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bus safety essays (CNN) It’s a question many Americans have in assignment, light of cultural scholarship essay several high-profile bus wrecks from Missouri to Pennsylvania. Assignment Singapore. And if you ask the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) how safe school buses are, you’ll find its answer is a superlative: School buses are the safest method for transporting students to and from school. Aqa A2 Physical Education. In fact, the NHTSA says that traveling by school bus is seven times safer than traveling by car or truck. For perspective, while more than 30,000 people are killed in traffic crashes every year, six school-age children die as passengers in school buses annually. Of course, the NHTSA and all of assignment us want the numbers to be zero.

But it shows you how school bus crash fatalities are relatively rare when compared to students 2013 traffic fatalities as a whole. Still, questions remain about why there aren’t safety belts on school buses. They’ve been required on passenger cars since 1968, but the do my singapore government doesn’t feel they’re needed on school buses for several reasons. For one thing, large buses behave differently in crashes than the cars we drive. What passengers feel during a school bus accident is likely to be significantly less forceful than they do during a car accident. The government also points to riordan essay compartmentalization as an effective safety measure: The high-backed, cushioned seats we used to ride in continue to protect passengers in frontal crashes. But seat belt advocates say current safety measures are not enough. Do My Singapore. The National Coalition for School Bus Safety says the study that the government cites for media plan, its data is assignment singapore dated and inadequate. Earn. For one thing, seven out of 10 “real world” accidents are not frontal, according to singapore the coalition.

And when it comes to side-impact and rollover accidents, the NCSBS says compartmentalization is less effective and that seat belts are essential to saving lives. Like many school-related issues, the federal government allows states and scholarship, districts to set the rules when it comes to seat belts on school buses. One downside is cost: Buses with built-in seat belts are more expensive. And at a time when school systems are looking for ways to cut costs in some cases, cutting some school bus routes themselves it’s not likely you’ll see an do my uptick in the number of buses with seat belts. Thank you for every other informative site. Where else may just I get that kind of information written in such an ideal manner? I have a project that I am just now running on, and I have been at the glance out for such information. [#8230;] CNN (Blog) How safe are school buses? – 3/20/12 [#8230;] [#8230;] American Academy of Pediatrics isn#8217;t alone in this viewpoint. As discussed in this CNN article, another organization devoted to advocating for the safety of children, the National Coalition for [#8230;] Quoting Old Data: #8220;School buses are the how to money writing safest method for transporting students to and from school.#8221; Some school buses may be the do my safest method to and from school, some are not. It depends.

Overall, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), an agency that investigates school bus crashes, determined traveling to social plan for small school by school bus is assignment singapore second only to commercial bus travel in passenger safety. School buses are now in second place, not first. I drive right past my kids#8217; school every morning (at the riordan time that they would be dropped off for school) as I am on my way to work. However, I make sure they get on singapore, the bus before I leave home. That#8217;s how much I appreciate the safety of the school bus. Earlier this year, a car hit one of social media marketing our buses head on and the do my singapore driver of the car was killed instantly. It was a horrific crash, but all of the children were safe because the bus did its job. Scholarship. Love the bus!

Been driving a school bus for 16 years. Assignment Singapore. Seatbelts are not needed on buses. Cultural Diversity Scholarship. They would be more dangerous when it comes to a speedy evac if necessary. If children would sit properly as they are told to sit facing forward and on their bottoms they would be very safe. But they like to sit with their knees in the seats turned around or feet in assignment singapore, asile sitting sideways. They are protected with the departemental setup to be safe.

i worked building IC buses in Tulsa for some time and i can tell you they are junk and students 2013 essay, dangerous . Do My Assignment. one idiot that job was to torq down the brake bolt didnt do it at all and it took them 2 years to figure that out. one time a temp was backing up a bus and hit a lamp post at less than 1 mile a hour and it pushed the aqa a2 body forward on the frame 36 inches. i have seen frame rails that were so pitted and bent it takes 5 guys just to assignment force them into the squareing machine. one time they got the wrong bolts to attach the sterring gear box and forced a metric onto a standard thread and if the impact was one pound to much it would snap the stud off. PLEASE look at the pics of all of these bus wrecks and manufacturing, you will see that MOST of them are IC brand. I rode a Headstart bus and do my singapore, buckled in the pre-schoolers. I monitered them and helped them off on the bus. I was the only one who was not provided a seatbelt. Latin. If there was a serious accident, I probably would have been unable to assist the children. Do My Assignment. There were two seatbelt cutters near the driver to cultural scholarship assist with a quick evacuation. Assignment. We had an evacuation drill every month. American Independence Essay. It would be great if all parents were required to moniter the buses in turn or pay a non-working parent to take their place. school buses are as safe as long as the people that drive them are qualified/that does not mean someone jumps into do my assignment singapore, a schhol bus who has not had all the proper traing and can pass the tests that are required with absolute interigty/alot of school bus companies will hire boddies because they are underpaid and lack good judgment/i drove a bus for riordan manufacturing, ten years and can tell you that i have seen it all/most compaines do not abide by all the regulations/ther are required and mandatory training tha is do my singapore involved/seat belts should be made mandatory on all buses nationwide.

I#8217;m a bus driver in a middle sized city in Germany, I drive a double long Mercedes bus that carries 120 passangers. Most cities here us the normal city buses to physical transport school children to assignment and from school. Aqa A2. There is no way I can control what goes on all the way in the back of the bus, seat belts would be a nightmare. The mechanics spend enough time replacing the assignment singapore seats that are torn and scholarship essay, ripped out of their mounting by the school kids, some of them have even been set on fire. Seat belts, right, that#8217;s just what we need.

What#8217;s needed is to install hidden cameras and catch the little darlings and make their parents pay for the destruction they cause, and ban them from using the bus. Do My Assignment Singapore. I would love seat belts on my school bus, but in reality I have 42 elementary children and I know they would hit and choke each other and wouldn#8217;t sit in them. If my bus caught on fire and I have to get up to 70 kids off the bus and I can tell you they will be screaming at the top of their lungs in a panic. now for social media plan, the middle and do my, high school they wouldn#8217;t sit in them anyway and probably cut them, jam them up so what is the point. I am the only adult on the bus with no camera or monitor and I have to watch the road so I don#8217;t get in an accident. Children should be at least constrained as well as they are in a roller coaster ride. Hitting any solid object at how to earn money, highway speeds could get them seriously killed or fatally injured. Assignment Singapore. If the physical education coursework EPA can demand that plants that generate electricity have to produce emission cleaner than ambient air we can at least make a school bus a bit safer. We need more government controls and rules because citizens working in the private sector are taking far too much money home in their pay checks.

If the death toll rises high enough then politicians can rise up, make a speech and do my singapore, spend more of our money. We can only essay hope that this time it might be well spent. What happens when you are in singapore, a severe accident and your bus rolls over a 60-70 little children are flying all over the place as you roll down a hill into scholarships for college essay, a river? Will you be changing your #8220;tune#8221; then? I also don#8217;t think we should have seat belts on school buses. I have been driving one for over 7 years and currently drive one that is equipped with seat belts. In a severe wreck when an evacuation is necessary, young children are not going to be able to get out of the seat belt on assignment singapore, their own. I just see the belts causing more injury or death than not having them.

People who don#8217;t know anything about school buses do not understand that it is not nearly the same as using the seat belt in their personal car. There are negatives to having them and not having them, you have to weigh out students 2013 essay, which decision is going to do my assignment cause the most harm. While the rolling-the-hill-into-a-river scenario is a possibility, that happens much less often (5 out of 85 crashes involved turn-over) than kids getting killed walking to earn money writing school or being driven to school by do my assignment, car. According to a report from the NHTSA, from 200 to how to articles 2009, 57 school kids were killed while ridding in a school bus. During the same time, 1081 school kids were killed going to school as pedestrians or riding in a car. Do the math. Even if seat belts would have saved those 65 lives (and its unclear that they would), it would be much more effective to get more kids riding school buses instead of singapore walking or riding to school in a car. We could have saved 1081 lives by manufacturing, having them riding a bus instead of assignment walking to or driven in a car. I don#8217;t think they should have seat belts. As a sub-driver in riordan manufacturing essay, my childrens school district the question I ask is: If the bus had seatbelts and do my singapore, we need to quickly evacuate the bus which kids do you unbuckle first?

Kids panic and for college students, when you have 60-70 students thats alot of children to unbuckle for one adult. You can#8217;t expect to have an older child risk their life to help unbuckle kids who are panicing. [#8230;] How safe are school buses? #8220;School bus crash fatalities are relatively rare when compared to traffic fatalities as a whole#8230;Still, questions remain about why there aren’t safety belts on school buses.#8221; (CNN) [#8230;]

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How to Train A GCSE Essay Writer – Part 2. Thinking about do my assignment, better assessment is not always at the forefront of the mind of a busy English teacher. Manufacturing Essay. We are so hassled by marking, planning and well, teaching lots, that we keep our nose to the marking grindstone and, well…just keep on going. More recently, I have been trying to do my singapore consider how to improve as a teacher and, inevitably, it got me thinking about assessment. After marking thousands of essays, I wanted to physical ensure that I was asking students to undertake the best formative assessment and so that my precious time given over to my feedback efforts were worthwhile. With this in mind, I put aside the dubious language of assignment exam board AOs and considered what makes a great essay. I came down to the following strands, woven together into scholarships for college students 2013 the metaphorical rope of a complete essay: Display knowledge and understanding of how the social context influences the writer and their text (including how different audiences may respond to the text); Display knowledge and understanding of the character, themes and do my assignment singapore, language of the earn articles, text, making connections and inferences from across the singapore, text; Display knowledge of the how to earn money writing articles, writer’s choice of literary devices and do my assignment singapore, generic conventions, based on a wider knowledge of literary history; Select, retrieve and interpret evidence (predominantly in the form of quotations); Make inferences from that evidence on the writer’s vocabulary choices based upon physical education coursework, a broad and deep academic vocabulary knowledge; Plan and organise an essay into a coherent argument, linking salient points that address the assignment, essay question; Write with accuracy and clarity, including the use of lead sentences, discourse markers and academic vocabulary, all deployed in an appropriate academic style (written in the passive voice, using nominalization etc.). I considered the following approaches to aqa a2 education creating diagnostic assessments for assignment, each strand. For many, some of american independence essay these assessments simply won’t feel like assessments at all, but simply, well…teaching.

It is symptomatic of how far summative assessment is assignment ingrained in social marketing plan for small business our thinking that we consider final assessments, like mock examination essays, as the dominant way to train students . Do My Assignment. Instead, we need to deconstruct essay writing into better practising its component parts. The following ideas offer suggestions to do just that: Knowledge and understanding of social context lends itself to cumulative quizzing . How To Earn Money. If we take ‘Animal Farm’ by do my assignment, example, then a regular quiz can help consolidate which historical figures are represented by which characters in the novella. This is crucial ‘ base knowledge ‘ and can be assessed rather simply. Once students have consolidated these basic facts, they can begin to display understanding of those characters: how they change; their relationships with other characters; the themes and ideas they relate to, and their potential symbolism etc. Another apt assessment for strand 1 would be using graphic timelines , both for independence essay, how the text fits in a broader literary tradition, as well as a chronological timeline for the text itself (for example, with Animal Farm, the characters actions neatly translate to historical acts, such as the Russian revolution etc.)

If we are looking to diagnose our students’ understanding of different audience responses to a text, another approach is using other types of graphic organisers , such as a Venn diagram , a ‘ mind map ‘, or an assignment singapore ‘ event map ‘ – see here: We can begin to increase the degree of challenge, and the related complexity of the diagnostic assessment, by getting students to riordan essay relate their knowledge of do my singapore contextual factors to themes in the text, as well as the physical coursework, audience interpretation of theme and do my, context. Here ‘ short answer questions ‘ that require a paragraph length response are more appropriate assessment tools. It is this progression of essay assessment that is assignment singapore important. Media Marketing For Small. Also, an organised discussion , organised around principles of do my assignment singapore ‘ Socratic circles ‘, or a debate , either with more formal rules, or orchestrated more loosely, can capture knowledge and understanding of audience attitudes successfully.

The diagnostic assessments that best attend ‘ character ‘, ‘themes ‘ and ‘ language ‘ of the text will prove subtly different. Essay. To best develop a knowledge of character and theme, cumulative quizzing to consolidate core knowledge and to diagnose their gaps, is once more an integral assessment opportunity. Do My. Short answer questions can also tease out media marketing, core knowledge. Once more, graphic organizers appeal to assessing ‘character’ and ‘theme’, as they encourage students to organise their ideas and make connections across ‘characters’ and singapore, ‘themes’ from the text. Essay. A simple ‘ diamond 9 ‘ approach can get students to consider ‘character’ and/or ‘theme’ hierarchies: A ‘ concept map ‘ is a good way to do my singapore provide an scholarships students diagnostic assessment for students to do my assignment make connections, organising their knowledge around a key ‘theme’. The focus on hierarchy in a concept map lends itself to address the power of 2013 essay characters, or the relative importance of themes. Exhibiting a close analysis of language is do my assignment singapore so crucial knowledge for every student. The depth of analysis in many an essay is scholarships students essay defined by how many nuanced inferences students can make about individual word choices (including idioms and metaphorical language). The ‘ Frayer Model ‘ is a good way to glean understanding from individual language choices: Cloze exercises have a value in getting students to assignment choose between appropriate words to describe aspects of the text, or to generate their own answers. ‘ Choose the scholarships 2013 essay, closest definition ‘ is assignment singapore a variant of social media for small business multiple choice questions, simply offering potential definitions for key language choices, proving particularly useful when students have shaky knowledge and understanding.

When it comes to assessing language, then we first need to do my assignment ensure that students understand the basic definition of cultural diversity scholarship essay a term. Many an English teacher has re-explained the difference between a simile and a metaphor…over and over! A simple definition matching assessment does that simple job, repeated over time for do my assignment, consolidation. Multiple-choice questions lend themselves to exhibiting a basic knowledge of linguistic terms. Of course, feature spotting can prove a limiting factor for students; they need to be able to describe the effects creating by linguistic devices and generic features. Getting students to scholarships students 2013 essay provide multiple examples of linguistic devices, with a simple ‘ explain exemplify ‘ diagnostic assessment, sees them explain the linguistic device and its typical effect, before then exemplifying it with two or three of their own examples. A higher order assessment would be to get students to identify patterns of language and/or linguistic devices across genres. Assignment Singapore. When studying poetry clusters, this is an easier approach to assessment, deepening their understanding of the writer’s choice within a genre. Concept maps lend themselves well to aqa a2 education analysing a genre, or comparing poems within a cluster, whereas more extended oral presentations can help determine how well students’ exhibit knowledge of genre and writers’ linguistic methods in greater depth. Whenever students are faced with a graphic diagnostic assessment, like a concept map , we can always broaden the assessment, garnering more knowledge about the student’s understanding, by combining the concept map with an do my assignment expectation that they elaborate with an manufacturing essay oral presentation for X minutes. As indicated in the wording of strand 4, ‘ select, retrieve and interpret evidence (predominantly in the form of quotations) ‘, we can more effectively separate out what we want our students to know and what they can do with evidence from the do my singapore, text.

We often miss out the ability to physical education coursework ‘select ‘ quotations as a first step. We need to train our students to pick the ‘right’ quotes. With tongue in cheek, I often describe the right quotes to learn as ‘ Swiss-Army-Quotes ‘. That is to say, those quotations that you can use for assignment, a multitude of essay questions, as they encompass many different ideas, themes or issues from the cultural diversity scholarship, given text. An effective essay writer can only store so many quotations, so they need to be pertinent and selected judiciously. In terms of diagnostic assessments for selecting good quotations, we can start with using multiple choice questions that get students to correctly relate quotations to individual characters or themes. We can get students to rank order quotations with regard to their relevance, relative importance etc. We can get them to select quotations when given a specific character, theme or prospective essay question.

If we want to test and learn how well our students ‘retrieve’ quotations then we can set them timed challenges – with a ‘ Quotation Quest ‘ (a challenge to collate key quotes for whatever purposes that you identify) that can prove great for some competition; or we can quiz them on what chapter/stave/stanza/page quotations are from. Alternatively, or concurrently, we can get students to assignment singapore devise a quotation timeline , that sorts quotations by chronological order, and more. With each of the ‘select ‘ and ‘retrieve ‘ diagnostic assessments, we can, if we choose to, record their relative progress. Diversity Scholarship Essay. It is relevant, over time, we can increase the degree of challenge for these tasks by factoring in do my assignment timed conditions. When it comes to diversity ‘interpret ‘, we need different, more nuanced diagnostic assessments. Do My Assignment Singapore. Short answer quizzes can get students to respond to individual quotations.

We can assess their understanding in such quizzes. Students 2013. We can assess them orally, with a ‘Just a Minute ‘ activity, whereat they have to say as much as they can about a given quotation. Of course, targeted questioning can elicit how well they can interpret a quotation. I like the singapore, idea, rather than tackling essays, or PEE paragraphs (PEAL, PETAL, whatever you call it!), of doing what Katie Ashford labels ‘ show sentences ‘ (see here for more: ‘Beyond the Show Sentence’ ): effectively a concise response to a given quote. ‘ Making inferences ‘ from scholarship essay, ‘ writer’s vocabulary choices ‘ is quite simply integral to literary analysis. Many of the assessment opportunities already described in the previous strands effective diagnose students’ knowledge and assignment, understanding for this strand too. How To Earn Writing Articles. From targeted questioning and structured discussion of relevant evidence, ‘ Just a Minute ‘ presentations, multiple-choice questions to tease out do my, difference inferences, ‘ show sentences ‘, model paragraphs , and more. The ‘Frayer Model’ , though appearing simplistic, can encourage really deep word knowledge, isolating the choices of the writer with real precision, which is so integral to good analysis of language.

You can reverse engineer some of the scholarships essay, above for do my singapore, variety. Latin American Essay. By getting students to design their own multiple-choice questions or dictionary definitions of specific vocabulary , including multiple meanings, used by writers. They can also devise flashcards , based on writer’s vocabulary choices, that both exhibit their knowledge and assignment singapore, understand, whilst creating a useful tool for future learning. Planning to ‘ organise an essay into a coherent argument ‘ is a relatively straight-forward strand of cultural diversity scholarship procedural knowledge to develop and to assess. We can get students simply devising skeleton essay plans for given questions, to giving extended oral presentations on a given essay question or point of debate. We can use paragraph sort activities, whereat students have to organise paragraphs into a coherent argument and justify their response.

Graphic organisers that convey essay structures can work effectively, like a fishbone diagram graphic organiser : Writing with accuracy and clarity under the pressure of timed constraints is very different to writing and drafting, making edits and improvements. Still, grace under pressure can be honed by practice in relative tranquility. Deliberate practice with teacher feedback here often comes down to diagnosing an issue, such as a weak control of syntax, or an do my absence of discourse markers. Media Plan. We can work backwards from do my assignment, common issues within our groups by then setting short tests and practice on isolated aspects of writing until they are corrected and become automatic. Once more, distilling down the complexity of a full paragraph can come down to crafting and aqa a2, drafting a perfect sentence. Assignment Singapore. Once more ‘ show sentences ‘ are useful. From crafting the riordan manufacturing, perfect sentence, students graduate to the ideal paragraph, before then practising connecting lead sentences…you get the idea!

Writing with an academic voice can be trained in various ways, from translation exercises that see students translate a flawed, informal essay paragraph into one that adheres to an apt academic style, to being explicit about an academic writing voice by expecting such phrasing and do my assignment singapore, use of discourse features in their verbal interactions. Once more oral assessments can be utilised as a diagnostic assessment, such as through a formal debate , of media for small course, priming students to write their argument having rehearsed in debate. You can read look back on PART ONE of the series for more. Daisy Christodoulou ‘s blog presents a brilliant analysis of formative assessment in her ‘ The Wing to Heaven ‘ blog. David Didau has written extensively and helpfully on do my assignment singapore, formative assessment ‘ The Learning Spy ‘. A wonderful post, with some very useful ideas. Thanks Alex.

As a trainee teacher in English, this blogpost could not have been more useful – thank you! Thanks Petrina – best of wishes with you training this year. It is hard, but gets easier and proves well worth it! First and foremost, I am an English teacher. I have taught English (including a bit of Media Studies) for well over a decade. If it is tragic and gothic, laced with humour and bitter truths then I'll teach it!

I'm also Director of Learning and Research at Huntington Secondary School, York. A Story of Resilience: Dr Mary-Claire King 17/09/2017 ResearchEd 2017 11/09/2017 A New School Year and cultural scholarship essay, a New Start 02/09/2017 ResearchEd York 2017 – Introducing… 01/07/2017 Why Whole-School Literacy Fails! 25/06/2017. Nurturing a Growth Mindset with Year 11 Boys – Teaching@StBerns on The Growth Mindset ‘Collection’ Homepage on ‘The Butterfly Effect’ in Schools Who needs training on assessment? - Evidence Based Education on How to Train a GCSE Essay Writer Alex Quigley on ResearchEd 2017 John Wm Stephens on ResearchEd 2017. Alex Quigley Follow. English teacher, Director of Huntington Research School, EEF/IEE Research Schools Developer. Author: 'The Confident Teacher' NEW 'What I learned from the Learning Scientists' via @RjGarbett: Feat. @AceThatTest @doctorwhy.

NEW 'Book Review: The Trials of Evidence-based Education' via @StephenJForeman Feat @SGorard. You really should sign up for do my assignment, our @HuntResearchSch monthly newsletter. We have a group of stella teacher-writers: First and money, foremost, I am an assignment singapore English teacher. I have taught English (including a bit of Media Studies) for american independence, well over do my, a decade. Marketing For Small. If it is tragic and gothic, laced with humour and bitter truths then I'll teach it! I'm also Director of Learning and Research at Huntington Secondary School, York. I am the proud author of 'The Confident Teacher' and 'Teach Now!

English'. I write regularly for the TES and do my assignment singapore, Teach Secondary magazine. I am also Project Lead of the RISE (Research-leads Improving Students' Education) Project. An EEF funded randomized controlled trial to physical education coursework evaluate if and how a Research-lead can help improve outcomes for students. I am also a privileged member of the ResearchEd Advisory Panel.

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a 5 paragragh essay Have you ever made an assignment awesome chocolate cake without looking at essay a recipe first? Unless you are an extremely talented baker, most likely the answer is “no.” Just one cup of flour too many and your chocolate dessert will be a chocolate mess! The same goes for writing a 5-paragraph essay. If you are an extremely talented writer, you may be able to intuitively create a compelling essay with all the components needed to be both persuasive and easy to assignment singapore swallow…or follow. However, if writing doesn’t come easily to you, you can benefit from creating a 5-paragraph essay outline before jumping into american independence your writing assignment. I always make an do my assignment outline first, no matter what writing project I’m working on. There are endless, different ways to write a compelling essay. But, if your teacher is demanding that you sum up your argument in riordan manufacturing, five succinct paragraphs, follow this easy tutorial on how to create a 5-paragraph essay outline. Structure of the do my, 5-Paragraph Essay Outline.

The 5-paragraph essay is made of…you guessed it…five paragraphs. Each paragraph serves a specific purpose: Paragraph 1: Amazing introduction (hook) and physical education, the all-important thesis statement Paragraph 2: Argument A and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 3: Argument B and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 4: Argument C and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 5: Conclusion, made up of your restated thesis and the broader significance of your argument. Here’s how this outline would look if you sketched it out: A Note on assignment singapore Formatting Your 5-Paragraph Essay Outline. Now, I’m not saying that you must put your outline into a diagram like the one above—using a simple pen and riordan essay, paper or word processor will suffice. Assignment Singapore? If you like technology though, there are several digital outlining tools that can help you out—some of them more sophisticated and user-friendly than others. It’s not really about making a perfect 5-paragraph essay outline, rather, it’s about developing an outline that makes the most sense to you. An outline ensures that you have the necessary components to write an awesome essay. Without further delay, let’s jump into more detail about each of the marketing plan for small business, outline components. First we need a topic. Typically, your instructor will give you a subject to write about, or at least parameters for a topic. Do My Assignment Singapore? Always follow your teacher’s specific instructions when embarking on your 5-paragraph essay journey.

After all, you don’t want the wrath of your instructor to come down upon you for completely ignoring instructions. For College Essay? For our sample topic, we’re going to use the following prompt: What are the arguments for do my singapore, or against writing a 5-paragraph essay? Should teachers continue requesting this writing method from students? Step Two: Take a Stance on Your Topic. Scholarships For College 2013 Essay? We need to take a stance for do my, or against teachers asking students to write 5-paragraph essays, so we can argue for or against it in our thesis statement. How To Earn Writing Articles? Don’t make the mistake of not taking a stance —without taking a position, your essay (five paragraphs or twenty) will have no direction at all.

When deciding on your position, you have to choose one that can be backed with valid and do my assignment singapore, supportable arguments, either from your research or from the course materials provided in manufacturing essay, your class. For our sample essay outline, I’m going to take a stance against singapore the 5-paragraph essay . Step Three: Write a Clear Thesis Statement. Based on riordan my chosen stance against 5-paragraph essays, my thesis statement will be “Teachers should stop teaching students to write 5-paragraph essays.” Notice the word “should” in do my, the thesis statement? More power can be added to your position by scholarships for college 2013, creating a statement about what should or shouldn’t be done. This is do my assignment, a much stronger and more defensible stance than if I simply wrote “5-paragraph essays are boring,” or something similar. Step Four: Develop Three Arguments to Underscore Your Thesis. Now you need to come up with three arguments that will back your thesis statement. Here are mine: The 5-paragraph essay is cultural diversity scholarship, too basic. There are myriad other ways to write essays, many of which are more thought-provoking and do my singapore, creative than the 5-paragraph essay. Scholarship? The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to singapore following a restrictive formula. Step Five: Develop Three Supports for Each of Your Arguments.

Your evidence, or supports, should include facts, quotes, and data that substantiate your thesis. Latin American Independence? This is a great place to include quotes directly from your research sources. For example, to support argument A (“The 5-paragraph essay is do my assignment singapore, too basic”), I might offer the following evidence: Support 1A : Chicago teacher Ray Salazar says, “The five-paragraph essay is rudimentary, unengaging, and useless.” Support 2A: Elizabeth Guzik of California State University, Long Beach says, “The five paragraph essay encourages students to engage only on the surface level without attaining the level of cogency demanded by college writing.” Similarly, in regards to argument C (“The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to following a restrictive formula”), I might support it with this quote: Support 1C: According to an article in Education Week , “There is a consensus among college writing professors that ‘students are coming [to college] prepared to do five-paragraph themes and arguments but [are] radically unprepared in thinking analytically.’” Remember, for the 5-paragraph essay structure, you typically need to come up with three supports for each of your three arguments. In our example, I only show three of the total nine supports needed to round out the argument. Once you have your thesis and arguments sorted, you can work on cultural diversity scholarship developing your introduction. (*Hint* it’s an singapore exercise in futility to develop your introduction first, because you won’t really know what you’re introducing yet.) For example, my hook could be, “English teachers across the nation have been teaching students to riordan manufacturing essay become ineffective writers.” This hook makes a bold statement that will encourage readers to continue on to find out why I would say such a thing… especially if the reader is do my assignment, your English teacher. Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion. For College Students 2013 Essay? After you have your paper outlined, figuring out singapore a concluding paragraph should be a breeze.

In a traditional 5-paragraph essay, the first step in writing your conclusion is to restate your thesis using different words. Media Plan For Small? For example, I might write, “The 5-paragraph essay is an do my assignment outdated and scholarships for college, useless writing tool that should be phased out do my of the classroom.” To close out the latin independence, paper, I would open a discussion on assignment singapore the broader significance of marketing plan, this argument. For example, I might write, “Teachers should teach other methods of essay writing that help students stay organized and also allow them to think analytically.” Now that you’ve established all the do my assignment singapore, components of your 5-paragraph essay outline, you’ll need to actually sit down, avoid social media for a while (I know, it’s hard), and write your 5-paragraph essay. Believe me, it will be much easier to do now that your thoughts are organized and you have somewhere to start. Earn? Ask any writer. There is nothing more frightening than the pure white of an do my assignment empty page. An outline is a great remedy for this. Oh, and cultural diversity, a couple more things: As you start writing, you’ll want to be sure to connect all the pieces of your essay together with strong transition sentences. Don’t just line up the notes from your outline and call it done. And always, always be sure to edit; if you need help with that, you can use Kibin’s essay editing services. Spend a little extra time adding those finishing touches that will elevate your essay from good to great.

How about you? Do you work from an outline? Or are you more accustomed to writing by the seat of your pants? Let us know in do my singapore, the comments. For College? Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Do My Assignment Singapore? About the Author.

Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Latin American? Excellent post. Singapore? Love the paradoxical example. I#8217;ll try this with my blog posts. We#8217;re not huge fans of the media marketing, 5-paragraph essay, but we realize it#8217;s still a widely taught and utilized writing method. The paradoxical example was the perfect way for us to express our own view while still writing a valuable and useful article. Do My Assignment Singapore? I#8217;m glad you appreciate it #128521; I liked it so much I created a Mind map for it at Xmind. Hope that#8217;s okay.

Very cool! Thanks for doing and manufacturing, sharing this, @sganpat:disqus. this is completely helpful. Assignment? Awesome! Glad it helped you. #128578; What a very useful tips that is so applicable in all writer#8217;s on how to write well written paragraph. I think these are all very efficient and effective things that everyone should learned. Thank you for the good tips and methods of writing you have putted here.

It was all useful and helpful stuffs. Thank you for your comment! I#8217;m so glad you found this post to be useful and helpful. Well explained about how to construct an argument. Media Marketing Plan? Wow nice post ! Will definitely use it when I write again #128578; Fantastic! Glad you found it useful. Do My? #128578; Wow nice post ! Thank you for how to writing, sharing this #128578; Very nice article. Thank for assignment singapore, sharing this.

You#8217;re welcome! Glad you found it useful. I really appreciate your post. Structure is the soul of any essay and you describe it in a great way. American? Thanks for your kind comments! Great question! Here is a good blog post that covers alternative structures: Thank you very much for the article is very important information!

I especially liked the point Step Seven: Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion clearly we need to develop this part of the do my, Essenes.

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Discuss the separation of law and morality in analytical jurisprudence. The notion of analytical jurisprudence (also called “positive law”) is merely one aspect of a wide range of do my legal theories that are evident throughout legal history, and in the contemporary legal system. Legal positivism had its origins in the early 19th century, and owes much of its foundation to the combination of many ideas from the modernist and liberal schools of legal thought. This allowed for aqa a2 physical education a movement away from assignment singapore, natural law theory, especially at a common law level, and gave the opportunity to take a more scientific approach to the law ‘as it is’. This approach was first taken by figures such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. However, the positive view of the law struggled to students essay, adapt to the 20th century legal system, and it was HLA Hart who redeveloped the concept of positive law in England in the 1960s. Legal positivism holds the belief that the law should remain separate from morals and other social factors (such as religion, etc), and assignment singapore, thus the independence, theory was that the law could have much more general application. This brief will consider the do my, ideas of the riordan manufacturing essay, founders of the school of singapore analytical jurisprudence , and highlight the strict separation of law and morality that these theorists adopt in their approach to analysing the writing, law (thus supporting Austin’s claim). It will explore the theories set out by Bentham, Austin and Hart, and consider them in the context of the modern law, and determine their validity in the contemporary context. This brief will seek to focus particularly on the ways that Hart has reformed the ‘harder’ positivist theories with his combination of natural law and positivism into the more contemporary analytical jurisprudence that we see today.

As a result of this combination, there are often conflicts between Hart and Lon Fuller (a natural law theorist) due to do my, the obvious differences that these two theories possess. Earn Money? These will be discussed in more detail in the relevant chapters of do my singapore this brief, however it is riordan manufacturing essay important to note at this point that many perceive that positivism is not as different to other theories as it once was, due to the critical elaboration of positivism by Hart into the analytical jurisprudence that we see in do my assignment singapore effect today. Many authors refer to positivism and analytical jurisprudence as one and the same, and aqa a2 physical coursework, they are in effect, however it is important to consider their subtle differences between Bentham, Austin and Hart, and assignment singapore, the individual contributions that these theorists have made to for college, the development of analytical jurisprudence. This brief will now seek to cover the general principles of analytical jurisprudence, including the need for a clear and succinct law that everyone is able to understand, is singapore not prejudicial and can be applied to essay, everyone equally. It will then consider each individual theorist and their unique contributions, before moving onto the Hart/Fuller debate. Finally, it will attempt to conclude that while analytical jurisprudence has become softer in more modern times, this was more out of necessity to fit into a modern legal context; however the obvious separation of law and morality quite clearly exists, and is still used by some judiciaries. Basic Ideas of Analytical Jurisprudence. Before being able to critically assess each individual theorist’s ideas of legal positivism (or analytical jurisprudence), it is important to firstly have a sound understanding of this school of thought in assignment singapore general terms.

Many authors have written on analytical jurisprudence, some praise it, others criticise it. Riordan Essay? However, there is no denying that analytical jurisprudence has made some form of contribution to singapore, the way some people interpret and apply the law. Money? One author has defined analytical jurisprudence as the following: First, analytical jurisprudence was created on the assumption that there ought to be a sharp separation between law and politics. In order to establish such a separation, a science of jurisprudence had to be created. It was a system whose definitions, dichotomies and singapore, boundaries were designed, above all, to produce one right answer. Its formal definitions, which sought to map the province of jurisprudence, had thus become the critical starting points of the system.

The sharp, bright line distinctions between law and custom or law and morality were originally crafted for the central purpose of creating a hermetically sealed intellectual system designed to american independence essay, yield only one set of meanings, only one right answer. This passage highlights the desire of positivists to maintain a certain degree of separation between one’s political views and do my singapore, one’s analysis of the law. The general rationale behind this idea was that one’s political views could influence the way one interprets the for small, law and thus, by maintaining this separation, there could be a much more consistent and clear approach to the law then there had been in the past. Singapore? HLA Hart, a legal theorist in this area (who will be discussed in more detail in due course) concurred with the notion of a strict separation of morals from law, as he insisted on a “precise and so far as possible a morally neutral discussion of the law [as Jeremy Bentham did]”, and called this the “very centre, I would say the sane and money writing articles, healthy centre” of legal positivism. One of the do my, main arguments of analytical jurisprudence is that the law needs to be in a form that is aqa a2 physical easy to understand. This was Bentham’s main idea in restructuring the singapore, outdated English common law system in the 17th century to a more clear and aqa a2 physical education coursework, concise legislative system, which will be discussed in assignment more detail in media marketing for small due course. One author wrote of legal positivism: But [law] is only possible if the directives can be identified in a way independent of appeal to those very reasons.

Law cannot help anyone know what he ought to do if in order to know what law requires he must first figure out what he ought to do. This is now one of the do my assignment singapore, most-discussed arguments in analytical jurisprudence. In other words, Leslie Green has here pointed out that analytical jurisprudence requires a clear and understandable set of rules that can have a general application to all subjects, which eliminates the need for people to work out what they must do to obey the law; rather they will know ahead of time what their legal obligations are. As this brief will discuss, Bentham and Austin (who founded the school of positivist thought) upheld these views strongly, whereas scholars such as Hart tended to ‘soften’ the how to money writing, previously ‘hard’ arguments of positivism into a form that was more adaptable to do my assignment singapore, a modern legal system. One author wrote of Hart: However, at least since Hart announced in Concept of Law that the positivist project should be understood as both an exercise in 'analytical jurisprudence' and 'descriptive sociology', positivism has to some extent lost its substantive moorings. This shows that the softer analytical approach that Hart has taken in recent times is different to the approach taken by cultural diversity essay, Bentham and Austin earlier. Hart has incorporated parts of natural law theory into his arguments and, as will be discussed later, has contributed to an ongoing debate between the analytical jurisprudence works of Hart and the natural law philosophies of Lon Fuller. Do My Singapore? It is latin american independence difficult to highlight the basic ideas of analytical jurisprudence without referring to the individual theorists themselves, as they have each made individual contributions to the school of do my assignment positivist and for college 2013 essay, analytical thought. This brief will now seek to consider each individual theorist in significant detail, in conjunction with Austin’s claim that law is one thing and its merits are another, in order to appropriately address the issue at hand. As mentioned, John Austin played a significant role in establishing the legal positivist movement.

Before we consider his ideas on singapore positivism, it is important to firstly understand Austin’s concept of the physical education, law. This can be illustrated by the following passage: A law is the most general and comprehensive acceptation in which the term, in its literal meaning, is employed, may be said to be a rule laid down for the guidance of an intelligent being by an intelligent being having power over him. Therefore Austin’s concept of law is that it implies a certain amount of do my assignment singapore clarity and certainty when laying down its principle. It also acknowledges the existence of a hierarchy system of government, saying that the law needs to be laid down by a higher authority, rather than by people of the same level.

Austin also acknowledges that a law (or a ‘command’, as he calls it) is diversity scholarship made up of a number of elements, including: A wish: The person giving the command has an intention of a person to behave in a particular way; Communication of the wish: The wish must be communicated by words, or some other form that is able to be understood; Sanctions: The law carries with it the promise of an assignment action if the wish is not complied with (e.g. the threat of harm, or a polite request). We can see from Austin’s works that this is the beginning of what we know as the modern legal system. Scholarships For College Students Essay? Austin quite often spruiked the idea that law needed to be put into terms that were understandable to the subjects being governed. He borrowed this from the earlier works of assignment Jeremy Bentham, who will be discussed in due course, who invented the modern system of legislation as we know it today. But perhaps most importantly to the issue at physical education hand, Austin was perhaps one of the main theorists to maintain a separation between law and morality. This is quite obviously evidenced in do my singapore the quote that this brief is discussing, but it is also displayed right throughout his works.

Austin writes: A law in the most general and comprehensive acceptation in which the riordan, term, in its literal meaning, is employed, may be said to be a rule laid down for do my the guidance of an intelligent being by riordan manufacturing, an intelligent being having power over him. Essentially then, this shows that the Austinian theory assumes a great deal. For example, the assumption is made by Austin that those enacting laws are ‘intelligent’ or in other words, are competent in assignment exercising their authority to do so. Based on this assumption, the social media marketing plan for small business, courts can then be free to apply the do my assignment, law in its ‘literal meaning’, without having regard for aqa a2 physical education any other extraneous factors that may influence a judge’s decision. According to Austin, it is do my singapore not the role of the courts to adjudicate on whether a law is just or not, but rather to apply and uphold that law. This also rings true with certain elements of the doctrine of separation of powers that we see in place in modern democracies, where the legislature makes the law and the judiciary applies it. Thus, in diversity essay the Austin system, both branches would keep checks on the other, and ensure that they did not exceed their constitutional authority. This brief will now focus on Jeremy Bentham, one of the founders of legal positivism who gave many of his ideas to Austin to write about and publish.

It is important to understand the works of do my Bentham in order to truly understand how law and media marketing for small, morality tend to assignment singapore, be separated in the world of analytical jurisprudence. One of the main rationales for Bentham establishing the scholarship, positive law theory was that he thought the do my assignment, system of common law, that was then in use in latin american essay England in the 17th century, was insufficient and inconsistent. He classified this common law system as ‘dog law’, referring to the way it often applied retrospectively and assimilated it to the way in which we treat animals. Singapore? He criticised the lack of legal certainty and earn writing articles, clarity that the common law system provided. Bentham proposed a system whereby the limits of assignment singapore power and conduct were specifically outlined, and were available for all to manufacturing, see and abide by. He often intertwined his own ideas with the ideas of do my assignment utilitarianism (i.e. “the greatest good for the greatest number”), which then obviously formed the basis of the scientific approach to the law. His “science of legislation” approach meant that the law had a rigid format, was clear in its terms, and latin american independence essay, achieved a positive result overall for the subjects of the law, thus satisfying the requirements of the utilitarian aspects of Bentham’s theory. He also identified that human behaviour is do my assignment singapore often governed by two key factors: the desire for pleasure, and the avoidance of pain. It was Bentham that proposed a system of media for small codification of the law, similar to assignment singapore, the system of legislation we see in the modern context, where the premise was that it would create a universal set of laws that was easy to understand, and was able to earn, be easily communicated to do my assignment, the public, so they knew what they had to do to obey the laws. Media Plan For Small Business? It also meant that judges would effectively have their law-making powers reduced or rescinded, meaning they assumed more of an administrative role in the judiciary. Bentham had a similar view of the sovereign, believing that the sovereign is do my singapore a person or group to whom the for college students 2013, people of the society are “in a disposition to pay obedience” to.

For Bentham, law had to contain the following factors: A collection of singapore signs Which indicate an intention. Which are conceived or adopted by a sovereign in latin essay a state. Which describe the desired behaviour. Of the people to whom the intention is directed. Which should also provide a motive for those subjects to obey. This heavily itemised list is similar to assignment singapore, that of Austin; however Bentham’s theory came first according to physical, the history books. It shows the much more scientific approach to the law that a positivist tends to take rather then, say, a natural law theorist. Bentham’s rationale for creating such a system was that, as mentioned, judges were much more restricted in their law-making powers. This meant that they were not able to apply any form of morality to their legal arguments, as they were simply bound to apply the law as it was enacted by the Parliament. Do My Singapore? This further supports the aqa a2 education, fact that those who follow analytical jurisprudence maintain a strict separation from the law and any social or political factors surrounding it, leaving the debate of merits and demerits to the legislature.

Hart’s Elaboration of Analytical Jurisprudence. Limited understanding and strength of will. Hart identified these factors as the minimum that need to be in place in order for a legal system to function effectively. Hart talks about law as ‘obligation rules’, and continues to maintain a separation between the obligations of the law and the obligations of morality. Assignment? He talks about the law as ‘rules’, where a disobedience is generally frowned upon by the rest of the community, and scholarships students 2013, hence the peer pressure can often force people to obey. Moving back to the factors that Hart identified, it is assignment clear that he does not support a law that does not protect, for example, basic human rights.

Any law that places the public in any form of a vulnerable position could not be judged to be a valid law. In a similar way, any law that attempts to scholarships for college students 2013, confuse the do my singapore, public, or jeopardises the equality of the human race could also not be seen as a valid law. In an media marketing business extension to these principles set out by Hart, one author also wrote that Hart (as a positivist) “does not think that positive laws contrary to justice should be obeyed as a matter of conscience”. What this could be interpreted to mean is that, as Hart as said, any law that places the wellbeing of the human race into doubt could not be adjudged to do my singapore, be a just law. Money Writing Articles? It is easy to see that Hart has adapted the original concepts of Bentham and do my assignment singapore, Austin to a modern standard, and has made it applicable in the contemporary context. Marketing Plan? It is clear to do my assignment singapore, see that Hart draws his main arguments from the original positivism, but has adapted it slightly with the inclusion of some basic natural law principles.

This has softened his positivist approach somewhat compared to Austin and Bentham, however it is clear that Hart still maintains a certain degree of separation of law and morality, just not to the same extent that ‘harder’ positivists may. There has been a conflict between the principles of Hart (a positivist) and Lon Fuller (a natural law theorist) due to riordan manufacturing, their obviously adversarial views and ideologies. Fuller’s views are generally that the law needs to do my assignment singapore, meet certain standards and needs of the population in order for it to independence essay, be effective. This obviously conflicts with Hart, as he insists that law and morality need to be kept distinctly separate, in order for the law to be applied generally and impartially. Fuller makes reference to the ‘morality of duty’, which consists of the minimum standards that a legal system must meet (i.e. it needs to cover the basic ‘moral’ offences such as murder, defamation, deception etc), and the ‘morality of aspiration’ (i.e. what a legal system can become when it function in an excellent way).

Fuller was more concerned about the assignment singapore, ways that the laws regulate human conduct (the ‘internal morality of the law’) than the more substantive aims of the law itself (the ‘external morality of the law’). Effectively then, Fuller accused Hart (and the writing articles, rest of the positivists) of only considering half the picture in terms of how the law should be analysed. Do My? Fuller claimed that the for college 2013 essay, law needed to be considered in do my assignment singapore light of moral obligations and objectives in order to establish whether there was any effectiveness in the system. Hart has also made his contribution to the natural law theory, in the sense of money his five facts of the human condition, which are outlined above. Hart, while being a positivist, recognises that morality does perhaps play some role in the establishment of assignment singapore law and a legal system, but should be disregarded when one is analysing the 2013, law within that established system. While Hart does acknowledge that there are occasions where law and morality must necessarily intermingle with one another, he is assignment singapore quick to point out that this is only limited to a situation where there is independence no pre-established rule of law, and identifies these five requirements as necessary for a legal system to function effectively.

He still maintains his more scientific application of the law (by contrast to other theorists) in the sense that law and morality remain distinctly separate from one another, and that this is the only effective way for a law to be applied, due to its ability to have general effect. Fuller’s view of assignment singapore Hart’s approach was that it only just barely met the morality of duty (i.e. the bare minimum standard that law should achieve, according to Fuller). Fuller also used the earn money writing articles, idea that the community could actively contribute to an excellent standard of community functionality, through the use of the morality of aspiration. Singapore? This concept was based upon the idea that the community would communicate with one another about how an adherence to aqa a2 education coursework, the principles of law would ideally lead to a good life and a happier community. Essentially, the idea was that the regulators would provide the minimum standards for the community to live by, and the community would in turn make its own ‘moral’ laws, thus the development of the law stemmed more so from ‘internal morality’ (within the community) rather than ‘external morality’ (from a higher authority). Hart was more concerned with the do my singapore, application of the law from institutions, such as courts and legislative bodies, and how any extraneous influence on these institutions may skew the applicability of the law in general. In other words, Hart (and other positivists) only saw the aqa a2, law as the law and not a question of it being right or wrong, which was a question for the law-makers and not for the judiciary.

This effectively upholds the claim made by do my assignment singapore, Austin that ‘the law is aqa a2 one thing, its merit and demerit is another’, given that Hart was always concerned with analysing the assignment, law separately from any other extraneous factors that might influence one’s interpretation of the law. Fuller was quite clearly more concerned with how the law affects the students 2013, community, and how the community can assist in developing the law. The object of this brief is not to adjudicate as to what theory is more superior to another, but rather to highlight the differences between analytical jurisprudence and other legal theories. It would appear that the debate between Hart and Fuller is not one that can be easily resolved in any case, due to the complexity of the arguments for do my both sides. In any event, what this chapter of this brief has demonstrated is that analytical jurisprudence approaches the law in how to earn money writing a manner that is significantly different from other legal theories or theorists. It approaches the law as being the law, and is not concerned in do my assignment singapore addressing whether the latin independence essay, existence of such a law is right or wrong. Therefore, the positivists tend to accept the law how it is, and do not necessarily concern themselves with the merits and demerits of it, as per assignment Austin’s claim. Ronald Dworkin: Analytical Jurisprudence’s Main Critic. • Dworkin, R, Law’s Empire (1986), Harvard University Press: Massachusetts. • Freeman, MDA, Lloyd’s Introduction to Jurisprudence (2001, 7th ed), Sweet and essay, Maxwell: London.

• Hart, HLA, The Concept of Law (1994, 2nd ed), Oxford University Press: London. • Hart, HLA, Essays on Bentham (1982), Clarendon Press: London. • Leiboff, M, and Thomas, M, Legal Theories in do my Principle (2004), Lawbook Co: Sydney. • Dyzenhaus, D, ‘Positivism’s Stagnant Research Programme’ (2000) 20 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 203. • Goldsworthy, J, ‘Is Jurisprudence Liberal Ideology?” (1993) 13 Oxford Journal of manufacturing essay Legal Studies 548. • Green, L, ‘ General Jurisprudence : A 25th Anniversary Essay’ (2005) 25 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 565, 570. • Horwitz, MJ, ‘Why is Anglo-American Jurisprudence Unhistorical?” (1997) 17 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 551. • Orrego, C, ‘HLA Hart’s Understanding of Classical Natural Law Theory’ (2004) 24 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 287. • Riggs v Palmer (1889) 115 NY 506, 22 NE 188. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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