representing over 60,000 unique positions.

There are hundreds of seminars and development, workshops scheduled for Aggies (Texas AM students), to which there are tens of thousands of narrative, participants. For the past 10 years, the Social media and small size fashion bran, university has received Best Practice Recognition for exceptional Career Coordinator programs, mock interview programs, and website guides, as well as for many other outstanding services. Fredrick Narrative? Programs and advisory are available to all Aggies, alumni, and essay, students. The award winning career service staff has participated in many national career service events and have been recognized for their extraordinary service to their alumni and fredrick narrative essay, students, with such awards as the National Association of Colleges and Employers Award of Excellence. Career Services amenities include workshops, work abroad programs, AggiExternships (a program in which students join an alumnus in Social and small their place of fredrick essay, employment for a shadowing day), job postings, on-campus interviews, and a Career Resource Library. Pennsylvania State University in State College, reports an 83% job placement rate, and students and alumni are welcome to take advantage of their career support systems throughout their lives in the job market. Students can begin their career quest with a short drop-in visit with one of 3rd person, Penn State’s full-time career counselors who advise students on fredrick douglass interviewing, networking, internships, jobs and job shadowing, salary negotiating, and development, picking an appropriate major. After an initial drop-in meeting, students have the option to sign up for douglass narrative essay, individual counseling, which is much more in-depth, and provides students with a professional mentor throughout college. The Career Library is equipped with books, handouts, and other texts, videos, and numerous online information and analysis, analysis resources.

There are dozens of workshops, programs, and academic career courses offered throughout the narrative, year, and Penn State is a research paper also heavily involved with the Peace Corps, giving students wonderful opportunities to fredrick douglass narrative, engage in volunteer work. LionLink is the networking site that connects PSU students, alumni, and career coaches with one another, offering an opportunity to essay for technology development, build professional relationships with others in similar fields. From day one at Princeton University in douglass New Jersey, Career Services shepherds students through the and report, career processes in the 4-Year Career Action Plan—a customized strategy for each Princeton Student that matches their majors, interests, and personalities with an employer, internship, or school. This program separates job searching into douglass manageable steps that parallel with each consecutive school year, starting from discovering majors and career development opportunities, to paper, landing a position at an upstanding company. There are surveys, tests, fairs, panels, and workshops to help students #8220;zero in#8221; on the most fulfilling career, as well as prepare themselves for interviewing and accepting a fitting position. #8220;Princeternships#8221; is narrative a remarkable program in which students spend 1-3 days shadowing an alumnus at their place of work during academic breaks. Reference A Research Paper? Princeternships have greatly helped students either find their calling, or abandon an unsuitable plan in douglass narrative order to find something more appropriate. About 87% of students have #8220;achieved their post-graduate goals#8221; just 6 months after graduation. Both the University of Texas at Austin McComb#8217;s School of Business and the Department of a research paper, Government report exceedingly high job and/or graduate school placement results for their students at 91-92.5%, which applies to both undergraduate and graduate students. Business school alumni in particular are virtually guaranteed an incredibly high wage, at douglass narrative upwards of $130,000 per year for some specializations!

The UT Austin administration begins preparing its students for the job market as their academic career comes to a close, and provides a huge number of resources upon which student may fall back on during their job search. Using a program known as #8220;Handshake,#8221; the UT Austin Career Services Department connects students with a vast amount of applicable recruiters, employers, networking contacts, alumni, and career services events. Students can sharpen their interviewing and resume writing skills with career coaches who are dedicated to the success of thesis, students of all academic pursuits. Students have open access to career counselors who guide them through their future choices and douglass narrative essay, training resources. The McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University in literary essay Washington, DC, consistently reports impressive job placement statistics.

Their success is due to dedicatedly preparing students to enter into the workforce, and from establishing networking connections and relationships between students, faculty, alumni, and employers. Large companies that seek out degreed students from Georgetown University include American Airlines, Bank of fredrick narrative, America, General Electric, Goldman Sachs, and many other Fortune 500 companies and multimillion dollar industries. In 2013, GU reported that 91% of students were employed 3 months after graduation. Students begin developing their career strategies the summer before they enter into McDonough School of Business, which includes developing a career hypothesis, value strategies, and reference a research paper, career marketing portfolio items. The Career Center offers comprehensive career curriculums to ensure that students are prepared before they arrive on campus, and to douglass essay, assist them through business school.

Career coaches and advisers are also available to help students prepare resumes, cover letters, stage mock interviews, and address any concerns. After graduation, alumni have the opportunity to mentor students in 3rd person essay their career search, keeping networking connections strong and well established. Douglass Essay? The University of Florida in Gainesville, reports strong job placement statistics from Social and small bran, students who have been dutifully prepared for a life outside of a structured college environment. UF has one-on-one resources to help students choose their majors, there are major fairs where students can explore their options, and CHOMP (Career Help for Major Planning) is an online program to assist in picking a major. When students are ready to fredrick narrative essay, start planning for their careers, there are numerous career fairs, virtual fairs, workshops, courses, panels, and showcases to take advantage of, where students can learn proper etiquette, techniques, and skills required in for technology maneuvering in the job market. The Career Center staff is readily available to answer any questions and help prepare necessary documents, and reported a job employment rate of 91% in 2013. The Career Center website is well organized and provides prudent information and guidelines concerning interviewing skills, resume writing, and job hunting. Gator CareerLink is the networking site that connects students and alumni, providing a virtual space where individuals can post resumes and sift through open positions while networking with other UF alumni. Douglass? Career preparation at New York University is extensive and well-planned in the Wasserman Center for topics, Career Development.

Here, the planning starts early, and students meet with career coaches who provide personalized care and preparation with individuals. These coaches have access to state-of-the-art surveys and tests to narrow down a student’s skills and interests and, when it comes time, they also assist in resume writing and building interviewing skills. Fredrick Essay? Students also have the option to connect with a professional mentor (typically an alumnus) who helps them understand what it means to reference a research, be employed in douglass essay their field of interest, and who also helps initiate networking relationships, critique resumes, and reference a research, offers guidance. Together with both coach and mentor, students have the opportunity to uniquely and productively refine their goals. NYU Career Development also schedules career fairs, expos, and essay, workshops. As a result of such diligent preparation, 94% of reference a research, NYU graduates were employed full-time or enrolled in a graduate or professional school within 6 months after graduation, with a median salary for graduates between $53,350. Also in 2013, NYU reported that 93% of narrative essay, juniors either had part-time jobs or an internship.

Students at NYU are well taken care of while in analysis odyssey school, and well-prepared in narrative essay the job market. In 2014, 94.7% of graduates were employed full-time or enrolled in a graduate or professional school within 6 months post-graduation. At the Wake Forest University School of Business, the Center for Market Readiness and Employment begins the career process for individual students before orientation, continues after graduation, and also once students are employed. The CMRE exposes students to tools that will help them self-assess their marketable traits and 3rd person essay, skills, apply those skills to narrative essay, a major, and develop strategies for communicating with employers and securing employment. WFU gives students access to reference paper, company profiles, industry events, and alumni networking through online databases. The CMRE prepares students for the job market by engaging them in a series of fredrick douglass, workshops, courses, clinics, and mock interviews to development, ensure their comfort and fredrick, readiness when speaking and networking with professionals.

WFU has a team of Social size bran, career coaches that are specialized by degree to fredrick narrative, give students the most in-depth and personalized counseling possible. In 2011, the university reported a 92% employment rate for essay, students 6 months after graduation, a statistic that continues to increase each year. Fredrick? Wake Forest graduates have been employed and recruited by multinational, multimillion dollar industries such as PWC, Earnest and Young, and essay, other professional services networks. The Princeton Review has ranked the douglass narrative essay, career development department at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, as #1 for 4 out of the past 7 years. This department has over 250 programs available to guide students through developing their #8220;VIPS#8221; (values, interests, personality, and skills).

Over 3,000 employers are constantly searching Northeastern networking sites for essay topics, strong employees, and in 2014, the department listed around 1,800 new job openings. There are programs to douglass narrative, strengthen salary negotiating skills, networking, and interviewing, as well as workshops to help discover majors and career options. Social Media And Small? The Career Services Department has resources and websites that will match students with prospective employers, and the department guides students through the entire process, from resume and cover letter composition, to interviewing, to deciding upon the best job offer. The Employers in Residence program connects students with employers from the Peace Corps, Raytheon (a company specializing in defense and homeland security), and Shawmut Design and Construction. This program is unique in that resident employers have offices inside the university and are available specifically to narrative, help students bolster their resumes and feel more confident. 96% of paper, Northeastern students reported that after only fredrick narrative, one session with a career counselor they were more prepared and comfortable with the job search process, 100% of students said that they would return to continue workshopping their careers, and 92% were either employed or enrolled in graduate school 9 months after graduation.

Washington University in St. Louis. In 2014, the Olin School of Business at size fashion bran Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, reported an average of about 93% of business school graduates who had received either full-time employment or an internship 90 days after graduation. #8220;Hundreds of companies from around the narrative essay, world recruit Olin School of Business students…#8221; These companies include Bloomingdales, Epic Systems, Deloitte, as well as many others. Median salaries for employed students start between $50,000 to $100,000—pay scales that will only increase with dedicated employment. And Report? The Weston Career Center employs seasoned business professionals and draws upon their knowledge to train and prepare individuals for their job hunt. Students meet with advisers to devise their plans for fredrick douglass essay, interning, interviewing, resume writing, and salary negotiating. The WCC also has an array of online resources and schedules, training workshops, seminars, and fairs. The WCC received 100% and was award an A+ by the National OUT for Work Certification Program for its LGBT programs that connect lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, and transgendered students with gay-friendly companies and work environments. 100 Argumentative Topics? The focus of individualized care and guidance at WUSL is fredrick douglass essay unmatched in its effectiveness.

This small, private school in Dudley, Massachusetts, Nichols College claims that 4 out of every 10 graduates go on to become a president or CEO of a reputable company or industry, or become their own business owner. Nichols also reports a 93% employment rate. These impressive statistics are a result of Nichols’ dedicated career coaches who act as guides to students throughout their lives in and out of college. These coaches train students in interviewing, networking through social media, and searching for jobs and internships. Nichols #8220;strongly believes#8221; in Social media size bran a valuable, cooperative (and paid!) work experience, where students can gain knowledge in their field during an internship. Nichols students have interned with the New England Patriots, the U.S.

Department of State, and Warner Trade Publishing. Once a year, Nichols hosts #8220;one of the largest college career fairs in fredrick essay New England, with over 65 employers including Starbucks, Walt Disney Studios, Liberty Mutual, Enterprise Rent-a-Car, and the FBI…#8221; Nichols students receive peerless care and attention from the dedicated staff in the Career Services Department. There are 24 different online degree programs at Virginia College, which offer just as many opportunities as the 3rd person essay, 25 physical locations throughout the southern United States. This educational institution has personalized service professionals available to assist all individuals with any matters concerning career services, financial planning, technology, and academics. VC reports a 93% employment rate for students after graduation. Career Services is constantly researching the job market so that the douglass narrative, college may offer degrees and programs for careers in which the greatest job growth is expected. There are also programs available for help in interviewing skills, resume writing and editing, and there are career councilors who help students choose the career best suited for 3rd person, them and who market their skills to douglass narrative, employers. Every year, Michigan State University in East Lansing receives glowing recognition across the reference, globe for fredrick douglass narrative, their success as an topics, educational institution.

MSU has also produced award winning career guides along side employer partners, and reports a job placement rate of about 95%. The Career Services Network offers dozens of career workshops and courses throughout each semester that cover interviewing skills, resume writing, networking, advantageously using social networking websites, and many other important areas. Personal career advisers are available to help students through the steps of developing their plans after college.The Informational Interviews program encourages students to douglass narrative, meet with professionals so that they may gain more awareness about a certain position. The Job Shadowing program and the Career Exposure Series connect students with alumni and professionals, giving opportunities to literary, gather even further perspective, with the possibility of employment! MSU’s unique Corporate Tours program takes students across the globe on trips to meet prominent employers within their areas of interest. What makes MSU award winners in their efforts is the connections, networking, and real-world experience that they establish between students, alumni, and employers. In 2013, the overall placement rate for graduated students at Clarkson College in fredrick douglass Potsdam, New York, was 95%, and has been the highest it has ever been for essay development, the last 5 years.

Of those students, 75% were employed directly out of college. Fredrick Narrative Essay? Career Services states that #8220;one in five Clarkson University graduates is the CEO, vice president or owner of odyssey, his or her own company,#8221; and many Clarkson graduates have taken leadership positions at reputable companies. Fredrick Douglass Essay? U.S. News and World Report has called Clarkson one of the and report, finest educational institutions in the country. Career Services also reports that the fredrick douglass narrative essay, number of students applying for graduate schools is reference a research steadily decreasing as more students are choosing to take on careers immediately after graduation. There are events and campus recruiting opportunities, as well as job fairs and workshops, scheduled throughout the fredrick, year where students have the opportunity to Social size fashion, connect with potential employers. Knightlink is the (constantly updated) Clarkson networking website that connects employers with Clarkson students.

Students can feel relief from the pressure of choosing a career with the help of the 6, full-time employees at Career Services who are available to help students with interviewing tactics, resume building, locating job openings, as well as any other possible concerns. For three consecutive years, Emory University’s business school, Goizueta, in Atlanta, Georgia, has had the most impressive job placement rates of any school in the world, according to Poets and Quants, at fredrick essay 95% 3 months after graduation and 98% 6 months after graduation, with an average full-time base salary of $107,000. The most lucrative degrees are in human resources, consulting, and finance, where starting salaries range up to $135,000. Classes within the thesis and report, curriculum train and tailor students in business fundamentals and interviewing processes, and career service support engages before students arrive on douglass narrative essay campus. Hundreds of students who graduate from Goizueta Business School have gone on to become integral parts of multibillion dollar corporations such as Google, numerous national and international banks, airlines, and auto industries. Graduates living in the southeastern and northeastern United States, have nearly a 40% full-time employment rate. Compared to the national employment rate of topics, 5.8% in November 2014, it is a virtual certainty that students of fredrick douglass essay, Goizueta at Emory will have gainful employment just several weeks post-graduation. Global industries, corporations, and companies are always on the look-out for thesis, University of Denver graduates to fill important employment positions. Companies that hire DU graduates include Apple, the Denver Nuggets, Teach for America, and douglass narrative essay, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In 2013, 96.4% of Denver graduates had received employment or enrollment in graduate school 6 months after graduation.

DU has specialized career planning services to help students plan their strategies from scratch. Career councilors assist students in discovering what is unique and marketable about themselves and thesis, apply that to finding a major, internships, interviews, and employment. Online amenities include self-assessment surveys, virtual career fairs, and libraries. DU has written handbooks and copious guidelines, and students are highly encouraged to narrative, take advantage of the events, industry speakers, expert panels, and courses offered at the university. Career and internship databases keep DU students, alumni, career councilors, and employers informed of topics, who and what is available in the job market. North Dakota State College of Science. North Dakota State College of Science in Wahpeton, has educated and trained a strong workforce of students and alumni, and reports an employment placement rate of 98%. What makes NDSCS so successful is their focus on programs and degrees with a high employment rate in the job market, dedicated attention to individual student’s needs and concerns, and the Cooperative Education program, which is an exceedingly valuable opportunity, both educationally and fredrick douglass narrative, financially.

Co-op students take two career courses, educating them on life in the job market, and work part-time, or full-time, paid jobs, giving them experience in their field, the possibility for full-time employment after graduation, and a richer, more in-depth education overall. Once a year, Career Services plans a massive career fair, to which over 200 employers are invited who represent every available degree or program at the college. The NDSCS Career Services Department is always available to assist students and alumni with their resume writing and interviewing skills, as well as guide them through the media and small fashion bran, career discovery process, and there are valuable guides and templates available on the Career Services website. Career Services at Bentley University in Waltham, Massachusetts, is a straightforward, simple, and massively successful department. This university boasted a 98% #8220;knowledge rate#8221; in 2013, a statistic that was calculated according to those alumni that were either gainfully employed, or enrolled in a graduate program. Fredrick Douglass Narrative? Of that 98%, 82% reported employment, and 3rd person, 16% reported enrollment at another educational institution. Career guidance is implemented within the curriculum so that every Bentley student has some formal knowledge and/or experience in job hunting, whether or not they have visited the fredrick douglass, Career Services Department in person. A Research Paper? Bentley has resources for virtual and live networking with alumni, and connects students with an alumnus mentor to act as their guide. This special process allows for direct, one-on-one experience between students and alumni, and fredrick narrative essay, there are scheduled lunches, panels, and on-campus events that are directly correlated with this program as well. Online career service amenities include LinkedIn communities, interviewing engines that help students practice interview questions, and Glassdoor, which is an Social fashion, online resource where employees submit reviews, salaries, and interview information about their employers, giving Bentley students a leg up on the benefits of certain positions. Students in the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia are recruited by many highly profitable companies and essay, industries each year.

Wharton employers include Bank of America, Citi, Ernest and Young, Google, as well as many other multinational, multimillion dollar industries. In 2014, the university reported a 98.6% employment rate 6 months after graduation with an reference a research, annual base salary of $125,000. After graduation, many Wharton students have gone on to create their own companies, which, with a degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Business, is highly conceivable and attainable. The Career Management team at UP #8220;has deep and expanding relationships with companies ranging from the Fortune 500 to start-ups, and more than 650 companies make offers to MBA graduates each year.#8221; Wharton students have access to fredrick douglass narrative essay, many online research tools and 100 argumentative essay topics, amenities for finding job listings and fredrick essay, engaging in self-assessments. Career Management organizes informal meetings, on-campus interviews, workshops, career courses, and employer information sessions attended by over 150 employers. Social Fashion Bran? Alumni, students, and the career management staff are united in the Global Alumni Network where over 92,000 alumni in a wide range of fredrick, professions can connect with students, faculty, and other alumni.

In 2014, Money, a magazine partnered with CNN, ranked Babson College, a small business school in literary essay odyssey Babson Park, Massachusetts, the douglass, #1 college in essay America. U.S News and World Report, a college ranking database, has ranked Babson the #1 college in fredrick entrepreneurship 18 times and Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review have given the university the #1 rank for entrepreneur programs for 3 years in a row. These incredibly impressive rankings are attributed to the vast success of 3rd person, Babson students—in 2013, 99% of fredrick, Babson College graduates were employed 6 months after graduation. Top employers of Babson students include PricewaterhouseCoopers, Bank of America, EY, Staples, and EMC. The college has access to essay, a state-of-the-art self-assessment and career services website and online training tool called CareerBeam, which is fredrick narrative accessible only by Babson students. Reference A Research Paper? Career Advisors, Employers-in-Residence, and Alumni Industry Advisors are available to assist and critique resumes and cover letters, giving students individualized attention and tips from business professionals. Once a year, Career Services hosts the Career Expo to fredrick, which over 70 employers are invited to meet with and talk to students about future employment and internship opportunities. What truly makes Babson College such a successful institution is that the fashion, academic curriculum is designed to train students in leveraging opportunities, practicing innovation, creating economic and social value, and douglass narrative essay, taking risks. Dickinson State University in media fashion bran North Dakota utilizes numerous online tools and programs, and fredrick douglass narrative essay, offers unique coursework to students and alumni. DSU does not require its students to take career guidance courses, but there are fabulous amenities to expedite the career hunting process.

Focus 2 is a state-of-the-art program used by media and small size, colleges to help students discover their best career options. Narrative Essay? This program separates the career discovery process into different sections for all levels of students. Dickinson uses Hawk4Hire, an online recruiting and job search website that gives students and alumni free access to degree-required job listings and internships, opportunities to reference paper, view and sign up for on-campus events, and douglass, space to post resumes for view by employers. The Career Ladder Program is 3rd person essay a unique and highly competitive program that connects students with potential employers who offer opportunities in a strutted sequence of positions, which provides real-life experience in a particular major or field, assimilating students into professional lives before leaving their academic environment. The staff in fredrick narrative the Career Services Department is available for media and small, help with resumes and cover letters and also stages mock-interviews. In 2011 Dickinson reported a 99.2% employment rate of graduates who were either employed, in fredrick narrative the military, or continuing their education, and has maintained this rate for many consecutive years. Located in New York, Syracuse University reports some of the best job placement statistics in the country. In 2013, of the 3,039 students surveyed, nearly 100% of graduates had full time jobs 6 months after graduation, and top employers of Syracuse graduates include Macy’s, JP Morgan, Earnest and Young, and a research, Ross Stores. Fredrick Narrative Essay? This incredibly high rate stems from a philosophy of individualized attention to students. Career councilors are available to help students choose majors, find internships, build career strategies, craft resumes and a research paper, cover letters, review interview tactics, and secure employment after graduation. Internships are highly recommended to ‘Cuse students, as they not only count as credit in fredrick narrative the academic curriculum, but they also give a student much needed experience, the 3rd person, chance to explore potential fields of interest, and douglass, opportunities to network with professionals.

Resources for finding internships and researching career strategies are abundant and diverse at SU, with special attention focused on persons with disabilities, international students, the LGBT community, multicultural students, and women. Career services encourages and trains students to leverage their internships to and report, make the fredrick douglass narrative essay, most out of employment potentiality. ‘CuseConnect is a LinkedIn group available only to Syracuse affiliates that keeps networking connections strong and paper, allows students, alumni, employees, and fredrick douglass narrative, career coaches to post important documentation, job listings, and resumes.

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essay contest prize In the summer of 2017, we partnered with one of Washington’s top foreign-policy outlets to fredrick douglass narrative, bring college students’ voices into our nation’s foreign policy conversation and to take a small step toward restoring a healthy, balanced civic debate on the proper scale of our nation’s ambitions and actions abroad. We received a deluge of Social and small fashion bran excellent submissions from young voices all across the country, all answering this question: “What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to narrative, the United States?” First prize went to essay for technology development, Andrew Beddow , who is also president of our University of Michigan chapter. In his essay, Beddow calls for fredrick narrative essay, America to set a clear grand strategy that recognizes the world’s complexity and thus does not treat international problems as separate and readily fixable.

Thus, “Intervention is for technology occasionally justified, and the United States both improves the condition of mankind and benefits itself through its continued participation in international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. However, intervention must be guided by a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the douglass narrative essay, core interests of the 100 argumentative essay topics, United States and limits activity abroad to the securing of these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. taking a moral stand against Russian annexation of Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to narrative essay, outweigh the reference a research, plausible negative consequences that will result from this action. In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the inherent unpredictability of intervention. Prudence, not beneficence, should be the guiding virtue of foreign policy.” One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School.

Gjoza’s essay examines our current strategy of global primacy – of “seeking to fredrick narrative, shape the world through frequent military intervention and by reference a research paper, maintaining and exercising overwhelming dominance over potential competitors.” He argues that this strategy has come at a high price in blood and treasure, and yet has failed to make America safer. And this strategy is a departure from douglass narrative, America’s traditional posture of for technology restraint. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, “As the other great powers of the day exhausted themselves in conflict against each other throughout the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, the United States developed its economy and society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to fredrick douglass essay, tip the balance in the World Wars. Reference Paper? This allowed the United States to emerge as an unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and approximately half of the world’s GDP. Narrative Essay? Today, however, the United States is on the other end of the spectrum, taking upon itself the burden of maintaining the global order while other nations enjoy the a research paper, benefits of peace and commerce.” Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of douglass essay Columbia University. Petti challenges the conventional view in Washington that America needs to double down on support for 3rd person essay, one of our most problematic allies, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – to treat their enemies as our own and to accept their account of the problems in their region. Essay? Petti’s essay highlights the failures of such an approach, calling the reference a research paper, current U.S.-Saudi relationship “a valuable case study of allied nations’ sometimes detrimental effect on essay U.S. foreign policy.” Thus, he writes, “U.S. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the 3rd person, negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the kingdom has to restrain its own actions. From the beginning of Saudi Arabia’s intervention in douglass Yemen, the Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and advanced munitions. This aid hasn’t quite made up for poor military leadership, but it has passed the mounting economic costs onto Social media size bran a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in the kingdom.

Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on deaf ears; as the Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only fredrick essay be encouraged to pursue the disastrous status quo.” He adds that the war has enabled Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the terrorist group, to take advantage of the chaos, meaning that “while attempting to please a U.S. ally, America is essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to the people responsible for the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting.” We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the growing number of thesis and report talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and restraint back into fredrick our foreign policy. We at the Society are here to help them. Below is the original prompt for essay, the essay contest, along with rules for submission. It’s clear that the foreign policy conversation here inside the fredrick douglass essay, Beltway is paper too narrow. No matter what the fredrick douglass, question is, the essay, answer always seems to be that the United States needs to do more – even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of alliance commitments and overseas bases. We need your voice to help change the conversation. That’s why we’re partnering with The National Interest – one of Washington’s most important foreign policy magazines – to launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in TNI, meaning they’ll be read by many of those who make the fredrick douglass essay, decisions and shape the discussions that set our country’s course in the world.

And by appearing in such a respected forum, you’ll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in international affairs. It’s a tremendous opportunity to restore balance to the discourse in DC – and to build your own personal brand. Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to reference a research, TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and fredrick narrative, doctoral students who will be attending institutions in the United States in the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to participate. The winning essays will run on TNI’s website and be promoted on social media by 3rd person essay, both TNI and douglass narrative, JQA. Prizes are as follows: • First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to TNI. • Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on TNI, one year subscription to TNI.

Additionally, the first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States? Submissions shall be between 1000 and a research, 1500 words, and are due by 11:59pm Eastern Time on Sunday, June 18, 2017, by following the fredrick, instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible. Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES.

1. SPONSOR: The sponsor of the Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the “Contest”) is the and report, John Quincy Adams Society. (the “Sponsor”). 2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and directors of the Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and douglass essay, divisions (“Related Entities”) and their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and their spouses) and household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to enter. Anyone serving as a contest judge is ineligible for the Contest. The Contest is void outside the fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia and where prohibited and literary essay, restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (“Law”). The Contest is subject to all Law. 3. HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at 12:00PM ET and ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the “Contest Period”). To be eligible for the Contest, you must: • Before the end of the Contest Period, go to the Contest entry page at this link, and submit an essay between 1000 and 1500 words in length on the topic of fredrick narrative essay “the benefits of a more restrained, careful foreign policy for the United States.”

To be eligible to submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the fall of 2017 in an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in the U.S. And Small Fashion? Department of Education’s most recent database ( No person may submit more than one Contest entry. Fredrick Narrative Essay? Attempting to submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the Contest. Your participation in the Contest is optional and at your sole and absolute discretion. 4. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: • Infringes on any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of any party; • May be deemed, within the essay development, meaning of Law, to be electioneering communications, intervention in a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; • Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of another’s privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; • You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); • Harms minors in any way; or. • Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any and all Contest entries that violate the above conditions, or for fredrick narrative essay, any other reason at any time without prior notice. 5. 100 Argumentative Essay Topics? JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: • Originality in thought (40%) • Demonstrated understanding of fredrick narrative essay foreign policy (40%) • Composition and style (20%) 6. PRIZES : On or about June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the “Prize Winners”).

The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the “Prize(s)”): • First Prize – $1000.00, two years’ subscription to The National Interest. ?• Runners Up (2) – $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest. All Prizes will be paid in size fashion bran United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the fredrick douglass essay, Prizes are as follows: First Prize – $1039.95; Runner Up – $279.95. The winning essays will be published on The National Interest ’s website. 7. PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of all elements of the Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in development its sole and absolute discretion. If an fredrick narrative essay, alternate prize is 3rd person substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the fredrick douglass essay, Prize being offered are: (a) provided “as is” with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by Social fashion bran, servicers or as required by Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to the Prize, including but not limited to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose; and (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the essay, Sponsor may substitute a prize of equal or greater value when necessary (not to and report, exceed $1039.95 for the First Prize or $279.95 for douglass narrative, the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at the sole and and report, absolute discretion of the fredrick douglass, Sponsor). Analysis Odyssey? Each Prize Winner assumes sole responsibility for all costs associated with any elements of the Prize not explicitly included as part of the Prize, including without limitation, all federal, state and douglass narrative essay, local taxes (if any), fees, surcharges, or other expenses. Other restrictions may apply. In compliance with United States Internal Revenue Service regulations, the Sponsor will send a Form 1099-MISC to any Prize Winner, which requires disclosure to development, the Sponsor of the Prize Winner’s Social Security number.

Prize Winners remain solely responsible for paying all federal and other taxes in accordance with Laws that apply in the Prize Winner’s state of residence. 8. PRIZE WINNER NOTIFICATION: The Prize Winners will be announced by a means reasonably calculated by the Sponsor to reach all Contest entrants. Following the announcement of the douglass narrative, Prize Winners, the individuals selected as the Prize Winners will be notified via email or telephone within three days from the date of selection by the Sponsor based on the information provided by that person on his or her entry form. The Prize Winners will be required to complete, sign, and 100 argumentative, return an Affidavit of fredrick essay Eligibility, Liability Release, and Publicity Release (the “Winners Affidavit”) within fourteen days of the date the Sponsor provides a Prize Winner the literary analysis essay odyssey, notification email or call. If a Prize Winner fails to satisfy any eligibility requirements, declines to accept the Prize, or is ineligible for any other reason, the Prize Winner may be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected at the sole and absolute discretion of the Sponsor. Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in disqualification. The Sponsor is not responsible for fraudulent communications made by fredrick narrative essay, third parties to Contest entrants or the Prize Winners.

A Prize Winner is essay not an official winner until the Prize Winner returns the narrative, Winner’s Affidavit and eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to and report, the Sponsor all right, title, and interest of every kind and fredrick douglass, nature whatsoever that you have in the essay you write as part of topics your Contest entry, including the copyright and all other intellectual property rights thereto. As a condition of receiving your prize, you may be required to execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to sponsor of your Contest Essay. In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to the Sponsor all causes of action, including accrued, existing, and fredrick essay, future causes of action, arising out of or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10. And Report? DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their members, directors, officers, employees, and agents from any and narrative essay, all liability with respect to all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from participation in this Contest, and the possession, acceptance, or misuse of prizes. By entering the Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and causes of action arising out of or connected to literary analysis essay odyssey, the Contest or the Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action; (b) any and douglass essay, all claims, judgments and 3rd person essay, awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the Contest but in no event attorneys’ fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to obtain any award for, and you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and fredrick narrative essay, any and 3rd person, all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and fredrick douglass narrative essay, any other damages, other than for actual out-of-pocket expenses. All issues and questions concerning the Social and small fashion, construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of these Contest rules, or the rights and obligations of the entrants and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Virginia without giving effect to any choice of law or conflict of fredrick law rules or provisions that would cause the application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of and report Virginia.

Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to fredrick douglass narrative essay, these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in thesis the Eastern District of Virginia, and the parties consent to douglass, jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of a research paper any provision of these Contest rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision. In the event that any provision is determined to essay, be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in 100 argumentative essay effect and be construed in accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in these Contest rules. 11. INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is fredrick douglass narrative essay not capable of running as planned due to an infection by a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contest, the essay for technology, Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and absolute discretion to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest. The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in douglass narrative essay operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries. The Sponsor is not responsible for essay, any problems or technical malfunctions of douglass any telephone network or telephone lines, computer online systems, servers, or providers, computer equipment, software, failure of any email or entry to be received by and report, the Sponsor due to technical problems, human error or traffic congestion on the internet or at fredrick narrative essay any website, or any combination thereof, including any injury or damage to your or any other person’s computer relating to or resulting from essay, participating in this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest. CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. Fredrick Douglass Narrative Essay? SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES OR OTHER REMEDIES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON(S) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTEMPT TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Uses of automated devices are not valid for entry. 12.

USE OF INFORMATION: The information that you provide in connection with the Contest may be used by Sponsor to literary analysis essay odyssey, inform you about related opportunities and developments involving charitable or educational topics that the Sponsor thinks may be of interest to you. Fredrick? Sponsor may also share the information you provide in Social media fashion bran connection with the Contest with its subsidiaries, affiliates, divisions, and third parties in order to advance charitable or educational goals, and as otherwise stated in the Sponsor’s terms of narrative use and odyssey, privacy statement. 13. GENERAL: By entering this Contest or accepting the Prize, you (a) agree to be bound by the Sponsor’s policies, these Contest rules, and fredrick douglass, the decisions of thesis Sponsor which are final and binding in all respects; and (b) consent to the use of your name, voice, picture, and likeness for charitable, educational, advertising, and promotional purposes in any medium throughout the world in perpetuity without additional compensation unless prohibited by Law. The Sponsor reserves the douglass essay, right to correct typographical, clerical, or printing errors in any Contest materials. The Sponsor reserves the right to prohibit any person from participating in the Contest if, at reference a research paper its sole and absolute discretion, the Sponsor finds such person to be tampering with the fredrick narrative, entry process or the operation of the Contest, or if such participant repeatedly shows a disregard for or attempts to circumvent these Contest rules, or acts: (x) in a manner the and report, Sponsor determines to be not fair or equitable; (y) with an intent to annoy, threaten, or harass any other entrant, the Sponsor, or related entities; or (z) in fredrick any other disruptive manner. The Sponsor reserves the right to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest at its sole and absolute discretion.

14. WINNERS’ LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an literary analysis, official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an narrative essay, email to essay, Note: Section 2 was updated on 5/4/2017 to update the list of eligible locations.

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essay format uni The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for fredrick douglass, thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of paper, which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for assessment in history. Fredrick Narrative! The chief reason is 100 argumentative essay, that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it. Fredrick Douglass! Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essay! Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the fredrick douglass, topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an analysis essay odyssey entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process.

2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of fredrick, solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to essay odyssey, the field of douglass, possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is development, almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the fredrick narrative, historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to and report, it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the fredrick douglass, events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of a research, this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem.

It follows from essay all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is literary essay odyssey, no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of information will you need to answer the fredrick douglass, question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to do. It is useful to 100 argumentative essay, note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the fredrick douglass essay, reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and for technology, illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and fredrick douglass, 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence.

You must show why your assessment is the best by media size fashion, considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the narrative, criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the essay, function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure.

One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in fredrick douglass narrative essay, turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. A Research Paper! [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the fredrick douglass narrative, universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response. Social Size Bran! You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. Fredrick Douglass Essay! You should consider the analysis odyssey, merits of a variety of douglass narrative, responses. If possible you should always examine the analysis essay, book or article from which the quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences.

One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and contrast, and to essay, devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and media and small size, reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to fredrick douglass, produce a narrative of what happened. In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues.

Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. Literary Essay Odyssey! Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. Douglass Narrative! But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research.

It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to thesis, make in douglass, order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument?

Do I need to 3rd person, know more about the examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on fredrick douglass, the line of argument you intend to use, and literary analysis essay odyssey, identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the narrative, texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the literary, information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. Fredrick Essay! You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to essay for technology development, collect?

Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about douglass narrative essay, your argument. Follow your instincts: if the 3rd person essay, argument feels wrong, look for a better one. Essay! It is better to start again than to topics, write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to douglass narrative essay, '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out 100 argumentative essay topics steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to answer the question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of fredrick douglass essay, material or evidence you will be using. It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence.

The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to organise the paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and essential to essay for technology, the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph.

These ought not to fredrick douglass narrative, be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of a research, introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of fredrick essay, medieval Europe. It is also possible to reference, assess the fredrick essay, extent of the catastrophe by essay odyssey, looking at the level of demand for douglass narrative essay, land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in topics, 1310 of. [several sentences of fredrick narrative essay, examples] . The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in Social media size fashion bran, the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the fredrick douglass narrative, explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to media and small bran, another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion.

This much is fredrick douglass essay, illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in for technology development, the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. Fredrick Douglass! [and so on.] You need to give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to thesis and report, vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the reader. If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to fredrick douglass, be given the additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to and report, quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to put things in essay, your own words while still clearly signalling the a research paper, source of the fredrick, idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of your essay.

It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the thesis and report, first draft or as you write. Fredrick! Sometimes, it is best to go back and footnote the literary essay odyssey, essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the fredrick douglass essay, rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the notes at the bottom of the and small fashion, page rather than at the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and narrative, saves the marker flicking back and forth. Essay Topics! The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out fredrick douglass narrative essay a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else.

Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the for technology development, essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to fredrick essay, achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and essay development, consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward.

You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and fredrick narrative essay, punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of essay, your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for narrative, example, will both be accepted as correct by reference paper, a word processor regardless of douglass, which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to reference, write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. Essay! It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to the development of this art.

Credits: This guide was devised and developed by analysis essay, Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).