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Poverty in the Philippines: Causes, Constraints, and Opportunities
aortic valve essay OBJECTIVE. Cardiac MDCT and cardiovascular MRI have become widely used for the evaluation of cardiovascular disease, including aortic valve disease. The purpose of this article is to present the cardiac MDCT and cardiovascular MRI findings of poverty in the, bicuspid aortic valve, its various complications, and past and future, other congenital cardiovascular malformations. CONCLUSION. Radiologists should be aware of the clinical significance and the varied appearance of bicuspid aortic valve at cardiac MDCT and poverty in the, cardiovascular MRI. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the research foundation 2012 most common congenital cardiovascular malformation, affecting approximately 0.5. 2% of the popu lation. BAV can coexist with other congenital cardiovascular malformations, particularly coarctation of the aorta (COA). Patients with BAV are at increased risk of both valvular and vascular complications.
Serious valvular lesions include aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and infective endocarditis . The morphologic features of BAV can be predictive of poverty research paper, valve dysfunction and aortic elastic properties . The aortopathy of BAV is associated with dilation of the ascending aorta, aneurysm formation, and dissection [3, 4]. Therefore, every patient with BAV needs careful assessment of the morphologic patterns of BAV, the valve-related complications, and the diameter and the rate of increase in diameter of the research foundation essay 2012 aortic root and ascending aorta. This preoperative information is of great value in decision making regarding the surgical options for management of philippines research, abnormalities of the research aortic valve and ascending aorta. Aortic valve replacement is an attractive therapeutic option for poverty in the philippines research, patients with symptomatic BAV. Symmetric noncalcified BAV with aortic regurgitation can be surgically corrected with aortic valve leaflet techniques, and the risk of mordern gallantry, anticoagulation avoided. In The Philippines. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement is considered in the care of patients with a normally functioning BAV and ascending aortic aneurysm [1, 4]. Echocardiography is the standard diagnostic tool for identifying the morphologic features of research, BAV and in the paper, assessing valvular and aortic complications.
However, findings of a prominent raphe, extensively calcified valve cusps, poor acoustic windows, and research 2012, technical limitations can lead to misdiagnosis of severe disease . Adequate transthoracic echocardiographic views of the mid and distal ascending aorta and aortic arch, usually the site of poverty in the research, maximum dilatation, can be difficult to obtain in essay, patients with BAV . Transesophageal echocardiography is highly accurate for poverty philippines, detecting BAV and A reflective on my personal, coexisting cardiovascular malformations, but it is a semiinvasive procedure and not free of risk. Real-time 3D echocardiography can facilitate anatomic insight into the valve, but it has been less useful for evaluation of in the paper, aortic valve disease in spite of being an accurate tool for calculation of aortic valve area in aortic stenosis . Cardiovascular MRI can be used for A reflective on my personal, comprehensive assessment of poverty in the paper, aortic valve structure, left ventricular volume, quantification of the severity of aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation, and evaluation of the thoracic aorta. Flow measurements with phase-contrast cardiovascular MRI show good correlation with Doppler echocardiographic findings . Delayed contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI can be used to mordern gallantry essayist identify myocardial fibrosis in in the, patients with severe aortic stenosis . In India And Future Essay. However, the major limitations of cardiovascular MRI are limited availability, relatively long acquisition time, high cost, and poverty research, contraindications to use in certain patients. Retrospectively ECG-gated MDCT allows reconstruction of images of the aortic valve in essayist, any phase of the cardiac cycle.
Use of ECG-gated MDCT has expanded to in the philippines paper comprehensive evaluation of aortic valve disease with acquisition of morphologic information and functional cine imaging of the essay areas of the poverty in the philippines research paper stenotic aortic valve and regurgitant orifice [10, 11]. MDCT with various postprocessing techniques can yield high-spatial-resolution anatomic images of the mathematics in india present and future ascending aorta and depict the complex aortic anatomy. In The Paper. Dual-source CT with improved temporal resolution of 83 milliseconds enables simultaneous assessment of the A reflective aortic valve and coronary artery disease and concomitant abnormalities of the thoracic aorta. However, retrospective ECG-gated MDCT is performed with iodinated contrast medium, requires considerable ionizing radiation even when ECG pulsing is used for radiation dose reduction, and does not yield functional information about the severity of valve disease. The purpose of this article is to describe the appearance of BAV and its complications and of other congenital cardiovascular malformations at philippines paper cardiac MDCT and essay question on fungi, cardiovascular MRI. The morphologic characteristics of BAV include unequal cusp size because fusion of cusps has resulted in one larger, conjoined cusp; the presence of a central raphe or ridge; and in the research paper, smooth cusp margins (Figs. 1A and 1B ). Research 2012. Classification of BAV is based on three characteristics: the number of raphes (type), the spatial position of cusps and raphes (phenotype), and the functional status of the valve. BAV is poverty philippines paper codified into three types: 0, valve with no raphe; 1, valve with one raphe; and 2, valve with two raphes.
The BAV phenotypes are defined as anteroposterior cusp orientation and right-left cusp orientation and are associated with clinical outcome. In India And Future Essay. Type 0, or pure, BAV (incidence, 7%) has two completely developed and philippines, symmetric cusps and is much less common than BAV associated with a raphe  (Figs. 2A and 2B ). The Ross procedure can be more challenging in a pure BAV. Among valves with a raphe, the most common variant (70%) is right coronary and left coronary cusp fusion (anteroposterior phenotype) ( Fig. 1A ), which is also commonly associated with COA. Most patients with COA (89%) have right and left coronary cusp fusion. Fusion of the right coronary and noncoronary cusps (right-left phenotype) is found in 28% of patients with BAV. BAV with right coronary and noncoronary cusp fusion is associated with more severe pathologic changes in the cusp and essayist, particularly rapid progression of poverty research, aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation in present essay, young patients ( Fig. Poverty In The Philippines Research. 1B ). Mathematics Present And Future. Fusion of the in the research paper left coronary and noncoronary cusps is the least common morphologic variant (1.4%) . Calcification in photo essay, the BAV is philippines research largely confined to the base of the conjoined cusp and the raphe ( Fig.
3A ). The typical imaging features of BAV include a single commissural line in diastole and essay question on fungi, an elliptic orifice in systole. In patients with a prominent raphe or extensively calcified valve cusps, BAV may appear as tricuspid aortic valve in diastole. In patients with pure BAV, diastolic reconstructions alone are sufficient for diagnosis, and additional systolic reconstructions are not needed. Poverty Research. However, to identify BAV with a raphe, both systolic and diastolic data are needed for mathematics past, accurate CT diagnosis . MDCT and steady-state free-precession cine cardiovascular MRI can be used for philippines paper, accurate morphologic differentiation of question, tricuspid aortic valve and BAV. The technique has high interobserver agreement compared with echocardiography, especially in the care of patients with severe valve calcification [5, 13] (Figs. 3A , 3B , and 3C ). Although it is usually found as an isolated cardiovascular defect, BAV can coexist with other congenital cardiovascular malformations and accounts for in the philippines research, considerable morbidity linked with these congenital malformations. The defects associated with BAV include COA, Turner syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, supravalvular aortic stenosis, Williams syndrome, ventricular septal defect, subvalvular aortic stenosis, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, Shone syndrome, and mordern gallantry essayist, coronary artery anomalies (Figs. Poverty In The Research Paper. 4A , 4B , 4C , 4D , 5A , 5B , 5C , and termpaper, 5D ). Approximately 26% of patients with BAV have COA, but approximately 50. 70% of patients with COA have BAV [1, 2].
Oliver et al.  found that patients with both COA and BAV (8%) were more likely to have an research paper, ascending aortic aneurysm and acute aortic syndrome than were those with isolated BAV (3.7%). Termpaper. Cardiac MDCT and cardiovascular MRI precisely delineate the cardiovascular anatomy in congenital cardiovascular malformations. Cardiovascular MRI also can be used for quantitative assessment of philippines research, cardiac function, including the severity of aortic narrowing in COA and supravalvular and subvalvular aortic stenosis, calculation of question, collateral flow in COA, and quantification of pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in ventricular septal defect. In The Paper. The most common complication of 2012, BAV is aortic stenosis. Patients with BAV have superimposed calcific changes early in research paper, life that progress after the fourth decade. They eventually need aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in mordern essayist, the sixth or seventh decade of poverty research, life. Stenosis occurs earlier if the mathematics and future essay aortic cusps are asymmetric or in the anteroposterior position (fusion of the right coronary and noncoronary cusps). In The Philippines Paper. BAV stenosis progresses more rapidly than tricuspid aortic valve stenosis . Assessment of aortic valve structure, motion, and termpaper, area is philippines research paper possible with ECG-gated MDCT and cardiovascular MRI with good image quality in gravity 2012, patients with calcified BAV stenosis [5, 13] (Figs.
6A , 6B , 6C , 6D , 6E , and 6F ). Aortic valve calcium mass score measured with cardiac MDCT correlates with the severity of aortic stenosis and not with the morphologic features of the aortic valve . Aortic valve calcium score adds independent prognostic information regarding outcome in the care of patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. It therefore can be used as a parameter for decision making about whether to operate on a patient with severe asymptomatic aortic stenosis . Cardiovascular MRI depicts turbulent blood flow through a stenotic aortic valve and in the paper, can be used to quantify blood flow and peak velocity and sports photo, assess the poverty in the philippines research paper preoperative presence of sports photo, myocardial fibrosis [8, 9]. Patients with severe aortic stenosis and in the philippines, myocardial fibrosis have worse values of left ventricular functional parameters than do patients with a lesser degree of disease, and myocardial fibrosis has a profound effect on long-term clinical outcome after aortic valve replacement  ( Fig.
6F ). Aortic regurgitation in a BAV occurs more commonly in younger patients than does aortic stenosis. Mordern Essayist. Aortic regurgitation can coexist with aortic stenosis, and the degree is poverty philippines research paper usually mild to moderate. Mordern. Aortic regurgitation is caused by in the philippines research paper, prolapse of a larger cusp, fibrotic retraction of the research cusps, aneurysmal dilatation of the aortic root and valve annulus, and valvular destruction secondary to infective endocarditis . Poverty Philippines Paper. BAV is the most common cause of aortic regurgitation necessitating valve replacement. ECG-gated MDCT and cardiovascular MRI can be used to determine the mechanism of aortic regurgitation and for direct planimetric quantitative evaluation of the regurgitant aortic orifice  (Figs. 7A , 7B , and 7C ). Sports Essay. However, the diagnosis of mild aortic regurgitation can be missed with ECG-gated MDCT, especially in in the philippines paper, the presence of severe valve calcification or BAV . Phase-contrast cardiovascular MRI can be used for direct measurement of antegrade and retrograde flow volume across the aortic valve, yielding quantitative information about the severity of aortic regurgitation.
The regurgitant fraction calculated with cardiovascular MRI has good agreement with the on fungi angiographic or echocardiographic grade of aortic regurgitation . The cardiac valve most commonly affected by infective endocarditis is the aortic valve. Infective endocarditis is a potentially devastating complication that occurs in poverty paper, as many as 30% of patients with BAV, particularly those with regurgitant valves and those who are younger. Infective endocarditis is responsible for termpaper, as many as 60% of in the philippines, cases of severe aortic regurgitation complicating BAV, primarily owing to cusp perforation and destruction. BAV endocarditis has a high complication rate, requiring surgical correction more often than tricuspid aortic valve endocarditis . MDCT has been found to mordern gallantry essayist have high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (97%) in the detection of valve vegetations, but smaller vegetations ( 4 mm) can be missed . The main value of MDCT in the evaluation of infective endocarditis is assessment of complications, such as perivalvular extent of abscess or pseudoaneurysm. MDCT has been found to provide more accurate anatomic information than transesophageal echocardiography, having 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with operative findings  (Figs. 5B , 8A , 8B , and 8C ). Patients with BAV are at poverty an increased risk of aortic dilation, aneurysm, and dissection during their lifetime. In patients with BAV, the (work/organisation aortic root and ascending aorta are significantly larger than in persons with tricuspid aortic valve and research paper, even than in mathematics past present essay, BAV patients without hemodynamically significant aortic stenosis or regurgitation. Poverty Philippines Research Paper. Currently, aortopathy is thought to underlie the foundation 2012 aortic dilatation in patients with BAV.
It is estimated that aortic dissection occurs 5. Poverty In The Research Paper. 10 times more frequently in patients with BAV than in those with tricuspid aortic valve owing to the higher prevalence and rate of aortic dilation [1, 4] (Figs. 9A and 9B ). Sports. Surgical repair of dilated ascending aorta associated with BAV should be considered at an aortic diameter greater than 50 mm and at an even more conservative limit of greater than 45 mm in the presence of high-risk factors and poverty research paper, greater than 40 mm with a concomitant indication for elective aortic valve replacement . MDCT with 3D reconstruction yields excellent anatomic information about ascending aortic dilatation and aneurysm, such as maximal aortic diameter, shape and extent, and spatial relation to adjacent structures [3, 4, 6]. Cardiovascular MRI can be used for accurate evaluation of the on my thoracic aorta, particularly ascending aortic diameter and COA in poverty in the philippines research paper, patients with BAV  (Figs. 4B , 10A , 10B , 10C , and 10D ). Identification of BAV and assessment of the valvular and aortic complications and related congenital cardiovascular malformations are imperative for understanding the clinical significance of BAV. Cardiac MDCT and gallantry essayist, cardiovascular MRI can be used for poverty philippines research, accurate morphologic assessment of BAV and the related valvular complications, for measurement of the diameter of the ascending aorta, and for question, evaluation of the related congenital cardiovascular malformations in patients scheduled for elective aortic valve replacement. Cardiac MDCT can be used to evaluate the poverty research morphologic features of the coronary artery, and cardiovascular MRI is a quantitative measure for assessment of on my personal experience (work/organisation, aortic regurgitation and poverty philippines research paper, stenosis and left ventricular volume and for detection of myocardial fibrosis. Radiologists should be aware of the clinical significance and imaging features of BAV, including valve structure, valvular and aortic complications, and associated congenital cardiovascular malformations. Cardiac MDCT and cardiovascular MRI are useful for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.
A, Axial double-oblique CT image in A reflective related), systole (10% of R-R interval) shows bicuspid aortic valve with raphe ( arrow ) at congenital fusion of right (R) and left (L) coronary cusps. Raphe has anteroposterior orientation. Arrowhead indicates left main coronary artery. Poverty In The Philippines Research. N=noncoronary cusps. A Reflective Essay Personal (work/organisation Related). B, Axial double-oblique CT image in systole (10% of R-R interval) shows bicuspid aortic valve with raphe ( arrow ) at congenital fusion of right coronary (R) and noncoronary (N) cusps.
Raphe has right-left orientation. Arrowhead indicates left main coronary artery. A, Double-oblique CT axial image in systole (10% of R-R interval) shows thickened bicuspid valve cusps with elliptic orifice (aortic valve area, 1.9 cm 2 ). Opening of right (R) and left (L) coronary cusps in systole is symmetric. Arrow indicates left anterior descending coronary artery; arrowhead, left circumflex artery. B, Double-oblique CT axial image in diastole (70% of R-R interval) shows single commissural line ( arrow ) of bicuspid aortic valve with right-left cusp orientation. R = right, L = left. A, Axial double-oblique CT image in philippines research, systole shows heavily calcified, thickened, and stenosed bicuspid aortic valve (aortic valve area, 0.95 cm 2 ) with thickened and calcified raphe ( arrow ). Mordern Gallantry. B, Axial double-oblique balanced steady-state precession systolic phase cardiovascular MR image from cine loop depicts severely stenosed, thickened bicuspid aortic valve (aortic valve area, 0.91 cm 2 ) with area of low signal intensity indicating thickened and philippines research, calcified raphe ( arrow ). C, Transthoracic echocardiogram does not clearly depict type of aortic valve because of difficulty differentiating prominent raphe with calcification ( arrow ) and essay on fungi, adhesive commissure with calcification. Raphe is present between underdeveloped, conjoint right coronary and philippines research paper, left coronary cusps extending to corresponding malformed commissure. Heavily calcified bicuspid aortic valve with raphe was confirmed at surgery.
A, Axial double-oblique balanced steady-state precession cardiovascular MR image in systole shows thickened bicuspid aortic valve ( arrow ) with no raphe. Cusp orientation is right-left. B, Coronal double-oblique balanced steady-state precession diastolic phase cardiovascular MR image from cine loop shows nonruptured right coronary Valsalva sinus aneurysm ( arrow ). C, Maximum-intensity-projection contrast-enhanced 3D cardiovascular MR angiogram of in india, thoracic aorta shows severe, discrete juxtaductal coarctation of aorta ( arrow ) with poststenotic dilatation of descending aorta ( arrowhead ) and enlarged internal mammary and intercostal arteries (collateral pathways). D, Volume-rendered CT image shows separate originations of left anterior descending (LAD) ( arrow ) and left circumflex (LCX) ( arrowhead ) coronary arteries in absence of poverty research, left main coronary artery. LAD originates from tubular portion of ascending aorta (high takeoff). LCX originates from right coronary Valsalva aneurysm and research foundation competition 2012, takes retroaortic course. A, Axial double-oblique balanced steady-state precession systolic phase cardiovascular MR image from cine loop depicts bicuspid aortic valve with raphe ( arrow ). B, Axial double-oblique diastolic phase CT image shows prolapsed conjoined cusp with small vegetations ( arrowheads ) and perimembranous ventricular septal defect ( arrow ). C, Three-chamber balanced steady-state precession diastolic phase cardiovascular MR image from cine loop shows incomplete coaptation of aortic cusps and regurgitant jet flow in left ventricle ( arrowhead ) caused by prolapsed conjoined cusp ( arrow ). In The Philippines Research Paper. D, Axial double-oblique balanced-steady-state precession systolic phase cardiovascular MR image from cine loop shows pencil-like shunt flow ( arrowhead ) through small perimembranous ventricular septal defect into right ventricle. A, Axial double-oblique systolic phase CT image shows calcified adhesive commissure ( arrow ) and thickening and mathematics in india present and future, coarse calcification of in the philippines, bicuspid aortic valve cusps with raphe, which reduces valve opening area. Cusp orientation is anteroposterior. See also Figure S6G, cine CT loop, in essay question, supplemental data online.
B, Axial double-oblique CT image with thick-slab volumetric 4D reconstruction by blood-pool inversion technique shows planimetric measurement of aortic valve area (0.84 cm 2 ) in systole. C, Axial ( C ) and coronal ( D ) double-oblique balanced steady-state precession systolic phase cardiovascular MR images from cine loop show bicuspid aortic valve with adhesive commissure ( arrow, C ) and philippines, severely reduced valve opening area (0.77 cm 2 ) and stenotic turbulent jet into dilated ascending thoracic aorta ( arrow, D ). D, Axial ( C ) and coronal ( D ) double-oblique balanced steady-state precession systolic phase cardiovascular MR images from cine loop show bicuspid aortic valve with adhesive commissure ( arrow, C ) and severely reduced valve opening area (0.77 cm 2 ) and stenotic turbulent jet into dilated ascending thoracic aorta ( arrow, D ). Essay On Fungi. E, Axial T1-weighted spin-echo cardiovascular MR image shows concentric hypertrophy of left ventricular myocardium. F, Short-axis delayed contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MR image shows patchy areas of delayed hyperenhancement in subendocardial anterior and inferior walls of midventricular myocardium ( arrows ), corresponding to research myocardial fibrosis. A, Double-oblique CT axial image with thick-slab volumetric 4D reconstruction by blood-pool inversion technique depicts bicuspid aortic valve with raphe ( arrow, A ) and elliptic orifice in systole and prolapsed conjoined cusp with failure of coaptation ( arrowheads, B ) (regurgitant orifice area, 0.24 cm 2 ) in photo, diastole. See also Figure S7D, cine CT loop, in poverty philippines paper, supplemental data online.
B, Double-oblique CT axial image with thick-slab volumetric 4D reconstruction by blood-pool inversion technique depicts bicuspid aortic valve with raphe ( arrow, A ) and essay, elliptic orifice in systole and prolapsed conjoined cusp with failure of coaptation ( arrowheads, B ) (regurgitant orifice area, 0.24 cm 2 ) in philippines, diastole. See also Figure S7D, cine CT loop, in supplemental data online. C, Coronal double-oblique balanced steady-state precession diastolic phase cardiovascular MR image from cine loop shows eccentric regurgitant jet ( arrow ) with regurgitant fraction of 28% at mathematics past and future essay velocity-encoded cardiovascular MRI ( not shown ), corresponding to moderate degree of aortic regurgitation. In The Philippines Paper. A, Coronal double-oblique diastolic phase CT image shows flail aortic cusp ( arrow ) with complete loss of coaptation. Small vegetations ( arrowheads ) are present on two aortic cusps. Axial double-oblique CT image ( inset ) shows thickened anterior cusp ( arrow ) of bicuspid aortic valve with no raphe during systole.
B, Short-axis diastolic phase cardiac CT images show thickening and essay, multiple small nodules ( arrowheads ) of aortic valve cusps ( B ) and anterior mitral valve leaflet ( C ) corresponding to poverty in the paper vegetations. Failure of gravity research competition 2012, coaptation of aortic cusps is evident ( B ). Poverty In The Research Paper. C, Short-axis diastolic phase cardiac CT images show thickening and multiple small nodules ( arrowheads ) of essay, aortic valve cusps ( B ) and anterior mitral valve leaflet ( C ) corresponding to vegetations. Failure of coaptation of aortic cusps is evident ( B ). A, Coronal double-oblique systolic phase CT image shows thin, noncalcified bicuspid aortic valve cusps ( arrows ) with no raphe. Poverty Paper. Arrowheads indicate hemopericardium. B, Axial contrast-enhanced CT image depicts type A aortic dissection with intimomedial flap ( arrow ), thrombosed false lumen, and small, enhanced true lumen. Hemopericardium ( arrowheads ) also is evident. A, Axial double-oblique CT image with thickslab volumetric 4D reconstruction by blood-pool inversion technique shows heavily calcified bicuspid aortic valve cusps with no raphe. Severely reduced valve opening in A reflective experience, systole (aortic valve area, 0.68 cm 2 ) ( A ) and failure of coaptation in diastole (regurgitant orifice area, 0.18 cm 2 ) ( B ) are evident. See also Figure S10E, cine CT loop, in philippines research, supplemental data online.
B, Axial double-oblique CT image with thickslab volumetric 4D reconstruction by A reflective essay on my personal experience (work/organisation, blood-pool inversion technique shows heavily calcified bicuspid aortic valve cusps with no raphe. In The Philippines Research. Severely reduced valve opening in systole (aortic valve area, 0.68 cm 2 ) ( A ) and failure of coaptation in diastole (regurgitant orifice area, 0.18 cm 2 ) ( B ) are evident. See also Figure S10E, cine CT loop, in on fungi, supplemental data online. C, Coronal double-oblique balanced steady-state precession early systole cardiovascular MR image from cine loop shows thickened aortic valve cusps ( arrowheads ), turbulent stenotic jet ( short arrow ), and aneurysm with diameter of 55.1 mm ( long arrow ) involving tubular portion of ascending aorta. D, Contrast-enhanced 3D cardiovascular MR angiogram of thoracic aorta shows fusiform aneurysm ( arrow ) confined to tubular portion of poverty research paper, ascending aorta. This article is available for A reflective essay related), CME credit.
Bicuspid Aortic Valve: Spectrum of Imaging Findings at Cardiac MDCT and Cardiovascular MRI. Copyright 2013-2016, American Roentgen Ray Society, ARRS, All Rights Reserved.
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Creating A Research Paper On Poverty In The Philippines
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to poverty in the philippines research paper submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the research content in poverty in the philippines a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in sports photo certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an poverty philippines essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about mordern gallantry, what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of paper, your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of essay on fungi, inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of poverty in the, tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the termpaper most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page)
How to in the paper format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. A Reflective On My Personal! For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and poverty Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to question MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low.
Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for poverty in the philippines Mac defaults to.
1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Gravity Research Essay Competition! Change it to in the research 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the foundation essay competition 2012 same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman)
In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an in the philippines research automatic page number and termpaper your surname. 2.1 Adding the in the philippines paper Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to research t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the in the philippines paper top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and on my personal (work/organisation related) “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to in the research paper the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and essayist today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the poverty philippines paper title block is A reflective essay experience, double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the poverty in the philippines research rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. Foundation Essay 2012! There is no extra space above or below the title. Poverty In The Paper! A truly informative title will include the essay general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to research paper make about Hamlet and Macbeth.
Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the research page. (For a resource to poverty paper help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in sports the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines)
Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. Philippines Paper! (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Mathematics In India And Future! Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by poverty in the research, Elizabeth Mount College in essayist 2010, the research noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an on my experience (work/organisation related) Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the in the philippines research same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is mathematics past present, different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it.
Again, note the absence of poverty philippines, a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and question on fungi where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for in the philippines variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an in india past present author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the poverty in the research idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on essay competition 2012, every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited.
MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an poverty philippines Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into essay competition 2012, each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. In The Philippines Research Paper! The following pages give you some questions to gravity foundation essay competition 2012 answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to poverty create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie).
5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by question, the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to poverty philippines the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to termpaper be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in in the philippines research your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item.
Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Essay! (In my copy of word, I select the research text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Sports Photo! Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ”
I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the philippines significant area. Section 2 explains how to termpaper put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in philippines research citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to sports essay understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the in the philippines research MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the termpaper authors works?
That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on poverty philippines research paper, within the authors works?
In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to mathematics present do this. I have never heard of in the philippines paper, MLA Format and this helped ALOT. In India! Thanks so much!
Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in in the research each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the on my personal experience (work/organisation related) question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of in the philippines research, a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of past, songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of poverty research, paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website.
Lansdale School of photo, Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and in the philippines research a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to A reflective personal experience related) hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an poverty in the research Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for research essay documenting sources — use an in-text citation and poverty in the research a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to mordern gallantry your instructor about in the philippines paper, whether you really do need to use a footnote.
When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. Gravity Foundation Essay Competition 2012! I followed everything to the “t” and poverty in the philippines paper my professor says that my header is A reflective personal experience related), indented and poverty paper my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to essay 2012 your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. In The Philippines Paper! But your instructor is the past essay one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. In The Paper! Are your headers indented?
The screenshot was taken from in india present essay, a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the poverty in the philippines research paper instructions that are on the page. In India Past Present Essay! But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is poverty in the paper, why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the in india and future essay assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to poverty in the make minor formatting changes to question on fungi a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about philippines research, what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system?
And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and termpaper research divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to paper publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to competition write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and in the research “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and essayist books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for philippines paper themselves, and foundation essay 2012 further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for in the research the reply. What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”?
Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in essay question MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for poverty you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks.
I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and A reflective essay on my personal is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an philippines research A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all.
Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. Mordern Essayist! The first section includes links to in the philippines research pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for essay on my personal experience me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. Poverty In The Paper! I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an sports photo essay essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to in the research type my first mLA essay and A reflective personal (work/organisation related) I’m excited to in the philippines research paper do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading.
How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and essay the name of an author is not a good paper title, and paper I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is gravity research foundation competition 2012, going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the poverty research paper person who will be evaluating your paper. Sports Photo! MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. Poverty In The Philippines! So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions.
Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on sports essay, the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the in the philippines research only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the gravity research competition 2012 citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful.
is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in poverty the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the mordern image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. Philippines Research Paper! The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the sports picture on poverty philippines research, a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the A reflective personal experience related) citation accordingly.
If you found the in the paper image as the result of a Google search for A reflective personal experience (work/organisation something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the poverty in the paper right person to termpaper advise you on paper, what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. Gravity Research! It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the in the philippines chance to revise your work, and many other factors.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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50 Resume Summary And Objective Examples For Any Job. Before reviewing our resume summary examples and resume objective examples, it would be best to have a keen understanding of the purpose of the resume. The resume serves the purpose of philippines, landing you the all- important first interview. It is gallantry your personal marketing collateral; the resume should be designed with the idea of selling your qualifications and skills to the recruiter. It is a short document; on average two pages long. But the implications are career- changing.
Therefore, people should take the poverty in the philippines paper, time to craft their resume. It must contain all the key sections recruiters are looking for. Sports. A dilemma for many is whether the resume should include a summary and objective section. A resume summary is a short statement which highlights key points in your qualifications. Recruiters only scan the content of a resume so having a summary becomes crucial in getting their attention right away.
Essentially, the summary answers the question, “Why should your company hire me?” A well crafted summary can help build your brand with prospective employers. It should go without saying that a summary should be kept short but concise. In The Philippines. However, many job seekers get carried away with the details that the summary ends up becoming extensive. It’s all about highlighting the key points; the mordern gallantry essayist, features in your qualifications that are relevant to the position available. A resume objective is a statement or summary of your goals for employment. For recruiters, the resume objective gives them the impression that the applicant clearly knows what he or she want in a job. Poverty Philippines Paper. The problem with most applicants is that they craft the resume objective with an inward perspective. The objectives are written from the sports essay, standpoint of “what the company can do for me”.
This approach is poverty in the research very presumptuous and will put off many recruiters. Termpaper. A better approach would be to write the resume objective from the vantage point of “what I can do for the company.” It would be best to conduct research on the prospective employer and draw up a list of objectives that are aligned with theirs. Generally, the more specific your objectives the greater the chances of being considered by the recruiter. Here are three tips when making your resume objectives: Identify the position your want at the start Identify the skill sets and abilities you have that will interest the recruiter Keep it short. Poverty Paper. Resume Summary Or Resume Objective?
Which One Is For Me? Many job seekers are unsure about including a summary or objective section in their resume. They believe the essay on fungi, cover letter is the more appropriate document for the summary and objective. This observation has merit IF the recruiter reads or places strong emphasis on the cover letter. Although the cover letter is a standard component of the job application kit, recruiters train their sights on the resume. The resume is the document that stands over and above anything else. It is the document that will determine whether you move on to the interview or not.
The resume summary and resume objective serve the purpose of saving you valuable time. Recruiters will appreciate having short statements or bullet points to validate their interest on poverty in the philippines research, what you have to offer. The more important question should be: Which section is more important for me; resume summary or resume objective? A good rule of thumb to mordern essayist consider is to focus on the resume objective if you fall under any of these categories: First- time job applicant; about to poverty research enter the job market. You’ve been unemployed for some time and have decided to re- enter the job market. You’ve decided to shift gears and change careers; you want to attract interest. The summary and objective effectively communicates your value to the employer and delivers this in the fastest time possible. Below you#8217;ll find 25 different resume summary examples for some of the most popular jobs in US. If your job is different, simply use them as a template and change them according to your job position. 10+ years experience as Digital Marketer.
Managed many high- profile clients such as DELL, Yahoo, American Express, McDonald’s as well as the campaigns of renowned politicians. 2 years experience as a web designer/ developer, 3 years experience as an SEO professional, spearheaded the award winning multi- media ad campaign for gravity foundation essay Coca Cola. Excellent skills in communication, writing and highly proficient in social media marketing. More than 15 years experience in the field of business development in poverty philippines research various industries: finance, telecommunications, health care services and hotel and restaurant. Successfully managed large portfolios of key accounts for the purpose of past, building new networks and optimizing existing client base. Part of the pioneer team that built the ground-breaking 4G network of the in the research paper, ABG Company in research ASEAN. Five years experience in the customer service industry. Managed customer support services for companies engaged in the following industries: insurance, finance, online retail, business consultancy and hotel and restaurant.
Experienced with B2B and B2C customers and has worked with international clients. Multi-lingual and in the paper proficient in English, Spanish, Chinese and termpaper Italian. Extensive 15 year experience creating engaging, relevant and unique content for many of poverty paper, today’s most popular websites such as Huffington Post, Business Insider and Mashable. Cited as one of the most influential bloggers in “Business and essay Finance” in 2015 by YYZ Blogging Community. Holds a Doctorate in English from CDE University and poverty philippines research has authored 15 e-books in essay question various subjects. Executive Administrative Assistant with 10+ years experience working in various industries. Prominent clients include DELL, Coca Cola, United Health Group and poverty in the philippines research paper many politicians particularly during campaign season. Wonderful people skills; can extract productive results from the team. Research. Great ability to manage pressure; maintains consistency in meeting deadlines. High level of proficiency in poverty philippines research paper English; certified in MS Office with a Master’s Degree in Public Administration.
Vast experience in the sales industry managing accounts in different fields of research, expertise: direct sales, pharmaceuticals, consumer products and telecommunications. For 10 years, managed sales distribution for the challenging provincial network of PG consumer goods and services and achieved phenomenal 181% growth rate which was the turnaround for the department. 100% accuracy rating in meeting sales targets and objectives on a timely manner. Vibrant and naturally engaging personality who can easily bridge differences between client and consumer. More than 20 years experience in poverty paper conducting market research for various industries including finance, research, marketing, business psychology, health and fitness. Has conducted seminars and symposia on a number of researched material and since 2008 has been the equities analyst representative for YYZ Stock Brokers. Dedicated, hard- working and committed to meeting all challenges in order to help clients uncover facts and general truths. Certified Public Accountant with over 20 years experience managing the books and financial records and rendering advice to essayist some of the poverty philippines, top 500 corporations. In 2003 successfully reduced overhead spending of XYZ Savings and Loans which was affected by gravity research foundation essay competition 2012, the global collapse of the philippines research, equities market. Has authored 10 books on finance and taxation. Gallantry Essayist. Meticulous and detail- oriented, firmly believes strategy follows numbers.
Licensed securities trader who worked as an equities trader for BMA and in the Associates for 10 years. From there, successfully transitioned to termpaper a career as a Portfolio Fund Manager for Citysec Global Investments. For the past 10 years, his portfolio has been generating an annual yield of 9%; one of the highest performing in Citysec. Certified trainer for Elliott Wave Theory, Dow Theory and Fibonacci Ratios. Poverty. Highly proficient in RSI, Stochastics and Moving Averages. Certified by the most respected organizations in fitness training: ISSA, ACE and NSCA.
More than 15 years experience training every day people to achieve their dreams. More than 10 years experience coaching teams and individuals win their sporting event. Has written 10 e-books on different health and fitness topics such as sport psychology, diet programs and sports photo supplements. Poverty In The Philippines Paper. Passionate about living the health and fitness lifestyle. 15+ years experience working as Executive Chef in research foundation competition many prestigious hotels and philippines paper restaurants such as Hotel Du Louvre, Bistrot Victoires in Paris and Lindenhofkeller in Switzerland. Apprenticed under Chef Joel Rubochon for five years. Studied in L’ Academie de Cuisine. Specialty is Modern French Cuisine. Highly disciplined, meticulous and committed to creating the best food experience for customers.
Five years working in the high- pressure world of sales and five years consistently delivering results for mordern clients. Worked in insurance, consumer goods and poverty in the philippines research paper supplements industries. Managed many B2B and mathematics past present and future essay B2C clients including Coca Cola, Whole Foods and Del Rosario Insurance Brokers. Enjoys the challenge of exceeding targets and surpassing expectations. Great communication and organizational skills. Fluent in English, Spanish and Chinese. Philippines Research Paper. More than 10 years experience working as a Personal Secretary for high level executives in various industries.
Great organizational and communication skills. Highly proficient and certified in gravity research 2012 MS Office. Ability to develop and manage CRM for different sales organizations. Five years experience in social media management. Cumulative 15 years working the field of IT.
Designed and developed websites in poverty in the a private capacity for many B2B and B2C clients. Trained and certified in research Python, Java and C+. Worked as Dialer Manager for Convergys and improved connect rate by 400%. Involved in creating training materials for contact center IT framework management. Innovative and solutions oriented. Worked in Dubai for 15 years as Chief Electrical Engineer including five years at Burj Khalifa. Previous engagement was with Emaar and Nakheel. Certified and licensed Electrical Engineer. Graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. Practical thinker, solutions- oriented and poverty in the philippines research paper dedicated to ensuring the safety of all structures and facilities.
10 years experience developing software applications for gravity research foundation competition 2012 companies from poverty philippines research, various industries. Termpaper. These include fast food retail, logistics, transportation and health and fitness. Certified in Java and C+. Team- oriented and poverty research paper understands the importance of the research competition 2012, value chain in in the philippines paper software development. Details oriented; conducts extensive research to deliver results and customer based solutions. Worked for 10 years in the Emergency Room as Resident Doctor before specializing as a General Practitioner. Sports Essay. Manages clinics situated in two general hospitals. Apprenticed in Boston, Massachusetts and New York City. Great communication skills with remarkable ability to manage patient crisis situations.
Establishes great working relationships with hospital staff. Managed the in the philippines paper, Human Resources department of Convergys for 10 years. Introduced the concept of Resource Process Outsourcing or RPO to address the high turnover rate and alarming employment disengagement level of Convergys. Succeeded in essayist lowering turnover rate by 120% and decreased disengagement level to 15% which is below global market percentile of 70%. Bachelor’s Degree in Human Resources from University of Michigan.
Worked as Head Trainer for Acquire360 a contact center facility which employs 1,500 agents, 300 supervisors and 150 Project Managers. Created the training syllabus and poverty in the research paper course outline which has been regularly updated for the past 15 years of service. Manages a team of 120 lead trainers and assistant trainers. Graduated with a Degree in Psychology at Stanford University. People oriented and termpaper research believed people are the core of every organization’s success. 10 years experience as a Content Writer for philippines paper many popular websites such as Huffington Post, Business Insider and Mashable. Topics of expertise include business and finance, health and fitness and life hacks. Part of the pioneer team for mathematics in india present essay tycoon.com which won Best Business and research Finance Blog in 2015 in the prestigious Bloggys Award. Graduate degree holder in English Literature.
Background in SEO, keywords research and social media marketing. 10 years as a professional web designer for ABC Web Design Services. Conceptualized, executed and oversaw the termpaper research, website design for YYZ Group of Companies which won 7 awards at the 2015 CSS Design Awards including Best Overall Design. In The Philippines Paper. Background in C+, Python and Java Programming Languages. 5 years experience in SEO.
Creative; likes to think outside the box, great ability to translate impressions into design. Termpaper Research. Background includes work as Clinical Psychologist for DEF General Hospital for 5 years plus 15+ years private practice specializing in Behavioral Therapy. For the past 5 years has been studying and implementing Behavioral Psychology in Corporate Organizations to address employment disengagement. Succeeded in improving employee productivity in LGU Manufacturing by 104% over a two – year period. Worked as Head Nurse for WYZ General Hospital for 10 years from 2000 to 2010. Transitioned to work for LED Personal Care Professionals as a Personal Care Worker for paper the elderly from termpaper, 2010 to 2015. Patient, great ability to in the paper work with the elderly. Diligent, well- organized and efficient in overseeing the daily routine of patients. On My Personal Related). 15 years working as Petroleum Engineer at Woodside Petroleum including 10 years as Chief Petroleum Engineer. In The Philippines Research Paper. Previous experience includes 5 years as Petroleum Engineer in Gulf Mining at Dubai. Gravity Essay 2012. Part of the pioneer group that jump started mineral- based businesses in Oman.
Graduate in Extractive Metallurgy from Penn State University. For 10 years was the Lead Architect for ABi Architects. Assigned in Europe by the company from 2001 to 2004 to oversee its development projects in London, Scotland and Austria. Hired by IBI Group in Canada from 2010 to 2015 to supervise design and philippines implementation of its projects in Sussex. Graduate Degree in Architecture from gravity foundation competition, Cornell University. Here are 25 different objective examples you can use for your resume. Sales position where I can highlight my skills in communicating with people, align their needs with the products and services and challenge myself in helping the company exceed its monthly targets. Head Writing position so I can share my thoughts, ideas and world views with readers; engage freely with those who were compelled to action by my content and thereby further enhance the visibility of the publication. Payroll Officer position where my strengths in maintaining attention to detail, meticulous review of work and adherence to quality control measures will ensure efficient administration of payroll to the company’s employees. Lead Digital Marketing Manager position where I can share my expertise in philippines campaign management; introduce creative new ways to optimize online marketing tools and help clients achieve unprecedented growth in sales.
3D Animator position so I can showcase my talent and creativity in developing highly imaginative, thought provoking characters and on fungi share my passion for the arts which taken collective will produce world- class animation for the company and its clients. Administration Officer position where I can contribute my skills in organization and poverty in the philippines research paper experience in essay personal benefits management to further strengthen the foundation of the company. IT Consultant position that will enable me to utilize my technical and fundamental competencies in poverty in the research paper computer programming, local area networking, website development and mathematics present contribute more efficient operational frameworks for the company. Human Resources Management position where I can contribute my expertise in behavioral management, organizational psychology and human relations and establish a highly productive work culture for the company. Fitness Training Manager position that will enable me to introduce the latest cutting- edge training methodologies and systems and develop a team that would help the gym’s many clients achieve their health and fitness goals. Executive Secretary position where I can help top management and poverty in the paper key executives of the company have more productive schedules by managing and essay on my personal (work/organisation attending to non- essential tasks and activities. Head of poverty in the paper, Equities Research position where I can provide my expertise and share advanced knowledge in different areas of technical trading and fundamentals and offer the many investors of the company sound strategies and trading recommendations.
Restaurant Manager position where I can use my background in culinary science, people management skills and gravity essay competition 2012 capitalize on my empathetic nature to help the in the philippines research, restaurant create the mathematics present and future essay, best dining experience for poverty philippines paper its customers. Outbound Sales position which covers international markets so I can put to use my multilingual skills; I can speak Spanish and French, and help companies expand the scope of their products and services. Head of Research and Development position that will enable me to mathematics essay introduce newer and more efficient methodologies in research and systems to poverty paper consistently update the information data base of the company. Teaching position in the high school level where my background in Behavioral Psychology and A reflective essay personal experience related) counseling will optimize the school’s learning systems and methods of instruction for the benefit of students. Healthcare Assistant for the Aged and Disabled that will enable me to fulfill my advocacy to help the elderly and disadvantaged in society live comfortable and functional lives. Retail Sales Manager position where I can use my skills in communication, salesmanship, people- management and ability to pinpoint what customers need to help the company achieve consistently high growth in poverty in the research paper sales. A position in Customer Service where my organizational and communication skills and natural ability to help people find resolution to pressing issues will contribute to the company’s efforts to retain markets. Head Trans- Editor position; my primary objective is to manage a team of transcribers and maintain the highest level of accuracy and precision in transcribing audio files while consistently attaining the required Turn Around Time for the submission of all transcribed files. SEO Professional for a digital marketing organization where my skills and expertise in optimization will push the company’s website up the termpaper, search rankings and all published content would be highly patronized by poverty philippines paper, the target audience.
Social Media Marketer position so I can contribute to the company’s efforts to generate awareness on its products and gallantry services as well as enhance their online presence through the medium of social media. Business Analyst position where I can highlight my abilities to conduct research, review, analyze and poverty in the philippines present sound recommendations and photo essay courses of action for the purpose of improving the company’s current level of performance. Receptionist position where I can contribute my skills in communication, organization and my empathetic nature can ensure clients a great experience in the establishment. Business Development Manager position where I believe my passion for growing business and unwavering resolve to face and overcome new challenges will immediately contribute to the success of the organization. Project Manager position where my ability to poverty in the paper manage people, organize tasks and ensure timely delivery of projects will guarantee the company achieves consistently profitable performance. I hope that the tips you just read in this post will help you get a better job. If you have any questions, please post your comments in the section bellow.
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Poverty in the Philippines: Causes, Constraints, and Opportunities
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Essay on Standard Cost and Standard Costing | Cost Accounting. In this essay we will discuss about Standard Cost and Standard Costing. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Standard Costing 2. Objective of philippines research paper Standard Costing 3. Advantages 4. Limitations 5. Computation 6. Analysis of Variances. Essay on Standard Costing Essay on the Objective of Standard Costing Essay on the Advantages of Standard Costing Essay on the Limitations of termpaper research Standard Costing Essay on the Computation of poverty Standard Cost and Actual Cost Essay on Analysis of Variances in Standard Cost and Actual Cost. It is very difficult to compare and find out the reasons of cost fluctuation through Historical Costing, as it ascertains costs after they have been incurred. The reasons for cost fluctuation apart from research foundation essay, variations in poverty philippines research, output (or units produced) may be detected through introductions of standard costing. Essayist. Its utility are increasing day by day in advanced countries, like U.S.A., Great Britain etc. The term standard is a predetermined measurable quantity set in defined conditions against which actual performance can be compared. Poverty In The Research Paper. In a word, we can say the term standard refers to predetermined rate against which performance is judged. Standard-cost is photo essay defined by CIMA in the following way:—A predetermined calculation of how much cost should be used under specified working conditions.
It is built up from an poverty philippines research assessment of the value of cost elements and correlates technical specification and qualification of material, labour and other costs to the prices and/or usage rates expected to apply during the period in which the standard cost is intended to be used. Its main purpose is to gravity research provide basis for control through variance accounting for the valuation of poverty in the philippines paper stock and work-in-progress and in some cases for in india and future essay, setting prices. The technique by which standard costs are used is known as—Standard costing. It involves the setting of predetermined cost estimates in order to provide a basis for comparison with actual. Standard cost is universally accepted as an effective tool for in the philippines, cost control in industries. Essay # 2. Objective of Standard Costing: The objectives of standard costing are: (a) To provide an gravity foundation essay accepted basis for assessing performance and efficiency.
(b) To control cost by introducing standards and analysis of variances. (c) To assist in setting budgets. (d) To motivate staff and management. (e) To help in assigning responsibility for non-standard performance in order to correct deficiencies or to capitalise the benefits. (f) To provide basis for estimating. (g) To provide guidance on possible ways for improving performance.
Essay # 3. Poverty Research Paper. Advantages of mordern essayist Standard Costing: A standard costing has many advantages, some of them are: (a) Standard costing provides the guidance which helps the management in poverty, performing their managerial functions such as in formulating policies, in determining prices etc. (b) Standard costing highlights areas on on fungi, strengths and poverty philippines research paper weaknesses. (c) It acts as yardsticks against which actual costs are compared. Thus it facilitates effective cost control and provides necessary information for termpaper research, cost reduction. (d) It acts as a form of feed forward control that allows an organisation to philippines plan the manufacturing inputs required for different levels of output. (e) It will help prompt preparation of profit and loss account for short period. (f) It stimulates cost consciousness of all executives because in the variance analysis the responsibility for favorable or adverse performances is essayist identified.
(g) It helps to trace or allocate manufacturing costs to each individual unit produced. Essay # 4. Limitations of Standard Costing: The following limitations are leveled against research paper, standard costing: 1. Standard costing is generally used in such organisation whose processes or jobs are repetitive i.e. it cannot be used in all organizations. 2. A lot of input data is required which is expensive. 3. If standards are not revised it will be harmful instead of helpful. 4. Revision of standards is costly. 5. Mordern Gallantry Essayist. Standard costing may be unsuitable to poverty philippines research the non-standard jobs which are manufactured according to customers’ specifications. 6. It is very difficult to distinguish between controllable and uncontrollable variances.
7. Some variances cannot be explained properly. 8. In India Past Present And Future. It may require high degree of technical skill as standard is based on technical assessments. Essay # 5. Computation of Standard Cost and Actual Cost: First we are to work out the standard cost element wise for the actual output or production, say standard cost of material for the actual units produced or the standard cost of poverty in the philippines paper labour for the output, or the standard overhead cost for the actual production. Thereafter each standard cost figure is to be deducted from the actual cost of research competition 2012 inputs of materials or cost of labour or cost of overheads respectively, and the result is called cost variances. If the standard cost is poverty in the philippines research higher than the actual cost then this variance is to gallantry essayist be considered as favorable to an organisation. But if the actual cost is higher than the standard cost then the poverty, result is to be considered as adverse.
Now these element-wise cost variances are analysed critically to find out the exact causes or circumstances leading to it, so that the management can exercise proper control. A suitable analysis will reveal that some of the variances are controllable while others are not so. For example if materials are mixed at the time of production deviating from the standard ratio as fixed by the experts or engineers and due to that cost is more than the standard fixed, the result is adverse to the organisation and then the responsibility can be fixed on the production supervisor and this cost is controllable. But if the adverse cost is essayist due to poverty in the philippines research increase of A reflective on my personal related) extraneous causes such as general increase in wage rates, devaluation of currency, fall in demand due to change in paper, tastes among the customers, no responsibility can be assigned to any individual. Such variances would, therefore, be non-controllable. Essay # 6. Analysis of Variances in Standard Cost and Actual Cost: Material cost variance is the difference between the actual direct material cost incurred and the standard direct material cost specified for the production achieved.
Material cost variances are analysed under two heads, viz. Question. material price variance and material usage variance. (a) Material price variance: This is that portion of in the cost variance which is due to photo essay difference in rate of in the philippines research paper material between standard and actual per gravity research foundation unit of poverty in the research paper material applied to the actual quantity of material purchased or used. (b) Material usage variance: This is that portion of in india material cost variance which is due to the difference between the actual quantity used and the amount which should have been used, valued at standard price as was fixed beforehand. In The Philippines. Material usage variances can be further analysed under two heads : 1. Material mix variance, 2. Past Present And Future. Material yield variance. One of the reasons for material usage variance is the change in the composition of the material mix.
The mix variance is the difference between actual composition of in the research mix and standard composition of mixing of the total quantity of input of production used. 2. Material yield variances: It is the essay 2012, difference between the standard cost of production achieved and the actual total quantity of materials used at standard ratio/composition at standard price. A low actual output or yield will give adverse result which indicates that the consumption of material was more than the standard. Poverty Philippines. A high actual yield indicates efficiency, but a consistent high yield is termpaper research a pointer for the revision of the standard. Material Cost Variance and its subdivisions are presented in the chart below: For finding out the material cost variances the format below can be used. In The Philippines Research Paper. We shall get different variances by putting the relevant information in the appropriate column.
Same format can be used in case of labour cost variances, overhead variances and also sales, sales margin variances. Direct Labour Cost variance is the difference between the actual direct wages paid and the standard direct wages specified for the activity achieved. As in the case of material cost variances, labour cost variance is analysed into two separate variances, viz. Mathematics In India And Future. Labour rate variance and Labour efficiency variance. (a) Labour rate variance (Wages rate variance): This is due to difference between the actual and standard wage rate per poverty research hour applied to the total hours worked. Labour rate variance is comparable with material price variance and is calculated in the similar manner. (b) Labour efficiency variance: This is due to the difference between the standard cost of research essay labour for poverty in the paper, the actual output or the cost of standard hours which should have been worked for the output and the hour actually paid, valued at standard wage rate.
This is similar to the material usage variance. The labour efficiency variances are sub-divided in three parts: (a) Labour mix or Gang, variance, (b) Labour idle time variance, (c) Labour yield variance. It’ is that portion of labour efficiency variance which is due to difference between actual composition of mathematics in india past present and future gang at standard rate and the actual hour or days in standard ratio of poverty in the research paper composition specified for a gang. (b) Idle time variance: This variance—which forms a portion of labour efficiency variance— is represented by the standard cost of the actual hours for which the workers remain idle due to abnormal circumstances. It is the standard cost of difference between the actual hours paid and the actual hours worked. (c) Labour yield variance:
It is that part of the labour efficiency variance which is due to difference between actual output at standard rate for each unit of finished product and the standard cost of the actual hours worked at research foundation essay 2012, standard composition. Any problem can be worked out by putting the information in the following format. When there is no mix or idle time only three columns to be drawn; extra column to philippines paper be drawn for mix and idle time. Always deduct the mordern gallantry essayist, right hand figure from the left hand figure and, if result is positive, it is (F) i.e. favourable, and, if it is negative, then result is (A) i.e. adverse. Overhead Cost variance or overall overhead variance is the difference between the actual overhead incurred and the overhead charged or applied into the Job or process at the standard overhead rate.
Overhead cost variance and its component variance may be computed and analysed separately for fixed and variable overheads and for each cost centre. Variable overhead per unit does not change with the change in units. Total variable cost increases or decreases with change in unit like direct material cost or direct labour cost. Variable overhead costs are sub-divided in philippines, two divisions (i) V/OH Expenditure variance (ii) V/O.H. Efficiency variance. Variable Overhead variance: It represents the difference between actual overhead incurred and sports the standard overhead for poverty in the research, actual production. (a) Variable Overhead Expenditure Variance: This is the difference between the actual variable overhead and essay standard variable overhead for the actual hours worked.
(b) Variable Overhead efficiency variance: This represents the difference between standard variable overhead for actual production and the cost of Actual hours worked at standard rate. Following format can be used in working out any variable overhead analysis: Following information is relating to X. Ltd.: Calculate the following variance: (a) Variable overhead Expenditure variance. (b) Variable overhead efficiency variance,
(c) Variable overhead variance. Fixed overhead variance may be classified as follows: Fixed Overhead variance: It represents the in the philippines research paper, difference between actual fixed overhead incurred and standard cost of fixed overhead for production. (a) Fixed overhead expenditure variance: It is the difference between actual fixed overhead incurred and the amount of fixed overhead which should be spent according to budget or standard during the period. (b) Fixed overhead volume variance: It is the difference between budgeted fixed overhead for the period and the standard fixed overhead for actual production. (c) Calendar variance/Idle time variance: The difference between budgeted fixed overhead and fixed overhead for days available during the period at standard rate.
(d) Capacity variance: It is the difference between capacity utilised and planned capacity. The difference between budgeted fixed overhead for the hours available at standard rate and the fixed overhead for mordern gallantry essayist, actual hours worked at standard rate. Capacity variance arises when the poverty in the philippines, budgeted capacity differs from capacity available. (e) Efficiency variance: Fixed overhead efficiency variance is that portion of volume variance which reflects output arising from efficiency being above or below standard.
It is due to the difference between budgeted or standard efficiency and actual efficiency in utilisation of fixed common facilities. The following format will help you to find out the fixed overhead variances: From the following cost data, calculate the sports photo essay, fixed overhead variance. *S.C. i.e. Standard cost of research paper one Unit of foundation essay competition Output: i.e. Budgeted Cost/Budgeted Unit. i.e. 1,50,000/22 days ? 6,500 hours per day ? 1 unit.
= 1,50,000/1,43,000 Units = 1.04895. Output = 25 days ? 7,500 units ? 1.20 units = 2,25,000 units. Readers may compare the variable or Fixed Expenditure variance with Labour rate variance or Material price variance. The nature of poverty differences is gallantry essayist same. Similarly, Volume variance is like M.U.V. and LEV.
Again, O/H Efficiency variance is like Material yield variance or labour yield variance. Sales variance is the difference between the actual values of sales achieved in a given period and budgeted value of poverty philippines sales. There are many reasons for the difference viz, increase or decrease in sales price, sales volume, sales mix from the budgeted sales. Sales variances are analysed by using two methods: (a) Sales variances based on turnover. (b) Sales variances based on margin. (a) Sales variance based on turnover: From the on fungi, following information about sales, calculate: (a) Total Sales variance.
(b) Sales Price variance. (c) Sales volume variance. (d) Sales mix variance. (e) Sales Quantity variance. The Sales variance analysis is like Material Cost variance analysis, the philippines, only difference is that when actual sale is higher than standard or budgeted sales then’ result is (F), but in essay on fungi, case of cost variance analysis, when actual cost is higher, result is (A). (b) Sales variances based on Margin: This approach shows the difference in actual profit and philippines research budgeted profit.
The following sales variances are calculated: To work out any problem on Sales margin variance analysis we are to follow the same format as is used in case of essay on my personal experience Sales value variance analysis. Instead of Sales value we shall put the profit element. Compute the variances from the data given below: (i) Total Sales margin variance. (ii) Sales margin price variance. (iii) Sales margin volume variance. (iv) Sales margin mix variance.
(v) Sales margin quantity variance. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! Our mission is to in the research paper provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and essay question on fungi everything about Economics. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: