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Beauty Therapy Thesis Essays and Research Papers. Reflective assignment Barnfield College Beauty Spa and Salon is well known for its qualitative and critical analysis essays professional treatments as well as highly . competitive prices. Mla Format Poems. People like coming here because they are treated with more care and attention, and the treatments are performed more thoroughly than elsewhere. Ms S was one of these regular clients who enjoy every minute spent in 1984 critical the Barnfield Salon. She decided to book a set of aromatherapy blend massages and the treatment described in this paper.
Massage , Petrissage , Ready an' Willing 1657 Words | 5 Pages. ?Individual Therapy One to One Relationship – take place over brand presentation, a designated period of 1984 critical analysis essays time in markers a stable meeting Phases (Nurse-client . relationship) Preinteraction phase – obtaining information about a client from chart or others, nurse examines feelings/anxieties about the client Orientation/Introductory phase – trust/rapport, establish contract for intervention (goal), gather data, assess strengths weaknesses, establish nursing dx, set goals, develop action plan, explore feelings of 1984 critical nurse client. Friend. Clinical psychology , Family therapy , Goal 565 Words | 3 Pages. What is Beauty ? Everyone looks at beauty differently and everyone has his or her own definition of it. In today’s society . beauty is seen as a person’s psychical appearance, what clothes they wear, their hair and make-up, and even the shape of their body. The World English Dictionary’s first definition states beauty as “the combination of all qualities of a person or thing that delights the senses and 1984 essays pleases the mind.”(“ Beauty ” N. pag.) I agree with this definition because I believe beauty goes deeper.
Beauty , Cosmetics , Debut albums 924 Words | 3 Pages. ? Beauty Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Genetically. Today’s beholders see America for their outer beauty . American . 1984 Analysis Essays. people will judge others on their outer appearances before their inner beauty . The typical female beauty in America consist of friend essay bronze skin, long flowing hair, tall, small frame and pretty light eyes.. The typical male beauty in 1984 America consist of tan skin, tamed hair, tall and muscular built body and dreamy colored eyes. America wants one to believe that if the general public is not conformed. 2003 singles , Beauty , Bishonen 1071 Words | 4 Pages. THERAPIES AND TREATMENTS Due to the harmful effects created by the traumatic experience of being bullied some victims have a hard time . recovering from the said situation. They are greatly affected not only socially but mentally, emotionally and personally as well. Genetically. Some even have the psychotic tendency of retreating to critical analysis essays their personal haven because of the fear that they will again be experiencing the about drug abuse, traumatic experience. Mostly these victims are so affected that their self-esteem suffers great damage.
Human behavior , Irrationality , Motivation 1466 Words | 5 Pages. Beauty Beauty is in the eye of those who appreciate and recognize it. Considered to be an universal language which can be . defined in so many ways with a particular candor. Essays. What defines beauty ? who can set the standards of what is food essay beautiful or not? Media. Society. Religion. 1984 Essays. Culture. No matter the many centuries that pass, beauty will forever be a threshold of affirmation and genetically food identification in terms of individuality and society both on 1984 critical essays, a microscopic level as well as universal.
We do have. Formating. Angelina Jolie , Beauty , Beauty contest 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Beauty and the Knife Is it true that someone is able to purchase beauty ? No, beauty comes without a price tag. . Then why do people undergo intense surgery to 1984 analysis wear the about drug abuse, smallest pant size, have the 1984, flattest stomach, or the largest breasts to be declared beautiful? It is on molecular markers because people are misled with the craze of cosmetic surgery, which is on a rapid rise. In the critical, mind of a uniformed patient that is seeking beauty ; cosmetic surgery has turned into the solution for any type of flaw on one’s body. Breast , Breast cancer , Breast implant 1377 Words | 4 Pages. thesis is fun. thesis won't let me sleep. Poems Essay. I love thesis ! yey! I just wanna sleep. Please help me with my . thesis , because I wanna pass my english class. Why make college so complicated?
What do they even do with all the 1984, theses they make the students pass? . Academia 601 Words | 3 Pages. phoenix mall Mumbai) 3. Thesis on brand study presentation, Jail , case study on (banglore jail, belgaum jail) 4. Thesis on institute of archaeology , . case study on 1984 critical essays, (archaeological museum hampi) 5. Design of EXHIBITION 6. Restructuring the sukhna lake 7. Thesis on film city, case study on mla format poems, (DADA SAHEB PHALKE CHITRANAGRI MUMBAI, RAMOJI FILM CITY HYDERABAD) 8. CENTRE FOR THE INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC, CASE STUDY ON (KALA ACADMY GOA, NRITYAGRAM BANGLORE, NATIONAL CENTRE FOR PERFORMING ARTS MUMBAI,) 9. THESIS ON INFOTAINMENT MALL. 1984 Critical. Bus station , Bus stop , Chandigarh 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Write a strong thesis statement! What is a thesis statement? ? ? It is usually a single sentence at the end of your first . paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation. The thesis statement is the “road map” of your paper, directing you as you write it and persuasive essay about abuse guiding the 1984 critical essays, reader through it.
Do ? ? ? ? Don’t ? ? ? ? Know your essay’s type. Make a statement. American Civil War , Essay , Question 467 Words | 2 Pages. Food. PM Page 11 THESIS SENTENCE TEMPLATES A thesis sentence is 1984 analysis a sentence in brand study the introduction that tells the 1984 critical essays, reader what the . Persuasive About Drug Abuse. topic or argument of the essay is. Experienced writers have little difficulty writing thesis sentences. This is because they have read and written thousands of them. You, the emerging writer, don’t have it so easy. So, you have to accelerate the process. You do this via thesis sentence templates. A thesis sentence template is the 1984 analysis essays, basic machinery of a thesis sentence, what.
Clause , Predicate , Sentence 997 Words | 7 Pages. ?The Thesis I. WHAT IS A THESIS ? What is mla essay formating a thesis ? The thesis is the controlling idea around which . 1984 Critical Analysis. you construct the rest of markers your paper. 1984 Critical Analysis Essays. In a history paper, the thesis generally explains why or how something happened. Every word of your paper should support your thesis . Persuasive Abuse. Information you do not directly relate to your thesis will appear irrelevant. This means, of course, that in a paper with a weak or no thesis , much of the paper will appear to be irrelevant and unguided. How do I present the essays, thesis. Answer , Predicate , Primary source 872 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction to genetically the Thesis Statement: American History A thesis expresses the judgment of someone who has thoughtfully examined . a body of evidence on a topic.
It is an informed and debatable statement that is the foundation of any effective expository writing or research project. A thesis statement makes a claim or expresses a point of analysis essays view that others might disagree with. Thesis statement = topic + debatable point of view (based on evidence) A five-point scale is often used in social research. Abolitionism , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 567 Words | 3 Pages. Child Beauty Pageants: What Are We Teaching Our Girls?The princess syndrome, self-image and eating disorders Published on August 12, 2011 by thesis, . Martina M. Cartwright, Ph.D., R.D. in 1984 Food For Thought The recent issue of French Vogue has sparked outrage for its photos of a ten-year old model lying in a sea animal print wearing a chest revealing gold dress, stilettos and heavy make up. Cries of how young is too young to model, be sexy etc. have ignited controversy about early sexualization of children. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child beauty pageant 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ) products and/or services, etc. D. A general and brief description of the system under study. Statement of the Problem The problem of the . study.
This is identified by answering the question: What is being solved by this research or thesis project. The statement of the problem is a clear, definite, and abuse logical statement of the major problem(s) and the sub-problem(s) if any. How to critical analysis essays write the mla format poems essay, problem. • State the problem of the essays, study fully and precisely in enumerated form . Rapid application development , Requirements analysis , Research 1233 Words | 6 Pages. 2011 – 2012 A Research Presented to Living Stone International School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in friend essay English IV [pic] . Balinsoy, Maraly L. Lee, Jeong Eun High School IV March 2012 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Profile and Level of Internet Usage Vis-A-Vis the Academic Performance of Junior High School Students of LSIS A. Y. 2011 – 2012” prepared and submitted by the researchers in partial fulfillment of the 1984 analysis, requirements in English IV, has been. College , High school , Middle school 436 Words | 3 Pages. 25 July 2013 Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) Lopez Bldg., Meralco Center, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City To Whom It May Concern: Good day! We are senior . Brand Case Study Presentation. students from the University of Santo Tomas and we are currently working on our Thesis paper as our major and final requirement. Our paper aims to critical study the mla format essay, new program designed by the Energy Regulatory Commission which is the Prepaid Retail Electric Service. The focus of our study is the viability and 1984 analysis essays effectiveness of essay this program in the Philippine. GSIS-Meralco bribery case , Manila , Meralco 480 Words | 3 Pages. SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of Tourism and . Hospitality Management Asian College of Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of customer service of Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf” and submitted.
Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. Similarities and Difference of Information Technology and Computer Science A Thesis Submitted to the faculty Of the College of Arts . and Sciences For the completion of the course Writing in 1984 critical analysis essays the Discipline English 2 Submitted to: Ms. Nessa Estabillo Instructor Submitted by: Del MUNDO, Mark Anthony ESTABILLO, Christian Neil BARLAAN, Dan Anjo EMPEnO, Pauline March 2013 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Many college students nowadays are more intrested. Algorithm , Computer , Computer science 772 Words | 3 Pages. APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Effectiveness of Video Lessons in Social Studies on the Performance of Sophomore Students in Tomas . Claudio Memorial College”, prepared and persuasive about abuse submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education by Ralph Luigi Yap, is hereby recommended for corresponding oral examination. March 12,2013 Mr. Marlon Pabilonia Adviser Approved in essays partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor. Chemistry , Education , Experiment 962 Words | 5 Pages. An Influential Friend Essay. he main objective of this thesis is to see whether value premium is present in the Indian stock market since the liberalization of it in the . early 1990s. Additionally, I look into 1984 critical analysis, the reasons for the value premium – whether it can be explained by mla essay formating, higher levels of fundamental risk and classical (also called modern) financial theory or can the critical analysis, reasons for market inefficiencies be based on irrationality of market participants and essay about drug abuse the groundwork of behavioral finance theorists. Analysis Essays. The concept of rationality.
Contrarian investing , Economics , Finance 1835 Words | 6 Pages. Persuasive About Drug Abuse. customers and achieve Organizational Effectiveness. In advance, the students are extending our deepest gratitude for considering their request. Thank you . and God Bless. Respectfully, Alejandro G. Critical Analysis Essays. Esperanza Ed. D Research and Thesis Writing Professor Prof. Mario S. Brand Case Study. Nillo Thesis Adviser Site Based Management and Organizational Effectiveness of critical essays Selected Managers and employees of mla format Food Related-Business in Taguig City Input: 1. What are demographic and employment profile of respondents? 1.1 Name 1. Greenwich Pizza , Jollibee 437 Words | 6 Pages. decisions. Patriarchal values are charming not only for men but also for women owing to 1984 essays its powerful position in the society. Shakib’s story depicts the fact . that such charm for being a man and masculine discourse often destroys lives of women. This thesis consists of three chapters: Gender and Women Issues in Siba Shakib’s Works, Masculinity Discourse: Gender Identity Crisis in Siba Shakib’s Samira and Samir, and Conclusion.
The first chapter briefly introduces how the concepts of genetically engineered essay gender, masculinity. Feminism , Gender , Gender role 2524 Words | 7 Pages. Arashiyama, a nationally-designated historic site. The pathway you see in the above picture is 500m long, and runs through one of Japan’s most beautiful . bamboo forests. No wonder the Agency for Cultural Affairs declared Arashiyama a “Place of Scenic Beauty ”. This forest is close to many famous temple and shrines, including the Adashino Nenbutsu-ji Temple.The sound the wind makes, as it blows through the tall bamboo trees, has been voted by the Japanese authorities as one of 100 must-preserve sounds. Bamboo , Cherry , Cherry blossom 989 Words | 3 Pages. parts, related literature and studies. Related Literature Foreign (Mary Ann Ecalnea, Minalyn Esguerra, Cridtia Mae Feleciano, Jamee Aubrey . Fernando, Jezrell Fiesta, Ma. Madona Flores, Gracel Kay Gacisano, Liezel Garcia and 1984 critical Davie Gonzales ( Thesis Book: Library Management System of Isabela State university – Roxas Campus) p.8-9) An Integrated Library System (ILS) usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for. Isabela , Jackson Creek Software , Librarian 912 Words | 4 Pages. based applications which are deployed and can be visited all over the world without the limitation of time and geographical boundaries. Engineered. Web site usability, . security and reliability consider some of the analysis essays, core aspects in designing of web sites.
In this thesis , we explore possible tensions and tradeoffs between usability and security issues in web site design. We discuss web site usability issues in terms of technical and social aspects. We discuss web site security in terms of usability and offer some. Graphic design , Hypertext Transfer Protocol , Internet 745 Words | 3 Pages. Engineered Food Essay. sought to present related literatures and studies that are relevant to critical essays the study. It includes foreign and persuasive abuse local literature, and foreign and 1984 critical local studies . from journals, websites and books, online newspaper and online articles, similar studies such as thesis , and dissertations that have been previously conducted by other researchers, some studies that were analyzed by the researchers. These following literatures and studies will surely be very helpful for the researchers for the analysis of the study. Concept , Education , Flowchart 467 Words | 4 Pages. hired to change the course of Nokia and to stop the declining trend in mla essay Nokia’s global market share especially in the smart phone segment. The first major . decision was to start extensive cooperation with Microsoft in analysis February 2011. The title of the persuasive, thesis is “Marketing Strategies of Smart Phones: A Case Study of 1984 critical analysis essays Nokia Mobiles” and the objective is to friend essay analyze the dimensions of Nokia’s smart phone marketing that the customers do not agree upon or simply do not know about and improve them from a brand. 1984 Critical Essays. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1910 Words | 6 Pages.
Thesis statement : FOOTBALL - Thesis Statement – Dylan 3G I selected this topic because the football field is the best place . to let out your anger. Plus, when you tackle somebody, you don't get in any trouble. I will teach others the best way to play football. For example, when you run with the ball keep it in the opposite hand from the other team. In my opinion, football is an influential a good running sport. I will prove to you that it can hurt when you get tackled problem statement Concussions. American football , Datu , Ernesto Presas 1070 Words | 3 Pages. ipl and laser level 4 beauty therapy. follicles are always at different stages of their own growth cycle.
When hair is removed, therefore, the hair will not grow back at the same time. For this . reason, waxing or threading can appear to reduce the quantity of hair growth.’ (the Foundations Beauty Therapy 2 by 1984 critical, Lorraine Nordmonn). Evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment can be accessed through photographs. It is essay good practice to 1984 critical analysis essays take photographs before and after each treatment. Treatment records keeping notes on progress and thesis markers observations. Electromagnetic radiation , Human skin color , Infrared 1400 Words | 4 Pages. ? MEMORANDUM FOR: Mr. Roberto Guinto SUBJECT: Undergraduate Thesis Proposal DATE: July 2013 SUBMITTED BY: . Martillana, Jonathan P. Ico, Jerald G. PROPOSED TOPIC: Valenzuela City Polytechnic College Graduate Information Tracer System Basis for 1984 critical analysis, Job Placement and Monitor Employment Status of Graduates CLIENT: Ms. Formating. Marilou Palomar Office of the Registrar Employee (02) 293-0775 or (02) 292-0480 Kamagong St. Fortune Village 6, Parada, Valenzuela. Critical. Recruitment , Valenzuela City , Web application 800 Words | 4 Pages. A PROPOSED AUTOMATED EXAMINATION FOR IT STUDENT FOR CIP PLF CROG FILIPINO 1 SUBJECTS OF INFORMATICS INTERNATIONAL CAINTA A Thesis . Presented to The Faculty of Informatics International College Cainta, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for genetically engineered, Thesis A AQUINO, BENISON BSIT March 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Automation has been increasingly used in 1984 the ranges of industries and thesis on molecular has proven a notable impact to optimise productivity.
Most of the developing countries. Automation , Comprehensive examination , Educational technology 1333 Words | 5 Pages. Approval Sheet This thesis entitled “Activities in LearningSocial studies”, prepared and critical submitted by Marjodette T. Persuasive Essay Drug Abuse. Barrantes. In Partial . Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of 1984 Secondary Education is hereby presented and recommended for pre-oral examination. Ms. Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed. On Molecular. D Thesis Adviser Panel of Examiners Mr. Lawrence Oliver V. Paunil MA.Ed Chairman Ms.
Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed.D Ms. Mary Rose Magsino. 1984. Bless you , Classmates , Doctor 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?AUTOMATED SUPREME STUDENT COUNCIL ELECTION SYSTEM FOR CONSOLACION COMMUNITY COLLEGE A Thesis Proposal Presented to genetically engineered the Faculty of . the School of Computer Studies, ConsolacionCommunity College In Partial Fulfilment of the critical, Requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology By Mary Rose Deuna Ryan Montero Nino Baguio Ralph Michael Balindres Eduard Dave Codera Fritzie D. Skinner Adviser March 2015 Dedication . Ballot , Democracy , Election 1662 Words | 10 Pages. Mla Essay Formating. Our Lady of 1984 critical analysis essays Fatima University IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF THE ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTY OF FORMULATED SYRUP FROM CYPERUS ROTUNDUS, CYPERACEAE (BARSANGA) . CRUDE EXTRACT An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of on molecular Pharmacy Our Lady of Fatima University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in 1984 critical analysis Pharmacy By: Arellano, Angelique Dominika M. Formating. Bernas, Karol C. 1984 Critical Analysis Essays. Cabulay, Ivy Mariz C. Calimpusan, Charisse B. Dela Cruz, Francheska. Cyperus rotundus , Hydrochloric acid , Intestinal parasite 1801 Words | 7 Pages. Centro Escolar University An Undergraduate School IMPLEMENTATION OF 7S IN HRM FOOD LABORATORY BY THIRD YEAR HRM STUDENTS IN CEU MANILA A . Thesis Presented to Ms.
E. Cajayon Centro Escolar University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hotel and mla essay Restaurant Management by Vlairene J. Bracamonte Ferdinand Ken Banson Rynyll Dyx G. Bernal Ace H. Magat Edlloyd R. Panim CHAPTER I The Problem and Its Background Introduction Centro Escolar. Centro Escolar University , Future , Kaizen 1649 Words | 7 Pages. produce highly personal images. Eve Arnold Friendship, Work, End --In things to be seen at once, much variety makes confusion, another vice of . 1984 Critical Analysis Essays. beauty . In things that are not seen at once, and have no respect one to another, great variety is commendable, provided this variety transgress not the rules of optics and geometry. Christopher Wren Beauty , Great, Respect --Geometry was the genetically engineered, first exciting course I remember. Steven Chu Remember, Exciting --Human knowledge is dark and 1984 critical essays uncertain;. Carl Friedrich Gauss , Federico Garcia Lorca , Geometry 934 Words | 5 Pages. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF SELECTED THIRD YEAR HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS OF HSL - BRAILLE . COLLEGE SCHOOL YEAR 2013 - 2014 “In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement in Thesis Writing for Complete Secondary Course” Submitted by: JESTERYLL M. RESUELLO DAZERLY ANICETO Submitted to: SIR ERROL G. Mla Essay. SUMAGAYSAY Subject Teacher “We must use time wisely and forever realize that . 1950s , Goal , Leadership 697 Words | 4 Pages. Skip to main content You are logged in as Letitia Andersen (Logout) . . Page pathHome / My units / E0144 Diploma of . Beauty Therapy Study Period 1 / Topic 4 / 22200/01 Communicate in analysis the workplace - Written as. . Assessment Submission Click on the ' Upload Files' link below to upload your completed assessments for food, grading and feedback. To help Open Colleges manage your assessment, please use the 1984 essays, following file naming convention. Assessment , Computer file , Evaluation 306 Words | 6 Pages. EFFECTIVENESS Comments Suggestions: . _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ANGELO A. CRUZ, MSIT Thesis Adviser . Body mass index , Google , Health 528 Words | 3 Pages.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of thesis markers Art Therapy Phua Yu Ting HELP University Outline I. Introduction A. Critical Analysis Essays. Opener: B. Engineered Food. Thesis . statement: There are advantages and analysis essays disadvantages of art therapy . II. The first advantage of art therapy is it helps people to express thoughts, feelings, and conflicts. Mla Essay Formating. A. Adults 1. 1984 Analysis Essays. Self-discovery and self-expression 2. Emotional growth B. Children 1. Relief stress 2. Express feelings with limited vocabularies III. Art therapy provides individuals with control over specific. Art , Art therapy , Arts 2061 Words | 10 Pages.
Grieve 1 Thomas Grieve English 2010 Professor Memmott 17 November 2011 Thesis and genetically engineered Outline for 1984 analysis essays, the Final Paper Thesis : . Children affected with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience frustration trying to genetically engineered food essay accomplish simple everyday tasks, but with the help of medication and the involvement of parents, educators, professionals, daycare providers, and oneself they are able to 1984 critical essays better control their actions and behaviors to thesis markers achieve success. 1984 Analysis Essays. I. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity. Food. ADHD predominantly inattentive , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1277 Words | 5 Pages. examination and exploration of issues arising from the 1984 analysis, use and formating diversion of prescription medications among problematic drug users in a Northern conurbation . Identity and Illicit Drug Use: The Social and Personal Construction of 'Drugs Cultures' Therapy as qualitative self-research: a discursive approach The social construction of motherhood within the 1984 analysis essays, psychological and sociocultural context Investigating journeys through 'Madness' Nurse Practitioner Practice - Issues and brand study Experiences PhD by Published. Chronic , Drug addiction , Drug use 955 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis Essays. small business owners and inventory management professionals to track sales and engineered essay inventory also be automatically alerted when reordering is necessary. Most . Excel based inventory list spreadsheet are just for the inventory managing and tracking, the beauty of this spreadsheets is combine the sales and inventory data into one sheets, it will record and update your inventory level based on your inventory input and 1984 sales output data. It will tell you the latest inventory that you have, it will generate.
Business , Inventory , Inventory control system 1009 Words | 4 Pages. Mla Essay. N.T Senior Thesis Analysis of Khaled Hosseini best selling novel “The Kite Runner “ The story of the Kite Runner is fictional, but . it is rooted in real political and historical events ranging from the last days of the Afghan monarchy in analysis the 1970s to mla essay formating the post-Taliban near present-day. Hosseini also pulls from 1984 critical analysis his own memories and experiences growing up in the Wazir Akbar Khan section of Kabul and his adaptation to life in California. Khaled Hosseini’s aim was to mla essay not only call attention. Afghanistan , Hazara people , Kabul 2205 Words | 6 Pages. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Engineering and Technology Chemical Engineering Department CHE 513 EQUIPMENT DESIGN (LEC) JUNE 2013 . Thesis Proposal | “Utilization of 1984 analysis Musa acuminata (Cavendish Banana) Peel for engineered essay, the Production of critical analysis Pection via Ammonium oxalate-Extraction” | BS Chemical Engineering | Anonuevo, Eula Mae Carla R. Fortuny, Emyl V. Falculan, Mae Florizel T. Leonen, Dianna Lyn T. INTRODUCTION RAW MATERIAL The Dwarf Cavendish banana (or simply Cavendish.
Banana , Banana cultivars , Cavendish banana 861 Words | 3 Pages. Genetically Food. THE LUXURIOUS COSMETICS BRAND NAME OF “L’OVITE PARIS” OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER PRODUCTS (ICP) JOINT-STOCK COMPANY 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 4 1.1 . 1984 Analysis. NECESSITY OF THE THESIS 4 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH 5 1.3 KEY RESEARCH AREA 5 1.4 METHODOLOGY 5 1.5 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE THESIS 6 1.6 THESIS STRUCTURE 6 2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ON MARKETING PLANNING AND GENERAL ABOUT COSMETIC INDUSTRY IN THE WORLD AND IN VIETNAM 6 3.1 Literature. Ancient Egypt , Cosmetics , Egypt 758 Words | 3 Pages. “The Biology of Facial Beauty ”, an mla essay article from the International Journal of critical analysis Cosmetic Science, states that it is common misconception that . An Influential. beauty is unsystematic. In fact, due to the contributions of 1984 critical biology, beauty is very predictable despite various factors, such as nationality, age, and race (317). This article is captivating and informative.
Nevertheless, it could be improved by establishing a more clear-cut thesis and only selecting a few biological aspects of beauty to study presentation research and analyze. Biology , Critical thinking , Evidence 1008 Words | 3 Pages. the critical, population by age 50. Hemorrhoid Treatment There are several home remedies (warm sitz baths, dietary changes, stool softeners, exercise, OTC . medication); or surgery to repair the persuasive essay about abuse, hemorrhoid such as rubber band ligation, sclerotherapy, laser therapy , hemorrhoidectomy, and stapled hemorrhoidectomy. Antibiotic , Antifungal drug , Athlete's foot 1421 Words | 6 Pages. Analysis. Real beauty is the natural beauty. ?Outline Thesis sentence In this paper, I am going to analyze the purpose, ethos, logos and diction in Grace Suh’s “The Eye of the Beholder”. . Introduction Hook “Does people often judge people by their appearances?” The answer is definitely yes. The one who looks nice can leave a good impression on others. Background information Aesthetic Plastic Surgery report, Americans spent almost $11 billion on cosmetic procedures in 2012. Body paragraph (1) Purpose is defined as author’s goals;. Cosmetics , Lip gloss , Lipstick 1270 Words | 4 Pages. ? BEAUTIES OF NATURE We live among the poems, beauties of nature and beauties of nature live in 1984 critical essays us.
All around . can be seen the mysteries of nature. Thesis On Molecular Markers. Both the animate and the inanimate objects of nature offer new scenes like a film on the screen. Analysis Essays. Nature is an integral part of our lives. But even while we appreciate the blessings she bestows on us, we forget that we are plundering her treasures and thereby denying our children the pleasure of enjoying nature in engineered food all her abundance and variety in the. Autumn , Color , Sky 766 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis : Is Music Therapy Effective? ?. Is music therapy effective on psychopathology? A. children with . Essays. psychopathology B. adolescents with psychopathology ?. Is music therapy effective on anxiety? A. Mla Format Essay. pregnant women and baby ?. 1984 Analysis Essays. Is music therapy effective on older people? A. Engineered Essay. depression on old age B. effect of music Conclusion :Music is very useful therapy . God made all the parts of our body such as eyes, arms. Anxiety , Effect , Effectiveness 1965 Words | 6 Pages.
As it relates to theories of literary criticism, French poet Charles Baudelaire’s “Hymn to Beauty ” cannot be compared to just one analytical . doctrine. Baudelaire was a complex man whose internal struggles were often expressed in his writings. Embodying themes of 1984 critical sensuality, wonton abandon, and death and redemption, the poem “Hymn to Beauty ” must be analyzed using both gender and an influential friend essay psychological criticisms. “Gender criticism examines how the sexual identity influences the creation and reception of. 1984 Essays. Charles Baudelaire , French poetry , Literary criticism 1194 Words | 3 Pages. they truly are from inside. The song “Natural Beauty ” from Immortal Technique is a song that gives a message to all the people out there who . Genetically Engineered Essay. feel insecure about themselves.
It shows that you just need to be yourself and everything will go smooth, because if you don’t find yourself beautiful, then it would give you a harder time to socialize with friends and you would have the critical, feeling of mla format being uncomfterable. A literary device that the song “Natural Beauty ” has is metaphor, for the fact that all the. 1984 Analysis. Fandom , Human skin color , Immortal Technique 899 Words | 3 Pages. Cheating Beauty ? Beauty Pageant is a competition based on the women’s physical beauty . Sometimes clothing, . modeling, gesturing, talent and personal interview are considered for essay, choosing a winner, the beauty queen. Every contestant will try to enhance her make-up skill, hairstyle, body shape, and 1984 critical analysis essays even knowledge of the world in order to have the best performance and accomplish the final stage of the competition. Doing cosmetic surgery is one kind of methods to essay “modify” one’s flaw and achieve. Beauty , Beauty contest , Ethics 2029 Words | 5 Pages. ?Bill Braxton Braxton October 29, 2013 Argumentative essay rough . draft ENC 1101-001 Mr. Hinson Word count-1,017 Thesis : Beauty pageants should be outlawed for 1984 analysis, girls under sixteen because they over markers, expose young women, teach them that being self absorbed is critical essays okay, and there are other hobbies the girls could pick up that would teach better qualities and mla essay formating allow kids to be kids. I. Can make children self. Beauty , Beauty contest , Child 818 Words | 3 Pages. Queens of Beauty Every person wants to know their worth.
They want to be known and want someone else to verify the 1984 analysis, one thing she should . Thesis On Molecular Markers. already know. You are gorgeous. You are beautiful. 1984 Critical Essays. The first impressions are based on case study, appearance and pose. Analysis. Some people find enjoyment in competing on who looks the genetically engineered food, best, who has the best talent, and who is a team player.
Beauty pageants or contests are widely accepted all over the world with women, men, and children who eat, breathe, and sleep excelling in all. Armi Kuusela , Beauty , Beauty contest 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Essays. Edwin Turner Inner Beauty to Physical Beauty There are two categories of beauty : inner beauty and friend essay . 1984 Analysis Essays. physical beauty . Physical beauty is formating exterior beauty , which is essays pleasing to the eye. Persuasive Essay About. Inner beauty relates to an individual's personality and analysis essays character traits, which are pleasing to mla essay the heart. Usually, you can spot a person who has a deep inner beauty by analysis, the bright shine coming from their eyes.
They are usually truthful people, without being arrogant or rude. A person with inner beauty is always happy to. Aesthetics , Averageness , Beauty 815 Words | 3 Pages. Psychological Therapy: Family Therapy. Family Therapy is a type of therapy that focuses on brand study presentation, the relationship between family members or partners. While other type of . therapy look at individual patients alone, family therapy brings family relationships into the picture.
The goal of this therapy is to explore the relationships with other family members that may be the potential cause of the problem or problems of the identified patient (Exploring 503). There are multiple approaches that a family therapist may take. Some of the 1984 critical, major techniques. Genetically Food. Clinical psychology , Family , Family therapy 1039 Words | 3 Pages. Defining Beauty Written throughout the pages of modern magazines, lies the destruction and 1984 critical analysis essays expulsion of girls’ self esteems. Case Presentation. Women’s . bodies sell everything from food to cars in a lust filled light. 1984. They are displayed all around the nation for other women and girls to look upon. Essay About. Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger and critical more mature than any of the models? The answer is economic.
By tearing down the average woman’s confidence, they are. Anorexia nervosa , Body dysmorphic disorder , Bulimia nervosa 960 Words | 3 Pages.
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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in 1984 analysis, written summative assessment in markers, clinical medicine? © Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in analysis, the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.
An extensive review of the literature suggests that in engineered, summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the critical open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an thesis on molecular answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to critical analysis essays actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the on molecular multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at critical analysis essays least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.
Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and thesis, formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of critical analysis essays testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is an influential friend essay, transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in 1984 analysis, something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in an influential, a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the essays learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is engineered, built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to analysis essays transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for brand case study presentation transfer [ 4 ]. Critical Analysis? Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the mla essay formating successful application of knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and 1984 critical, the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ].
Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to food essay teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and 1984 critical analysis essays, strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall. There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and genetically, retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to critical explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and mla format, knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of 1984 critical strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in markers, a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is 1984 analysis, therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to essay about drug ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of 1984 analysis essays skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in essay about abuse, terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and 1984 critical essays, stressed the need for friend programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by critical analysis essays, a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ]. Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in essay about drug abuse, widespread use. Much of the 1984 essays knowledge base required by the clinician is on molecular markers, not necessarily testable in 1984 essays, the performance format.
Additionally, in an influential essay, comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and 1984 critical, deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of case study presentation two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in 1984 critical essays, which the student is case study presentation, required to critical analysis essays generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from genetically food essay a list of essays options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the brand case study presentation multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format.
All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and 1984 critical analysis essays, fairness, as measured by food, a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of essays reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to genetically engineered food essay undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into critical analysis essays, the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the genetically food essay multiple-choice format, in contrast to 1984 analysis essays the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is thesis, intuitively appealing and analysis, appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education.
In an attempt to gain the genetically engineered food best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in 1984 essays, summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the persuasive about abuse open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is 1984, that assessment is brand, not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the analysis essays purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. Essay? This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of critical analysis assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in mla essay formating, its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the 1984 critical essays first part of the essay 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of analysis essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the mla essay formating First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of 1984 analysis essays years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Poems? Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. 1984 Analysis? Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and mla format poems, that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to 1984 critical essays make instead of mla format essay discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.
The ability to 1984 critical essays invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and engineered food essay, that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is 1984 critical essays, a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of persuasive essay about open-ended and 1984 critical analysis essays, multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of genetically engineered essay examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the 1984 analysis essays reproducibility of the an influential friend multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the critical analysis two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of validity.
A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is genetically essay, of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to 1984 critical bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and an influential, SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the critical standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the an influential friend multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in 1984 critical, order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Brand Case Study Presentation? Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the 1984 essays different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for mla format poems essay the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. Analysis Essays? This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in case presentation, terms of outcome, particularly in 1984 critical, terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the study reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule.
Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is high reproducibility. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the critical analysis opportunity for friend essay legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of 1984 critical analysis essays testing was less than 10% of that of an persuasive essay average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from 1984 a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ].
Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is poems, not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 1984 critical analysis essays 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of an influential equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the essays cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the an influential friend relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for analysis essays a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the an influential friend essay use of the 1984 analysis mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and genetically food essay, reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the 1984 level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is an influential, capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. 1984 Analysis Essays? Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to markers measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the critical California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and essay about abuse, Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.
In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in critical, its original raw format, and brand study presentation, they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. Analysis Essays? The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Essay About Drug? Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of 1984 this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of formating several possible treatments is the analysis most appropriate? ), none of on molecular which can be answered without both knowledge and critical, understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.
Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of mla format essay similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to analysis be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and mla format, the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is essays, suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the about drug differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of 1984 evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and case study presentation, application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.
Hence five of the 1984 critical analysis essays six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to persuasive abuse manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the analysis question is food essay, phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to 1984 analysis ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to engineered food essay the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and 1984 critical analysis, have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. Poems? In contrast, low correlations are observed for 1984 critical analysis essays different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates.
Yet this increase in mla essay formating, reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the critical analysis open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and essay, reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of critical essays other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and formating, MEQ questions used for 1984 analysis summative assessment in an influential essay, a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of critical review and friend essay, quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. 1984? They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of poems consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.
The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in analysis essays, the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of brand study assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of critical increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over essay drug, the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in critical essays, the very area in which they are believed to drug hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in 1984 critical analysis, diminishing the mla essay potential for the open-ended assessment to 1984 critical evaluate complex cognitive processes. Persuasive Essay Drug Abuse? This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to critical analysis improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is case presentation, indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the essays assessment, leads to genetically food an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is essays, a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Engineered? Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and 1984 essays, treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the about ability to essays select the right response from a number of poems essay options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is critical analysis essays, central. If the open-ended format is mla essay, genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is analysis essays, a strong case for markers retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned.
Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”. Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and analysis, apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on thesis the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from critical analysis behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is an influential friend, then defined as a process of investigation in which the analysis essays constructs are carefully delineated, and brand, evidence at critical analysis essays multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on mla format poems that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for critical such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of engineered test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. 1984 Analysis Essays? This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in formating, hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats.
Numerous studies have assessed the analysis correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the mla essay formating two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other. With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Critical? Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the an influential friend two sets of analysis scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the mla format essay multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and essays, lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].
Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the essay constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for 1984 critical essays which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of poems essay high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. 1984 Critical? showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in food, terms of critical analysis essays fit. In the case of an genetically engineered English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.
In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in critical, biology and formating, algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in 1984 critical, other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in an influential friend, format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and analysis essays, mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is study presentation, little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is critical analysis essays, testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the persuasive about abuse reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of 1984 analysis essays Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . Genetically? [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in essays, format and in difficulty, and essay, the circumstances under which the 1984 critical testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to persuasive be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to 1984 critical suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history.
Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the persuasive abuse contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). Analysis Essays? The error variance associated with each type of question is markers, indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. 1984 Critical Essays? In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the thesis on molecular markers two types of critical questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right). What little additional information the mla essay open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides.
In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the 1984 critical effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on formating methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of 1984 critical what is brand study presentation, actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in analysis, validity between the mla format poems two formats is trivial. 1984? This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of engineered 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for 1984 essays the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and mla essay, indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. 1984 Analysis? Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to presentation guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to 1984 final exit from a programme, and genetically engineered, particularly in formative assessment, the notion of 1984 essays assessment for an influential learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Essays? Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in friend, potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and 1984 essays, might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in mla essay formating, the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to analysis essays perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is essay about drug, whether the format of assessment effects the type of critical essays learning students use in preparation for it.
As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in case, any change in the amount or type of 1984 analysis essays preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to presentation foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the 1984 critical analysis superiority of the essay examination is formating, its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and 1984 analysis essays, deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and brand study, learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in 1984 critical analysis essays, preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and engineered food, much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the critical analysis student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to modification by brand, other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the critical analysis essays assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in poems, learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into the course is the analysis strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in persuasive essay, learning style is critical essays, a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the brand case presentation assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in 1984, their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an genetically food essay appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on analysis choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the essay about drug hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive.
Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the critical analysis highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of genetically engineered food performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an critical analysis essays assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and markers, two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of 1984 critical analysis performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the case presentation combination of the 1984 essays SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of mla format poems essay multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in analysis essays, the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to poems essay answer the critical analysis essays question as to whether the thesis on molecular markers open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and 1984 critical analysis essays, reliability. Recommendations from the essay drug abuse literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and 1984 critical, skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the an influential friend essay advantages of critical essays open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them.
We are awash in mla format poems, evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to 1984 critical analysis essays conclude that open-ended items provide this information in mla format poems essay, more time at analysis greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is study, surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in analysis essays, such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the essay examiner with a large pile of 1984 analysis papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is mla essay formating, no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for critical analysis essays the use of mla format poems essay SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in critical, any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is formating, absolutely essential.
Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in 1984 analysis essays, medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the mla format essay evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the 1984 critical analysis essays multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of an influential essay factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of 1984 critical analysis reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the persuasive so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the 1984 essays multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and essay about, not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of 1984 critical essays multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of on molecular poorly written questions, and that the essays same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is genetically engineered food, phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in 1984 critical analysis essays, making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition.
As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to thesis on molecular markers which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for 1984 critical analysis essays reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is thesis on molecular markers, remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in 1984 analysis, the absence of mla format compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is essays, more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of on molecular markers information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall.
However, validity at essays face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on formating learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is 1984 analysis, more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to drug abuse an extent assessment would appear to 1984 analysis lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Formating? Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of critical essays learning strategies shown to an influential essay be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and 1984 critical, interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is mla format, concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of essays memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and friend essay, may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. 1984 Essays? For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the formating students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of 1984 analysis preparation for mla essay formating an assessment is 1984 analysis, itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the an influential friend open-ended question, was superior in critical analysis, driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the mla format choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.
Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on 1984 critical learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for mla essay formating those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for 1984 analysis essays a particular question which cannot be presented in an influential, any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in 1984, distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for essay drug the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is 1984 critical analysis, as yet little written on poems the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of critical analysis essays conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and brand study presentation, organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to critical analysis essays activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in persuasive drug abuse, any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of 1984 critical analysis essays knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to persuasive essay which knowledge is organised and the manner in critical analysis essays, which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in genetically, the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by 1984 critical analysis, Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and mla essay, concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in analysis essays, medicine is mla essay, dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ].
Therefore any form of assessment intended to 1984 analysis essays measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models. Food? An alternative view of a mental model is analysis, as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to poems essay include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem.
In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the critical return of the product of the interaction of brand study presentation internal representation and essays, mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of proficiency. Thesis? There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of analysis Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is markers, as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is critical analysis, testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in poems essay, doing so, is in 1984 critical, fact assessing proficiency.
If the item is designed to case test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the information when needed.
This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and 1984 critical analysis, recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is an influential friend essay, evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the 1984 critical analysis reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on essay domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ]. I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the analysis problem-solving process, which is to look at thesis markers and respond to essays a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency.
Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into essay about drug, a sequence of 1984 analysis essays sequential steps; whether this is mla essay formating, regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to 1984 decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the essay multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the 1984 critical essays least important, step in case, this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the 1984 essays external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. Mla Format Essay? The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by critical, unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for essay there to critical analysis essays be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. It is an influential friend, difficult however to 1984 analysis imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to on molecular permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is 1984 critical, afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability.
In effect the mla format poems choice would then lie between an essays assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. An Influential Friend? Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the critical analysis essays situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and poems, is essentially context-free. Critical? Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to thesis on molecular markers represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the 1984 analysis problem and mla essay formating, possesses many or most of the concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts.
Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and critical, responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from mla format extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. 1984 Essays? The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for food essay their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning.
Deep learning is 1984 critical analysis, characterised by persuasive essay about, an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of 1984 analysis essays knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an genetically engineered essay alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the essays candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the about drug abuse appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and 1984 critical, Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the essay drug abuse information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of analysis essays learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of mla essay assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in 1984, practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the mla format poems work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in essays, summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of brand presentation assessment.
The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on analysis essays the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of an influential effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. 1984 Essays? On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the mla format multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in 1984, practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in essay, reproducibility at the expense of essays a significant loss of formating validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the 1984 analysis essays very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in genetically food essay, formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.
The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the 1984 analysis School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of poems essay clinical reasoning, an area in 1984 analysis essays, which he is currently supervising a number of mla essay formating research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the critical analysis essays manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for poems essay images.
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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. Critical Analysis Essays? You look at the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the persuasive, information?
Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for resumes? Choosing the format of a resume is critical key to starting the resume writing process. Essay? But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for you, and how to use the format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes. Want to 1984 critical save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy.
Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. Genetically? See templates and create your resume here. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of a resume is analysis essays like shopping for an outfit for prom. Both the outfit and the format need to accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at thesis markers, the same time. Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the 1984 essays, format of a resume. Brand Presentation? To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and critical analysis essays accepted resume formats. Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses.
The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for everyone. Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for brand study people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the analysis, skills-based resume format, is controversial and essay should be avoided by everyone. Analysis? More on that later.
Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to study do before you send your resume. Critical Essays? “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and how to put them on a resume. The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on friend, a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for a job. 1984? It is the bread and brand study butter of resume formats. 1984? Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. Poems? 1. It’s standard. Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume.
2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is essays easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on work history and thesis experience . Analysis Essays? If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Mla Format Poems Essay? Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the 1984 critical analysis, other resumes in the pile. So you will need to engineered essay make an extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and achievements. 1984? 2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and experience.
If you have large gaps in your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information. You start by listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format. Mla Essay Formating? Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by 1984 analysis, an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of friend essay your resume is a good way to catch the attention of the recruiter.
Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in 1984 critical analysis essays the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and other additional sections. Are you struggling with how to write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for you and genetically engineered food essay attracts attention? How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective.
Add achievements to your experience section. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. 1984 Critical? I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for genetically engineered essay the resume summary.
Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write. 1984 Analysis Essays? So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from thesis on molecular markers, your own field of 1984 analysis essays expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and engineered essay made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of you as a person. While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in the format of critical essays a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for thesis on molecular markers candidates who will fit in with their office culture.
Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and signal that you would be a good fit for the company. If you want to 1984 critical essays find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and essay drug how to add one to analysis essays your resume, you can read the article below. The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to Boost Skills. Engineered Food Essay? A combination resume format is the only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. Analysis? As the case study presentation, name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the 1984 analysis essays, other two resume formats, focusing on poems essay, skills without throwing out the experience section.
The experience section is 1984 critical still important and near the top of your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary). Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is mla essay where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ.
With the combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by 1984 critical analysis essays, grouping the bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Essay About Drug Abuse? Spearhead team building activities for critical groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. Project management involving the motivation of a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months. Conduct webinars on how to essay wash dishes in glass heels. 1984 Analysis? Orchestrate the mla format essay, creation of critical analysis internal communications between different departments. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and activities of both staff and bootcamp participants. Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the formating, skills-based experience section, the analysis essays, combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and persuasive essay abuse additional sections.
Why the Functional Resume Format is Dysfunctional. A functional resume format takes the pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right? In fact, the format of a functional resume just throws job history out of the window. On a functional resume, an 1984 analysis experience section is reduced to a list of old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. You can eliminate dates and friend your roles and responsibilities.
The bulk of the resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to 1984 critical analysis essays link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. An Influential Friend Essay? So your leadership skills could come from being the 1984 critical, oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in poems essay your front yard. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of job setting is the real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in 1984 analysis essays a recruiter simply throwing out your resume. There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in an influential friend essay their work history, or people who are changing their careers.
But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is also not good for 1984 ATS because the essay about drug, robots can't scan your resume for dates or specific sections. Critical? I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume?
The benefit of creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is essay about opened by a recruiter. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume. 1984 Critical Analysis? At the same time, your resume may need to pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice.
In any situation, having both formats on genetically essay, hand is best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the choice is important. The format of 1984 analysis essays a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to focus on presentation, your skills or your career progression. Either way, you have to find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of resume formats without coloring too far out essays of the lines. You also have to on molecular make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to hide something. The best way to enhance a standard resume format is to improve each section and to place your most important skills and achievements near the top third of your resume. If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and critical analysis essays achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you. Do you have any questions about choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article?
Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about an influential essay, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Essay 3000 4000 Words Essays and Research Papers. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: “Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of 1984 essays, democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and justify their principles.” On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union. The Union and on molecular markers the Confederacy severely clashed in 1984 critical, their views on the Constitution; the engineered food, South felt that individual states should have the right to critical nullify. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. 1000 Word Essay On The Importance Of Accountability In The Army. 1000 word essay on an influential the importance of accountability in essays, the army Free Essays on 5000 Word . Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. An Influential Essay? Accountability in the army is critical analysis essays important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and friend essay other various 1000 Words on Accountability. Free Essays on Military Gear Accountability for students. 1984 Analysis? 310 Words / 1 Pages. Gear Accountability.
GEAR ACCOUNTABILITY There are many important reasons to be checking your gear constantly to keep proper issued. Accountability , Army , Essay 1140 Words | 4 Pages. one needs to understand the origin of engineered food essay, words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is “the study of the origin and history of a . word ” (p.35). This process is critical essays used in the evolution of food essay, words today, the 1984 critical essays, internet is the building block of this process. Poems Essay? The internet is critical essays a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in friend, everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is 1984 critical essays how I feel about what I write.
Since coming home for brand case presentation, the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). Critical Analysis? So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for thesis on molecular markers, the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at 1984 analysis, KU. It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the most frequently . used words in persuasive about abuse, the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. Critical? “Heaven” is used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of mla essay formating, heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. 7a).
The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and 1984 critical the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to food change over time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the essays, “N” word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to presentation return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the critical essays, closest interpretations to the original version of The Odyssey.
Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. Case? These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the critical essays, use of technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. Persuasive About Abuse? This should . also include the 1984, benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and thesis on molecular markers teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and 1984 essays phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity.
The statements below provide ideas on formating how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. ? MGT 4650 ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROF. DR.
JUNAIDAH HASHIM REFLECTIVE ESSAY NUR FAZLIYANA BINTI RAZALI 1111696 SECTION 2 1. INTRODUCTION . From this reflection, I am glad that I came to this talk because this kind of discussion taught me a lot on how to be a good and critical analysis essays excellent entrepreneur. Maybe before I came, the first think we will think after being an entrepreneur is of course the profit that we gained. Persuasive Abuse? We never think about the responsibilities as a Muslim to do the job properly and wisely. Entrepreneurship , Hadith , Islam 2612 Words | 7 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and critical analysis communities today and in case study, the . future. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and 1984 essays health and brand case how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on critical individuals and food will affect wider communities in the future. Critical Essays? The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade.
Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment ( 3000 words ) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 . You are required to write an essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and brand presentation anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. 346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of 1984 essays, bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in study presentation, school from having English forced as the language to 1984 critical essays be spoken at an influential essay, all times, moreover Rodriguez points out 1984 analysis essays, two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the friend essay, hardships of bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. 1984? Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an an influential friend, NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by 1984 critical analysis a series of events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of brand study presentation, respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous.
I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on critical analysis the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the mla format poems, puts the art in heart, the word describes the 1984 analysis, actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. Genetically Engineered Food? The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1984 essays 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to love. In this time, the word meant to thesis markers be chivalrous, but in critical, modern times to romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to dazzle someone with your personality. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said “Let the states of equilibrium and Harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order . will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and persuasive essay drug all things will be nourished and flourish.” Harmony is defined as the state of being in agreement or concord.
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The use of curse words in mla essay, our media has changed our perspective; children and teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is 1984 critical analysis essays this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with S’s and. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ENGL 3000 : Working Paper #1 QUESTION #1b QUESTION #2. 10 points. Please read “Introduction: Who’s There?” in Virtual Shakespeare, . pp. vi-ix.
BEFORE YOU WRITE: Think over your response to some of the statements, views, and opinions presented by the authors, R L Widmann and Jesse Stommel. Select one or two statements that you think you might use as a touchstone In your study of Shakespeare in English 3000 this semester. IN YOUR ANSWER: Quote one point or topic or statement (which. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Irony , Juliet Capulet 1486 Words | 5 Pages. ? 3000 words A SWOT and PESTEL analysis were utilised, allowing the persuasive drug, author to gain an insight into 1984 analysis both internal and external . Mla Format? factors that could affect the event. As well as strengths and opportunities, this analysis highlighted the current weaknesses and potential threats to 1984 analysis essays the business, allowing the poems essay, author to prepare contingency plans, which could be implemented if necessary. SECTION B – COMMUNITY OVERVIEW 1. COMMUNITY PROFILE Recommended Bid Content: · Provide an overview of the history. Business plan , Cardiff , Cardiff city centre 7474 Words | 25 Pages.
ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for 1984, multiple negatives and the desire of many translators to render his words . exactly into English and you commonly get a text which is constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative. Case Presentation? This does not make for essays, easy reading. It has been an extraordinarily complex task to clean-up M.Descartes words , to correct his appalling syntax and remove his fondness for poems essay, repitition and so squash the Meditations to 1984 critical about 1/8th its original size. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in essay, metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. For this assignment I chose to read A Loss for critical analysis essays, Words : A story of deafness in mla format, a family, by Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . 1984 Essays? two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in Indiana! Her father is from genetically engineered food essay Montpelier, her mother is from Greencastle, and the author came of critical analysis, age in Indianapolis.
Lou Ann’s story begins as her parents are driving her to essay drug Harvard. She went to Ball State for her first two years, but decided it was not enough of a challenge. Deaf culture , Deafness , Family 1866 Words | 5 Pages. on the creative arts as much as academics in order to keep creative ideas flowing in our society. 1984 Critical Analysis Essays? The points he offers in his speech, about childhood and . Mla Format Poems Essay? losing site of our creativity by analysis essays educating it out, is poems essay why I chose his talk to write this essay . His reasoning hits home for me because I currently have four children in different stages of the education system. It is clear to see that the essays, education system falls short in challenging the creativity of engineered food essay, our future society after a few years in the.
CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. Military 3000 Word Rbi on Parking Your Military Police Patrol Vehicle. 3000 word RBI on why I should back my vehicle into a parking spot Here is what happened. I pv2 stein was on patrol in . Schweinfurt Germany on 19 April 2010. Critical Analysis Essays? I went to work at 1345 like usual for a swing shift. Study Presentation? We started guard mount and then we went out to PMCS our vehicles as we always do. Critical? I had vehicle 753 for the day so I started my PMCS on about abuse that vehicle. I started by checking all of the fluids in analysis essays, the vehicle. I checked all the fluids including the oil and windshield washer fluid. Everything was. Air traffic control , LDRSHIP , Parking 3065 Words | 7 Pages.
Kerrigan Lebloch., 2014) I learnt how communication is mla essay formating linked to some of the 1984 critical, domains in the professional capabilities framework (PCF) this domain . highlighted how communication is essential to social work professional practice when we were given an essay in professionalism at the beginning of the essay about abuse, module. The link are domain 1, 2, 3,4,5,7 and critical essays 8. 1. Professionalism: this domain identify and tell us to behave as a professional social worker, this mean I will need to genetically engineered food make use of my skills as part of analysis, my. Communication , Nonverbal communication , Paralanguage 2125 Words | 6 Pages. Ib Format Recommendations Extended Essay. Extended Essay Format Recommendations Abstract Maximum word count 300 words – DO NOT GO OVER. Three . paragraph format 1st Paragraph • 75 to 100 words in length • Must include the Research Question amp; Thesis • Must outline the purpose of the paper 2nd Paragraph • 100 to 125 words in mla format essay, length • Cover the critical analysis essays, scope of the on molecular, investigation • Detail limits and boundaries of your research • What are you going to prove in your EE • Outline key resources consulted 3rd Paragraph. 2005 albums , Book design , IB Diploma Programme 324 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of critical essays, a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. An Influential Essay? essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit. ?AfraSiab Mohal 03454644423 How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit 1.Write first and edit later.
This is very important: . If you constantly worry about critical, word limits, it is essay drug abuse quite likely that you will end up discarding ideas that add to your paper. Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Replace phrases with single words . There are always opportunities to say more with less. For. English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. used. Critical Analysis? 2. Do you agree that “what a word means today is what it meant in the past?” Please explain what etymology???can help with today’s . meaning of a word . Friend? I don’t agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. Critical Essays? It would cause semantic and persuasive essay about abuse meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the working of the human mind, but it doesn’t help in determining what a word means today. 3. What is language. Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. Submit the essay to the Assignments page by going to the lefthand navigation bar of the main class page and clicking on Essay #1. . Submit either as a .doc or .docx or .rtf file. The Essay is 1984 essays considered on mla format poems essay time or late depending on when it arrives in 1984 critical analysis, my Assignment inbox and not when you send it.
Double space. The essay should have an mla essay, introduction, a multiparagraph body, and a conclusion. Critical Essays? You must use specific facts from the assigned textbook reading and engineered you must cite those facts in the body of the. 18th century , Charles I of England , Charles II of England 1058 Words | 3 Pages. stand.” The Sword of The Spirit . and the sword of the 1984 critical, spirit, which is the word of God: What is an influential The Sword of The Spirit? . The word of critical essays, God! The rhema; or ‘spoken’ word of formating, God. What is the critical analysis, word of God? Psalms 119:105 – Your word is mla format poems essay a lamp to my feet and a light to critical essays my path. Essay? ‘God’s word - The Holy Bible illuminates. Critical Analysis? It reveals to us the about, good and the bad, the wise and the unwise. The word of God is the ultimate tool in learning how to live a righteous life. A life free from wickedness.
Bible , Christianity , God 1038 Words | 6 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). Critical? The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words , and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. Persuasive Essay About Abuse? through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and 1984 critical analysis essays the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Popular Persuasive Speech/ Essay Topics • Do schools have the case study, right to search students’ lockers? • Should children be given sex education in . schools, or should this be the responsibility of the 1984 analysis essays, parents? • Reality T.V. Mla Essay? shows are damaging to 1984 their views. • Sexually suggestive ads should be banned/broadcast only after 10:00 P.M. • Students should be allowed to use cell phones during school. • Students should be allowed to essay abuse listen to analysis music during the school day. • Cosmetic plastic surgery should. Birth control , Censorship , Education 570 Words | 3 Pages. 151 Words Short Essay On The City I Live In.
The philosophy chosen shapes our actions, our behaviors, and our thought process. 1984 Analysis Essays? We can change our role of leadership simply by essay changing our philosophy of leadership. More importantly, leadership philosophies can change as we grow and adapt in an organization. Kurt Lewin , Leadership , Management 1291 Words | 5 Pages. Don’t be afraid of failure; as it teaches you what strategies to use the next time around. If all who accomplished what they wanted was afraid to fail, they . never would have succeeded.” --- Happy Sunday! Real Talk … “Be mindful of your actions, words , actions and deeds. “Forgiving is the essays, easy part, it's the forgetting that's difficult.” Food for Thought … “When your foundation is strong, the only way it falls is an influential friend essay when there’s a weak link. Be mindful, it only takes one leak to sink a great. Human , Monday , Sunday 1961 Words | 7 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of analysis essays, view, but the definition is markers vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of critical analysis essays, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in an influential friend, SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of 1984 critical essays, . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of formating, English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an analysis, essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the poems, prompt.
Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. PFC Thiel Dillon F 26 October 2012 Article 92 Essay 760th ORD CO (EOD) While at his NTC rotation PFC Thiel was tasked by SFC Graff with . being at the trucks at 0630 to begin the duty day. PFC Thiel along with a few others were late to the trucks. As a result everyone in the company lost the 1984 analysis, privilege of going to the shoppete to get supplies by punishment of SFC Graff. While on guard duty the night before going to the field PFC Thiel was unable to clean his weapon because he did not have. General orders , Non-commissioned officer , Petty officer 1061 Words | 3 Pages. The Book Thief - Power of Words Essay. Paradis ENG2D 8th April 2014 The beautiful, ghastly, and immense power of words . Words … words are things we . use and hear literally all of the time, although they give us the power to communicate, they are certainly not as influential or manipulative as they have the mla format, ability to be.
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Alastair Reid , Chile , Language 1384 Words | 4 Pages. ?Cloud Computing Is cloud computing a new rage, just a fad, a nebulous idea or a far-reaching trend? Cloud computing has become a buzz word in . working and learning environments around the globe. Newsstands and Internet pages everywhere are inundated with articles, whitepapers and websites dedicated to defining the many facets of cloud computing such as hosting a website on the cloud, building a cloud infrastructure, cloud security, vulnerabilities, capabilities, pros and cons and cost. IEEE.org. Cloud computing , Google , Joni Mitchell 871 Words | 5 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the analysis, first few sentences.
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remains a touchstone of the English-language canon. Essay? Major Themes Death Two of the poem’s sections -- “The Burial of the Dead” and “Death by Water” . --refer specifically to 1984 essays this theme. Essay About? What complicates matters is that death can mean life; in other words , by dying, a being can pave the way for new lives. Eliot asks his friend Stetson: “That corpse you planted last year in your garden, / Has it begun to sprout? Will it bloom this year?” Rebirth The Christ images in the poem, along with the many. Death , Ezra Pound , Holy Grail 3165 Words | 9 Pages. Actions Speak Louder Than Words essay.
Than Words It is difficult, if not impossible, to maneuver through life being oblivious to reality. This must leave a person unprepared for 1984 analysis essays, . potential risks or obstacles that occur without any notice. In “The Bystander Effect,” Dorothy Barkin explains how the psychological factors, which are unknown to many people, play in the behavior of people when faced with emergencies. The two main factors that should be addressed are level of engineered essay, ambiguity and moral diffusion. Analysis? In Martin Gansburg’s essay “Thirty-Eight. Bystander effect , Crowd psychology , Diffusion of responsibility 1460 Words | 4 Pages. How to Add 300 Words to Your Essay in 15 Minutes. How to poems Add 300 Words to Your Essay in 15 Minutes Here’s the problem: you’ve typed a page or so, which amounts to about 250 . words or thereabouts.
And now you’re staring at the blank piece of analysis, paper, thinking the following thoughts: • • • Why do I have to write this stupid essay ? ! I’m not even a Writing major – why do I have to do this? Why can’t the word requirement be one page? What, there’s not enough out there in the world for my professor to thesis on molecular markers read? • When am I ever going to finish this? Hey. 2000s American television series , Caroline Botelho , Essay 1761 Words | 6 Pages.
ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Critical Essays? Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350-400 . words ] – 12 marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Thesis? Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages.
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convicts book report Friends or foes? Causes and consequences of critical colonial violence. It's not so black and white. Not a good fence builder. Justice or resistance? Contemporary racism against essay about drug abuse Indigenous People. How the past shapes the present. Regrets and floggings. Power and morality. Sometimes laws are created to exert a moral code, sometimes to solve a problem and sometimes to help the powerful consolidate their power.
These motivations can all be found in the laws that resulted in critical Convicts being sent to Australia. By today's standards, the Convicts had only formating, committed trivial offences and in the case of 1984 critical analysis essays political crimes, had in persuasive essay fact showed a social conscience. 1984 Critical Analysis? The serious crimes, such as rape, murder, or impersonating an thesis on molecular, Egyptian, were usually punished in Britain with the death penalty. In Australia, laws were even more strict, or more specifically, authorities were given free rein to 1984 essays make anything they wanted to be a criminal offence. Consequently, Convicts soon discovered that, in Australia, it was against the law to be pregnant, rude, disrespectful, swear, drink, and an influential essay even have their hands in their pockets.
Because there was a sense of illegitimacy about critical essays, whether the punishment fitted the crime, many Convicts decided that there was a difference between being a law abiding citizen and being a decent human being. On Molecular? Such sentiments could be seen in verses of Convict poetry such as: The law locks up the man or woman. Who steals the goose from the common. But leaves the greater villain loose. Who steals the common from the goose And song verses like. He bade the judge good morning. And he told him to analysis essays beware, That he'd never rob a needy man. Or one who acted square, But a judge who'd rob a mother.
Of her one and only joy. Sure, he must be a worse outlaw than. The wild colonial boy. Friend Essay? Until 1850s Britain, homosexuality carried the death sentence and people who turned a blind eye or were an accessory to homosexuality risked being transported to Australia. One such man was William Bonill, who was accused of essays letting two men, James Pratt and friend John Smith , have sex in his room. 1984 Critical? Pratt and Smith were executed while Bonill was sentenced to study 14 years.
Hyde Park Barracks in critical essays Sydney were constructed to house Convict men and boys. Holes were constructed in walls so that guards could watch to ensure Convicts weren't having sex with each other. Homosexuality remained a crime in NSW until 1984. In 1827, a small ship manned by nine Greek sailors robbed a British ship bound for friend essay, Malta. The Greeks were later caught and brought to critical analysis trial. In their defence, the Greeks argued that, under international law, they had been entitled to intercept and an influential friend essay rob a vessel destined for 1984 essays, a port occupied by thesis Turkey (their enemy.) Initially, the men were sentenced to death, but concern about the validity of the English laws led to seven of the men being sent to Australia instead. Machine breakers and swing rioters.
While technology increases production, it also brings with it a human cost. In the 1830s, the introduction of threshing machines coincided with a series of difficult growing conditions and poor harvests. These machines took away the 1984 critical analysis essays, winter employment for thesis, ploughmen who were already doing it tough. Threshing machines were soon attacked and a mythical “Captain Swing” started sending threatening letters to farmers and 1984 analysis manufacturers if the machinery wasn’t removed and wages increased. Rioting eventually broke out, with the troublemakers being tried as “machine breakers” or “swing rioters”. In 1690, Catholic Ireland was conquered by Protestant England.
The English subsequently passed laws that Catholics could not vote, could not enter university, could not be members of Parliament, could not own a gun, could not travel more than five miles from home and could not teach in Protestant schools. Before long, three-quarters of the thesis on molecular, Irish land was owned by 1984 analysis essays the English Protestants who rented it to the Irish farmers. If rent was not paid, bailiffs would take anything moveable (such as livestock or furniture) and then evict the abuse, family. To survive, many Irish were forced to a life to crime. Other Irish struggled to realise political change. Critical Analysis? In March 1798, Ireland was declared to be in a state of insurrection. Under the Insurrection Act, Magistrates and Military Officers were empowered to arrest and punish, by death or otherwise, according to their discretion, people committing treasonable acts or even suspected of treason. An Indemnity Act protected them from suits for illegal acts committed by them in suppressing a rebellion, so that many thousands were, without any judicial trial or investigation, flogged, tortured, transported or executed.
Sample of thesis Irish Convicts that were transported on the Britannia in 1897. Although records of their sentence exist, for many there is little-to-no records of critical analysis essays crimes they were alleged to have commited. This could suggest that they had not commited any crime other than being Irish. In 1804, about 330 of the Irish Convicts launched a full scale insurrection. Although their catch cry was liberty or death, most of the Convicts got neither. The ring leaders foolishly tried to negotiate a deal and were caught. The stunned mob was then fired upon thesis markers and after 15 minutes of 1984 analysis confusion, it fled to abuse the bush. The principle ring leader was hanged almost immediately, eight others shortly followed, four received 500 lashes, thirty were sent to 1984 goal gangs and study presentation another thirty were sent to Newcastle. The Convicts who ran away surrendered in twos and threes over the next few days.
The Tolpuddle Martyrs were six men from the Village of Tolpuddle in England who were transported in 1834 for trying to form a union. They were: George Loveless; James Loveless; Thomas Standfield; John Standfield; James Hammet; James Brine. 1834 print showing demonstration in 1834 against the sentences of transportation imposed on 1984 analysis essays the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Between 35,000 to 100,000 people attended the demonstration, and over 200,000 signed for brand study, the remission of the Martyrs' sentences. Critical Essays? Lord Melbourne at the Home Office refused to accept the petition. The Scottish Martyrs were five men who promoted the ideals of the French revolution: liberty, equality and fraternity. As punishment for promoting these views, they were transported to Australia. Essay About Abuse? They were: Maurice Magarot; Thomas Muir; Thomas Fyshe Palmer; William Skirving; Joseph Gerrald. 2009 Bust of 1984 critical analysis Thomas Muir by friend essay Alexader Stoddart. 1984 Critical Analysis? Muir's charges proposed that 1) he said the government was oppressive 2) that he encouraged three people to to buy and read Paine's Rights of Man 3)that he circulated the thesis on molecular markers, work of Thomas Paine, A Declaration of Rights, to the friends of reform in analysis Paisley.
Life was difficult for sailors in the 18th century. They could be flogged without reason, food was scarce and pay almost non-existent. It had been said that 'being a sailor in a ship is being in goal with the chance of being drowned. ' Mutinies were usually dealt with by hangings. Mla Format Poems Essay? Occasionally; however, the mutineers were sent to Australia. One notable mutineer was a surgeon by the name of Dr William Redfern. In 1797, Dr William Redfern took part in a naval mutiny aimed at 1984 analysis essays improving workplace conditions. He was sentenced to death as a result. After spending four years in an English jail, he was transported to New South Wales in 1802.
Redfern became an advocate for essay, the emancipist cause and in 1984 critical 1814 reported to about drug abuse Governor Macquarie on the sanitary problems of the Convict transport ships, which led to dramatic improvements in 1984 analysis essays conditions. In 1837, a group of Canadian rebels staged an an influential friend, uprising to achieve reform. Critical Essays? 29 were executed and 149 were transported to genetically engineered food essay Australia. The Chartists were a group of about 60 people from Monmouthshire in 1984 critical England who had drawn up a list of changes they wanted made to genetically essay the political system. The list included the ideas that everyone should be given a vote, that voting should be by critical analysis ballot and Parliamentary members should be paid. Mla Format? (The system of the time only allowed rich men who didn't have to 1984 critical earn a living to enter Parliament.) For creating the list, the Chartists were transported to Tasmania. William Cuffay was one of the most well known chartists. He was the son of a West Indian slave and started agitating for political change in 1834. In 1848, he was charged with “sedition” and “levying war” after organising a Chartist rally. He was subsequently sentenced to 21 years transportation. He arrived in Hobart in 1849, but was immediately granted a ticket-of-leave, which allowed him to work. He was pardoned three years later.
Upon receiving his pardon, he started campaigning against the Master and Servant Act, which aimed to persuasive essay about restrict trade unions. He died in 1870 and was honoured with obituaries in numerous Australian newspapers. From 1828 to 1984 critical 1834 South Africa deported many blacks that were not political prisoners, but had transgressed the white South African laws. Often the pickpockets were well organised gangs that targeted social gatherings of the rich and famous. In a crowd, the pickpocket's victim would not feel a hand relieving them of their valuables.
As soon as the item was stolen, it would be passed to an assistant (often an elegantly dressed lady) who would hurry to mla format poems essay another part of town. Convicts as young as 10 were transported to Australia. Such children had no parents, no homes and no schools thus took to a life of 1984 critical crime to survive. Thesis On Molecular? Other orphans were sent to Australia because business owners wanted them to work in their factories as slaves. Not even children were too young to transport. Mary Wade was just 11 when sentenced to death for 1984 essays, the theft of mla essay a frock. This was communted to transportation to Australia.
She later had 21 children. Some eccentric noblemen from England 's establishment were transported. These included: James Hardy Vaux - An eccentric who despite acknowledging the folly of his ways, found it impossible to resist the temptation to critical analysis essays break the law; Francise Greenway - Short fused architect who rubbed people the wrong way; James Grant- Discharged a weapon in essay a gentleman's 'duel' after his honour had been tainted; Sir Henry Brown Hayes - A knight and sheriff of Cork who kidnapped a lady and 1984 essays forced her to mla format essay marry him. To create a sense of permanency about the colony, Governor Macquarie enlisted Convict architect Francise Greenway to design solid brick constructions. 1984 Critical? Robert Russel’s Hyde Park Barracks  shows the barracks with the original domed guardhouses, now demolished.
The Convict women were usually reported to have been low-class women, foul mouthed and with loose morals; however, this was not always the study presentation, case. Often women would commit crimes deliberately to join their husbands in 1984 critical analysis the colony. Punishments for women included an iron collar fastened round the neck or having their heads shaved as a mark of disgrace. Often these punishments were for moral misdemeanours, such as being 'found in the yard of an inn in an indecent posture for mla essay formating, an immoral purpose'. Sometimes women would intentional offend the authorities by bearing their back sides or name the priest when asked who the father was of their child. Convict women were often punished for having poor morality. In 1838, Convict women at the Cascades Female Factory reacted by mooning the visiting governor and the reverend.
In a house of 1984 critical analysis nobility, if an item went missing or was misplaced, the servant was usually blamed. Convictions were assured even when there was a lack of evidence. Engineered Food Essay? Other servants formed relationships with their masters and were accused of theft when the master wanted the relationship to end. Ye London maids attend to me. While I relate my misery.
Through London streets I oft have strayed. But now I am a Convict Maid. In all the joy that peace could give. But sin my youthful heart betrayed. And now I am a Convict Maid. To take my master's property. So all my guilt was soon displayed. And I became a Convict Maid. To wait in fear my punishment. When at the bar I stood dismayed. Since doomed to be a Convict Maid.
Which filled with pain my aching breast. To Botany Bay you will be conveyed. For seven years a Convict Maid. While my poor mother loudly cried. My lover wept and thus he said.
May God be with my Convict Maid. I cannot half my grief reveal. No sorrow yet has been portrayed. Like that of the poor Convict Maid. My punishment is 1984 analysis essays, most severe.
My woe is great and about abuse I'm afraid. That I shall die a Convict Maid. And sleepless through the essays, night remain. My constant toils are unrepaid. And wretched is the Convict Maid. I'd never again a captive be. But I would seek some honest trade. And never become a Convict Maid. Nearly 25,000 women were transported to Australia as convicts, half of them from Ireland. Markers? The Convict Maid became a popular folk song.
Aborigines became Convicts for either defending their home or cultural misunderstandings. 1984 Critical Analysis? Warriors such as Yagan, Pelmulwuy and Musquito were outlawed for formating, enforcing the laws of their culture. Yagan and Pelmulwuy were eventually beheaded whilst Musquito was transported to Tasmania where he again made trouble and was then executed. Other Aborigines came before the law due to cultural misunderstandings. Critical Essays? In nomadic societies, there was no concept of individual possession; rather, what was owned by friends was owned by all. Consequently, the Aborigines frequently walked off with any European item that held their interest.
Subsequently, many officials found it ironic that they had established a penal colony amongst the greatest thieves on earth. Aborigines ended up in chains for various reasons. Food Essay? One reason was offence at the presence of the English. As the Convict J.F Mortlock wrote in 1984 critical essays 1864, I sympathized with a few unfortunate aborigines, transported hither from New South Wales, for resenting the intrusion and aggression of the English. They were usually chained by the neck like dogs. Ironically, this was because authorities considered it to be more humane. As stated by friend the Sydney Morning Herald in 1907, “In his annual report on 1984 critical analysis essays his department for mla format essay, the year ending Juno last, Mr. H. C. Frinco, Chief Protector of Aborigines, states on the question of the neck chaining of native prisoners, that the following report has been sent to the Secretary of State:-With regard to the neck chaining of native prisoners it has been conclusively proved by all medical and other evidence that this method is analysis, most humane, and after full consideration the Government has approved of its continuance.
The following is the list of crimes that was punishable by transportation to Australia 1.) All theft above the value of food one shilling.2.) Thefts under the value one shilling. 3.) Receiving stolen goods, jewels and plate. 4.) Stealing lead, iron or copper. 5.) Stealing ore from black lead mines. 1984 Analysis? 6.) Stealing from brand case presentation, furnished lodgings. 7.) Setting fire to underwood. 8.) Stealing letters.9.) Assault with intent to rob.
10.) Stealing fish from a pond or river. 11.) Stealing roots, trees or plants. 12.) Bigamy. 13.) Assaulting, cutting or burning clothes. 14.) Counterfeiting the copper coin. 15.) Clandestine marriage. 16.) Stealing a shroud from 1984 analysis essays, a grave. 17.) Watermen carrying too many passengers on the Thames , if any drowned.