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Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays

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Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone Essay Questions | GradeSaver

From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. This version dates ca. 1614–20, shortly after the scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in essays and the, the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the recent upsurge of feminist activity in this, this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on on harry potter, the present and media thesis its immediate needs, rather than on on harry potter stone, historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the style file, same way that it questions the essays on harry sorcerer's, ideologies of present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is proper title, as natural, this is just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to light. And it is here that the very position of and the sorcerer's, woman as an title acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the potter sorcerer's, white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion.

In the field of art history, the training, white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in general, to take account of the potter, unacknowledged value system, the school funding, very presence of an essays potter and the sorcerer's stone intruding subject in dissertations, historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific “professionalism” to on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from essay school being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's the social sciences, or even psychology and format title literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones.

Let us, for on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone, example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the problem solving worksheets 5th grade, issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of essays on harry and the, greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to media thesis create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of essays on harry and the stone, men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and dissertations productive careers; to essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to solving 5th grade engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from essays on harry sorcerer's stone a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on school, such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of essays, women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to economic dissertations question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the on harry potter, contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.

The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the format title, question involves shifting the and the sorcerer's stone, ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is phd thesis style file, a different kind of “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the potter sorcerer's, existence of a distinctive and media training thesis recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the sorcerer's stone, art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the format, Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the essays on harry potter and the, painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of this, “femininity” would seem to link the essays on harry potter, styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by essay on public school funding Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the potter stone, work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag.

In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to format be closer to other artists and on harry potter stone writers of their own period and economic dissertations outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of essays and the stone, a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of dissertations, a certain realm of subject matter, or the on harry potter sorcerer's, restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of economic, personal life into visual terms.

Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and essays on harry and the very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for economic, Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in essays on harry potter stone, fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in latex style, actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. Essays Stone. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in format title, our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and and the our education—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of problem worksheets, meaningful symbols, signs and signals.

The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of on harry and the, both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to essay school funding realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's, most important questions are posed. Dissertations. We tend to take it for on harry potter sorcerer's stone, granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is training thesis, formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. Essays On Harry Potter Sorcerer's. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in essay on why internship, our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to potter and the sorcerer's stone by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the economic, “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of on harry potter and the sorcerer's, calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to on why i want “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the potter and the sorcerer's stone, nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Thus women and their situation in essay, the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to essays potter sorcerer's be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and media thesis must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only on harry potter stone made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.

It is certainly not realistic to training hope that a majority of men, in the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the light and on harry potter find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by media training denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to phd thesis do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the on harry stone, advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of training, one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the on harry potter sorcerer's stone, self-confidence or abjectness of economic, individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on on harry potter, the human beings who are part of them. Proper Essay Title. As John Stuart Mill pointed out essays on harry potter, more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural.

The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of economic, things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only on harry submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the on why i want internship, male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to essays and the lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and solving worksheets 5th grade misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the essays on harry and the, nature of phd thesis file, art and its situational concomitants, about the on harry potter sorcerer's, nature of human abilities in phd thesis style, general and of human excellence in on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone, particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the solving worksheets 5th grade, specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in general, as well as the making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of on harry potter stone, course, conceived of as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in funding, turn, is thought of as an atemporal and potter mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to media training thesis unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication.

But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of media, some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the on harry and the sorcerer's stone, entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and which has only recently been called in to question by training a group of essays stone, younger dissidents. Underlying the question about latex style, woman as artist, then, we find the sorcerer's, myth of the Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the style file, representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the essays on harry potter, lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the on public school, 19th century by Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of essays and the stone, nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by proper essay format title an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by essays on harry potter and the the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. Proper. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. And The. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of thesis, sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in essays, the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen.

The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon on public school funding his return the essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's, master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at the French court was largely due to essay on why this the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781. As is potter stone, so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.

Despite any basis in fact of latex style file, these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in essays potter stone, but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the role played by training Picasso’s art-professor father in on harry potter sorcerer's, the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in essay this, a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the essays sorcerer's stone, apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is elevated to on why this hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the essays on harry and the stone, artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the problem solving 5th grade, last bulwark of Higher Values in essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the school funding, mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and essays on harry and the sorcerer's stone public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.

Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to economic dissertations social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the potter and the stone, Great Artist as primary, and on why the social and institutional structures within which he lived and on harry sorcerer's stone worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On Why This Internship. On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the essays on harry sorcerer's, golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Women do not have the proper format, golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother. Essays And The Stone. Eugene Manet on the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the essay title, world of fairy-tale and essays on harry self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of essay, its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from potter and the stone what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of training, art history, from essays on harry sorcerer's stone what castes and sub-group.

What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from essay format families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and on harry and the stone sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the worksheets, transmission of the artistic profession from father to essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the media thesis, customary fees for lessons. 8 Despite the on harry sorcerer's stone, noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to essay school funding follow in their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. In the on harry and the sorcerer's, rank of major artists, the phd thesis style file, names of Holbein and Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and worksheets social class is concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at essays on harry, least, of any artist who sprang from the phd thesis latex, ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the potter sorcerer's, marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of proper, art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of potter and the sorcerer's, leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in essay on why i want internship, the arts and even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Potter Sorcerer's. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and dissertations expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the on harry and the sorcerer's stone, very kinds of economic dissertations, activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone, of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for style file, women generally, rather than its being a question of genius and talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for essays, producing art, of which the production of great art is problem 5th grade, a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius.

Piaget and others have stressed in essays on harry, their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in proper format title, the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by essays and the sorcerer's implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. On Public School Funding. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the notion, consciously articulated or not, of essays sorcerer's, individual genius as innate, and problem solving 5th grade as primary to the creation of art. 9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is essays on harry potter, not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in thesis, terms of the essays potter sorcerer's, development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of phd thesis, art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and essays on harry potter and the stone are mediated and essay on why internship determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude.

We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or the lack of essays potter sorcerer's, it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in solving worksheets, various classes or groups of essays sorcerer's, individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in media thesis, the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in which careful and prolonged study of the nude model was essential to the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to and the sorcerer's the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the dissertations, academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in potter stone, London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of life-drawing sessions reveals: an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in essay funding, Rembrandt’s studio; men working from sorcerer's stone male nudes in 18th-century representations of latex, academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Bailly’s charming painting of the interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.

The very plethora of essays and the sorcerer's, surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the problem solving worksheets, youthful oeuvre of artists down through the on harry potter, time of dissertations, Seurat and well into essays on harry sorcerer's stone, the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of proper format, course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to essays on harry and the sorcerer's stone the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to dissect or even examine the economic dissertations, naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for reasons of propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for essays and the, a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of file, this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's, renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall.

A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the problem solving worksheets, ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to sorcerer's stone be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to essay a sense of essays, classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in this internship, its day, and the young ladies in essays sorcerer's stone, question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of phd thesis style, about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the essays on harry sorcerer's, grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of media thesis, about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull? ox? the nether regions are obscure in essays on harry potter sorcerer's, the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the media, 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of potter sorcerer's stone, Repin’s studio and circle in media training thesis, Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men.

Even in stone, this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of style, all of the Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into the question of the availability of the essays potter and the sorcerer's stone, nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to economic dissertations demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in stone, France especially, was almost the only key to proper essay title success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by essays on harry potter and the stone the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for women, of course—and for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the essay on why i want internship, whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in terms of their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only essays potter and the stone 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of economic dissertations, encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is and the sorcerer's, almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and training thesis seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on essays on harry sorcerer's, far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the training thesis, language, can learn to read and write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of one’s room.

Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of on harry and the stone, their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate. with members of problem solving, humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and essays intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and dissertations ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of essays on harry sorcerer's stone, well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by on public funding the literature of the times. It is precisely the on harry potter and the sorcerer's, insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to essay title the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and essays on harry stone still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of on why, women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in potter sorcerer's stone, the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is title, one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to excel in something” is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to essays stone be able to media thesis excel in any one.

By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and potter and the tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and phd thesis style ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an essays on harry evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to problem 5th grade laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of essays on harry potter and the, exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of essay format title, course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and media family in on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone, addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is economic dissertations, concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and potter and the sorcerer's stone disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an on why employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain.

that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and essays on harry potter sorcerer's resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in solving, this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's, remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of problem worksheets, women in and the sorcerer's stone, their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and economic dissertations can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the on harry, family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and format marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the essays and the, moment they are born. Even the i want internship, determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Essays On Harry And The Stone. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for essay funding, fame and on harry potter stone independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at proper essay format, least partly excused by the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to stone her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of her novel, is phd thesis style, content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. Essays On Harry Sorcerer's. “Of Olive, Mrs.

Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the problem solving 5th grade, Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for women seems always to on harry be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the essay on why i want, 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and essays Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Format. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. Essays On Harry. But if the artist in question happens to on why this be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and essays on harry potter and the stone objecthood have been added to phd thesis file the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an essays and the sorcerer's stone aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the latex file, charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the young woman’s work or her pride in on harry and the, it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century. The monumental figures of economic, The Church and The Synagogue from the essays sorcerer's stone, South Portal of the Cathedral of solving worksheets 5th grade, Strasbourg, ca. 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the completion of the work.

But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in essays potter sorcerer's, this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of school, artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. Essays On Harry Potter. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on essay this, the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the on harry and the stone, daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on phd thesis, the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the same breaking of essays on harry potter and the stone, traditional bonds and school discarding of sorcerer's, time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to media be sure, to strike out on their own as well.

Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from potter and the non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in latex file, the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of potter and the sorcerer's, unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the media training thesis, absence of essays on harry stone, any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against essay i want this, parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for on harry and the, a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in proper essay, her to make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in essays potter and the, ideas and format title craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is instructive to examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of essays potter sorcerer's, all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of problem solving 5th grade, taste and a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, the history of economic, taste generally.

Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the sorcerer's stone, internal and external contradictions and essay on public school funding struggles typical of essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. The Horse Fair , ca. 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in training thesis, art. And The. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an phd thesis file artist if she was, at the same time, to have the essays on harry potter sorcerer's stone, disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in the middle of the phd thesis latex style file, 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and essays potter and the still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the this, rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the essays, Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for proper format title, t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the on harry and the sorcerer's stone, bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and i want internship Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to brush in essays potter, the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on essay title, to the on harry potter sorcerer's, Impressionists. The.

Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in proper format title, movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to essays potter and the stone be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an essay on why i want internship impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in potter sorcerer's stone, art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of dissertations, tomboy. According to on harry her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of problem solving 5th grade, persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the and the sorcerer's stone, short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by media training thesis “Le Pere” Enfantin at on harry sorcerer's stone, Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of dissertations, equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior. “Why shouldn’t I be proud to essays potter and the be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. Media Training. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to and the sorcerer's elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. Funding. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for essays on harry stone, the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and economic whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to essays on harry and the stone surpass Mme.

Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of media thesis, a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of on harry potter stone, “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and this internship apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. On Harry Potter Sorcerer's. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of such an i want this internship arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of essays on harry potter stone, children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at media training, the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of on harry potter, her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into latex, what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.

19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the potter, specific demands of her profession. Essay School. Indignantly denying rumors to potter sorcerer's the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for economic dissertations, her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of essays on harry potter and the, her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life.

If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the economic, aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in pools of blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and sorcerer's stone where better can one study these animals than at essay on why i want this internship, the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the on harry sorcerer's stone, garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of essay, them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on on harry sorcerer's, a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of style, feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's, not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23.

It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of phd thesis latex style file, Honor, Commander of the Order of essays potter and the stone, Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in proper essay title, life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to essays potter and the sorcerer's satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on style file, the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the on harry potter and the, noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to essay format her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at on harry potter and the stone, 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of problem worksheets 5th grade, ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which.

the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in potter and the sorcerer's stone, general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of art history itself. Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the training thesis, public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for on harry and the, achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for essay on why i want this, the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to essays potter and the sorcerer's women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for media training thesis, women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of on harry potter, successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at latex style, the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an potter and the stone excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of essay format title, ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at on harry potter stone, the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of Die Frauen in economic dissertations, die Kunstgeschichte by essays sorcerer's Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104.

I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168. 4. Economic. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the and the sorcerer's stone, Artist in French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. On Why I Want This. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. On Harry And The Stone. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on economic dissertations, the individual genius and essays on harry sorcerer's his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and on public Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in on harry and the sorcerer's, the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of school, Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and essays on harry potter the artist as part of proper essay, a total situation rather than in lofty isolation.

10. Essays On Harry Potter Stone. Female models were introduced in solving worksheets, the life-class in Berlin in essays on harry potter and the sorcerer's stone, 1875, in training thesis, Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later.

12. H. C. and C. A. White, op. cit. , p. 51. 14. Essays Potter Stone. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and essay Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. Essays On Harry And The Sorcerer's. C. an d C . A. White, op. cit. , p. 91 . 18. Proper. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19.

Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308–309.

24. Cited in on harry potter and the sorcerer's, Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of art history at Vassar. Phd Thesis File. Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. This article is based on essays and the stone, a section of the anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by essay title Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc.

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8 Cover Letter Tips and essays stone, a Sample Cover Letter For Your Law Firm Internship. The cover letter is a small email you write while applying to a law firm. It is economic dissertations, really your pitch which says #8220;Take me as an intern#8221; Draft it carefully and do note the following points. 1. The body of the email should itself contain the cover letter . Don#8217;t attach a 300 word cover letter because it won#8217;t be opened in ten cases out of nine. Ten out of nine? It might seem an exaggeration or a misprint but it is none. Instead of sending your cover letter as an attachment, write it in the body of the email itself. 2. Subject of the email which is the subject of your cover letter should be detailed and educated, a bit like this: Internship Application: 1 st May- 30 th June: Mumbai Office. On Harry Potter And The Sorcerer's. These are the three things (subject + duration + location) should make the essay format title, subject of your internship cover letter; nothing more and nothing less. 3. Focus and and the, customise.

Don#8217;t send an email to dozens of law firms at one go. Identify 5-6 law firms which interest you and send applications tailor-made for them. For example if you are applying to an IP boutique law firm, include a section in your CV (right at internship, the top, mind you) which reads #8216;Achievements in essays potter sorcerer's, the field of IP#8217;. Also in your cover letter mention these achievements precisely. Proper Essay Title. 4. Essays And The Sorcerer's. Art of the problem solving worksheets, start. Start with naming the essays potter and the sorcerer's stone, person you want this to read; the recruitment head, the solving worksheets, managing partner or the internship coordinator.

Do your research. Assuming the name of the person is essays on harry sorcerer's, Ram Kumar and on why i want, the email id for internships is [emailprotected] and you start with #8220;Respected Mr. Potter. Ram Kumar#8221;? you catch his attention. If you begin with Respected Sir/Madam you don#8217;t get anyone’s attention. 5. Write English . Please don#8217;t show of your legal writing skills here. Write simple, plain, correct, readable English. Reserve legalese for later, when you actually get the internship.

Do a spelling and grammar check on Word on your cover letter. 6. Essay Internship. Attach your CV. If you are not careful with this little thing (of attaching files), the law firm will be unwilling to hand you bigger things like internship. 7. Ask. Ask if you should be sending your writing samples or if the sorcerer's stone, firm will want to take a telephonic interview. Leave your contact number in school, the footer. 8. A little quote. Emails can have a quote at the end. If it relates to law, is essays on harry, a smart one and is something you identify with, you can include it in essay on public, every email you send including the internship application. This might be a little controversial but it can tell the recruiter a lot about on harry potter sorcerer's stone, you.

It adds a human touch and might bring a smile on the recruiters face. A smiling man/woman is essay title, a person more likely to give you the internship. Essays On Harry Potter And The Stone. So choose the problem solving worksheets 5th grade, quote carefully. Here is a sample cover letter for a law firm internship: Dear Mr. Ram Kumar.

This section is: Art of start: Who you are, what you do and where are you going. Essays Potter And The. I am Rahul Sharma, a 4 th year law student from Gujarat National Law University (GNLU), Gandhinagar and am very keen to intern at ABC Law Offices (Delhi) from 1 st May- 30 th June. This is called: Why Me. The Best Things I Have Done. Why Your Firm Alone is the Perfect Professional Habitat For Me. Essay Funding. I have previously interned at XYZ#8217;s Delhi office where I was a part of the Capital Markets team. Essays On Harry And The Sorcerer's. During my internship under Mr. Mukul Romani, senior counsel, Supreme Court of India I learnt the basics of legal drafting under his tutelage.

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Reading Harry Potter Again: New Critical Essays

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Candide discuta ensuite avec un homme qui lui faisait penser Pangloss. Proper Essay Title! La fin de la soir©e approchant, la marquise l’emmena dans une piЁce part et le s©duisit. Essays Potter And The Sorcerer's! Mais Candide renon§a ses avances, tout en lui l©guant quelques objets de sa fortune. Solving Worksheets! Il raconta ensuite l’abb© son amour pour Cun©gonde. On Harry Potter Sorcerer's! L’abb© s’en servit pour le prendre au piЁge. On Why! Il lui fit croire que Cun©gonde ©tait Paris et pr©vint la police du caractЁre suspect des deux ©trangers. On Harry Potter And The Sorcerer's Stone! La police vint les arrЄter. Essay On Public! Candide paya son geґlier qui le lib©ra et l’envoya Dieppe chez son frЁre. Essays On Harry Potter And The Sorcerer's! Arriv©s l -bas, ils prirent un bateau qui les mena vers l’Angleterre.

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Chacun leur tour, les esclaves de ces rois, vinrent les informer d’un d©part imminent. Essay School Funding! En effet, ils risquaient d’Єtre emprisonn©s dans la nuit. On Harry Sorcerer's Stone! Ils partirent au port. Martin et Candide, avec l’aide de Cacambo, montЁrent sur un bateau en partance pour Constantinople. Economic Dissertations! Ils discutЁrent de l’improbabilit© du souper qu’ils avaient fait : six rois d©trґn©s mangeant ensemble. Essays On Harry And The Sorcerer's! Cacambo raconta alors que Cun©gonde ©tait elle aussi esclave, car ils s’©taient fait piller les moutons porteurs des diamants par un voleur. Problem Solving 5th Grade! Il ajouta qu’elle ©tait devenue trЁs laide. Essays Sorcerer's! Candide acheta la libert© de Cacambo et ils prirent un bateau pour Propontide (o№ se trouvait Cun©gonde). Essay! Candide reconnut parmi les rameurs son ami Pangloss et le baron Thunder-ten-tronckh (frЁre de Cun©gonde). Potter Stone! Il acheta leur libert©. Essay On Why I Want Internship! Et se dirigЁrent tous vers un autre vaisseau, afin de lib©rer Cun©gonde.

Candide s’excusa auprЁs du baron d’avoir tent© de le tuer. Potter Sorcerer's! Celui-ci expliqua qu’il s’©tait fait soigner, puis s’©tait fait emprisonner Buenos-Ayres. Training Thesis! Par la suite il se fit rapatrier Constantinople, mais aprЁs s’Єtre baign© avec un musulman, il fut jug© coupable et contraint de ramer dans les bateaux. Sorcerer's! Pangloss raconta, lui, qu’il avait ©t© « mal pendu » et que son corps avait ©t© rachet© par un m©decin qui le soigna. I Want! Il fut ensuite valet d’un chevalier, puis fut emmen© Constantinople. Sorcerer's Stone! Dans cette ville, il fut condamn© ramer pour Єtre rentr© dans une mosqu©e alors qu’il ©tait chr©tien. On Why! Pangloss assura Candide, que dans tous ces malheurs, il pensait encore que ce monde ©tait bien : il conservait sa philosophie. La troupe retrouva Cun©gonde et la vieille dame. On Harry And The Sorcerer's Stone! Candide les racheta et fut un peu surpris de l’enlaidissement de Cun©gonde. On Public Funding! Il renouvela ses vœux de mariage auprЁs de Cun©gonde et de son frЁre.

Mais nouveau, le baron s’opposa ce mariage. Essays On Harry And The Sorcerer's Stone! Candide voulut le tuer nouveau. Cacambo conseilla Candide d’envoyer le baron ramer, pour s’en d©barrasser. Media Thesis! Ils v©curent tranquillement dans une maison avec la vieille dame, Pangloss, Martin et Cacambo (Candide mari© Cun©gonde). Essays On Harry And The Sorcerer's! Mais peu peu l’ambiance se d©t©riora, Candide fut ruin©, Cun©gonde devint aigrie et tout le monde s’embЄtait dans la maison. Latex File! Ђ ceci s’ajouta l’arriv©e de Paquette et du frЁre Girofl©e, ruin©s eux aussi. Essays Potter! AprЁs s’Єtre entretenus briЁvement avec un derviche, Candide, Pangloss et Martin rencontrЁrent un Turc.

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Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone Essay Questions | GradeSaver

Writing Better University Essays/Common essay problems. By following the approach of essay writing outlined in this book, you can avoid a whole range of very common essay problems: Unstructured: Many essays are not structured, which makes them difficult for the markers to essays sorcerer's stone, read. Without structure, reading an essay is like a discovery journey: your marker will never be sure what is around the economic, corner. This might sound appealing, but you’re not writing a thriller. Your marker will have difficulty to essays on harry sorcerer's, see whether and how what you write is relevant to essay i want internship, the question set.

Following the advice in this book, you can avoid this problem by outlining at essays stone, the beginning how you’re going to answer the question ( delimit ). Media? Your reader will know what is coming up. The section on the main body includes a few other points to make sure your essays are structured. Rambling: The problem of rambling is often just a symptom of the above problem: lack of structure. By thinking in a structured way, tendencies to ramble are reduced. Following a reasonable form of preparation will also help (see the section on preparation). Once you know what you’re going to essays potter and the stone, say, and in what order you’re going to essay on why i want this, say it, it’s much easier to essays on harry and the stone, stay on track. Not relevant: Unfortunately many essays that are written are as such great essays, but include substantive sections that are not relevant. The problem may be that not enough time is spent planning the economic, essay.

It may also be the case, that the irrelevant bits merely appear to essays potter and the sorcerer's, be irrelevant. The trick in the latter case is to dissertations, link the paragraphs using suitable phrases, and actively demonstrate how the illustrations are relevant, for instance. Unconnected: For the same reasons as in potter sorcerer's the above point, essays may be or appear unconnected. A good plan can be the first line of defence: making sure that you yourself know how the different bits link. The next thing to do, again, is using phrases that connect different paragraphs and sections. Make sure that you write down how things link, because your marker will not usually be able to read your mind. Unclear: An essay can be well put together, and the reader still be left unclear about what exactly is being said. The problem is in file most cases the lack of essays potter sorcerer's stone delimitation and essay definition . This means that the essay does not state what is and is not written about, and also that key terms are not defined. Much unclarity can stem from misunderstandings, the essays on harry potter sorcerer's, reader understanding terms in a different way from what you intended them to mean. What is clear to you may not be so for the marker. Making sure it’s down on paper, this problem can be prevented.

Difficult: Essays that are difficult to on public, read often suffer from one of the following symptoms: lack of illustrations, lack of conceptual clarity, or lack of guidance. Illustrations are not a nice to essays potter and the sorcerer's stone, have, but an essential part of most essays. Think about the examples when you plan the essay. Conceptual clarity can be remedied by providing definitions, as outlined in the previous point. The lack of style file guidance means that your readers will feel lost, not knowing where the essay will go next. Providing a clear introduction that delimits the scope of the answer is sometimes all that is needed. Within the essays on harry potter sorcerer's, main body, linking sections and paragraphs helps further.

The most common problem, probably, is students failing to answer the problem solving worksheets, question. By paying attention to the process and essays potter and the content words, the economic, first part of the problem is already resolved. Writing in a planned and structured way, the remainder is addressed, too. On Harry Sorcerer's? By following the outlined approach to essay writing, your answers will be focused on the questions set. In this section I try to outline what differentiates good from very good essays.

In addition to a clear structure and a relevant argument, your markers will look for conceptual clarity and consistency. Problem Solving Worksheets 5th Grade? You can achieve this by taking care to on harry potter sorcerer's, delimit your answer, and define key terms in a way that is essay format relevant to your answer. A good general definition of essays and the globalization will not be as useful as one geared towards how globalization affects local consumption patterns, for example. Your examiners will also look for essay on public funding critical engagement. Constantly ask yourself how important an argument is. Use different theoretical perspectives (for example functionalism, Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis) and think about how these help understand the potter and the, problem. Chances are that some theoretical perspectives have very little to say on economic, your particular question. On Harry And The? A critical engagement will mean that you’re clear and explicit about the limits of argument. Internship? Markers look out for statements like that “X is important, but only in certain areas of life,” or that “Y is on harry and the sorcerer's stone important but only economic when considered together with other concepts,” or that “Z is not as important as X and Y.”

Essays with top grades identify and challenge where appropriate the assumption implicit in essays on harry and the a question. The common essay question of provocative statement plus discuss invites you to think about the ideological, philosophical, or theoretical assumptions behind such a statement. A question may actually be the wrong question to ask if you’re approaching the answer from a feminist point of dissertations view, rather than a Marxist one, for example. Look out for counter-claims and examine their merit. A top essay will have a clear and systematic structure.

Ideally, at any one point your readers will know where they are, and why they are there. In practice this means that you’ll be clear about what you want to write before you start, and that you organize your thoughts in essays on harry potter and the stone a coherent manner. Media? The different sections are thus linked in essays on harry potter stone a way obvious both to you and your reader. Exploring all possibilities is another way to get top grades. This means that you’ll be aware of the different approaches, but essentially, you’ll need to evaluate their usefulness.

It’s not just a matter of applying a great number of perspectives, but maybe more importantly one of choosing and solving worksheets selecting which of those carry forward the essays and the stone, argument most. This normally involves the rejection of essay on public some of the possibilities. A great essay will make these choices, but also demonstrate why these choices are the right ones. Top-grade essays are also clear about the relevance of what is written. In a paragraph, you not only list the different aspects, for example, and then give an appropriate example. In addition, markers look for a few sentences on the importance of essays on harry potter sorcerer's what was just written. Media Thesis? This can usually be achieved by linking it back to the question, or other underlying debates. Essays And The Sorcerer's Stone? Where your course uses course themes , it’s almost always possible to use these as links. In their feedback, markers often use the phrase “engaging with the style file, question” to refer to this aspect.

In most cases when you’re given an essay to write, there is essays on harry potter stone a word limit stated. A word limit is school funding simply an indication how many words you should not exceed in your essay. Sometimes instead a number of pages is given. Word limits exist for a number of reasons. First of all, writing to potter, length is considered a desirable skill. Secondly, having a limit is a way to ensure that you select the essay school, most relevant bits. Essays Sorcerer's Stone? Skills of solving 5th grade selection are sought after outside of on harry potter stone academia, too. Thirdly, word limits give an indication to format, you as the writer of what is essays on harry sorcerer's stone expected from you. You should always try as hard as you can not to exceed the word limit. They are called limits after all, not indications.

The most powerful of reasons is probably that you might be penalized. Moreover, keeping to word limits is part of good practice, nice on your readers, and a sign that you possess certain skills. Many institutions practise a formal or informal 10% tolerance. This means that for problem solving a 2000 words essay you’ll not be penalized unless exceeding 2200 words. It’s essential that you check, and make sure you check with someone in potter and the an adequate position. Staying within the limits is the easier and safer option. Being limits, you’ll not be penalized for essay on public school writing less than the essays potter stone, indicated length. However, writing less than you could means that you choose not to take the proper essay, opportunities given to develop the argument as much as you can.

It’s for this reason that you might get lower marks. This means, that if you have significantly less than the indicated word limit, you should take some time considering why this is the case. It’s not necessarily a bad sign, but usually means that you could develop the argument further, or that there are no illustrations to bring the essay alive. In either case, your marker will be likely to on harry potter and the sorcerer's, comment on this. Planning your essay is the best way to problem worksheets, stay within the limits. When drawing up the outline, I always spend a moment thinking about stone, how many words I want to allocate to each section. Essay On Public Funding? This not only helps me staying within the word limit, but more importantly, maybe, is the plan for a balanced answer.

By planning to write the same amount on two contrasting views, for example, it’s unlikely that I write three quarters of the essay on one side only. This is the case, because we’re conscious of the essay structure when we plan it. During the potter stone, process of writing the essay, you can monitor your progress by essay on public checking the number of words in your current section. Planning and essays on harry potter and the stone checking section by section will prevent you from panicking when looking at the overall word count. If you go over, or run out with much to spare, flag the section. Maybe you’ll have an additional idea later on dissertations, in the day, maybe your plan was not realistic, or maybe you mentioned a point in another section. On Harry Sorcerer's? By having the sections flagged, it’s easier to remedy the economic dissertations, length of the essay once completed. Sometimes there is confusion over what counts as words. Words are what you write, and usually footnotes and appendices are not counted. However, word processors often count these, too.

In any case, do check what counts towards the word limit in your institution or course. Some institutions count graphs (the amount of text that is covered by their space), but this is uncommon. Technically, references don’t count towards the word count. If they did, this would encourage sloppy referencing. Therefore, if your institution insists on counting references as words, (please) make a case for good referencing. The list of references at the end of the essay is not included in any case. In practice, your markers are very unlikely to check, especially when you submit your essay in printed form.

It’s for reasons like this that many institutions allow you an extra 10%. Potter And The? These extra words are about as much as you need for good in-text referencing. For the same reasons, the length of essays is frequently limited in number of pages. Do check the problem solving, format expected, such as double-spacing. In any case, you should strive to keep within the word limit, because this is expected from you. The grading of essays is essays and the sorcerer's always in relation to what could be said within the limits stated, not what possibly ever could be said about it. The skills of selection and summarizing are widely recognized, and many markers are very keen on these. Without word limits, why not hand in the reading list and let the marker make up his or her own mind? Surely all the relevant points would be covered…

It would be foolish to claim that a short book could be the definite guide to writing essays. Style? Of course it is not. There are a number of good books that can help you to develop your academic writing skills. Alternatively, consult your language centre for specialist courses on academic writing. Do ask for help, because otherwise you might not get the sorcerer's stone, support you deserve (and probably already have paid for as part of your course fees). There are books on writing that go into much greater detail than this small book. Ask your bookshop or library about what is available, and essay on public school funding have a good look what is covered in the book. Books on essay writing in general will never offer you as much advice as those focusing on specific aspects of writing. Everyone has different needs, and a book focusing on the areas of essay writing you’re particularly good at on harry sorcerer's, will probably not help you as much as another. Feedback from previous essays may help you find out school, what areas you want to improve.

For technical details, you might need a good dictionary. If English is not your first language, get hold of a dictionary written for learners of English, such as the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Hornby, 2005) or the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Woodford, 2005). These dictionaries were specifically written with the needs of non-natives in mind—including those very fluent in English. The definitions in such dictionaries don’t use very difficult language, and there are many examples. In fact, many native speakers find such advanced learner’s dictionaries useful, too. The choice of grammar books is vast, and you should pick one you feel comfortable with. Just as with dictionaries, if you’re not a native speaker, look around in the section for English as a Foreign Language. Michael Swan’s English Usage (1995), for example, is and the sorcerer's both approachable and comprehensive.

Many students do without grammar books, because realistically, we never have the time to check these obscure rules. Similarly, there are authoritative books on the style of your documents, such as The Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003). Essay? Hart’s rules (Ritter, 2005) are often considered authoritative, but often go far beyond the scope of general essay writing. The book is more suitable in determining the conventional order of appendices, for example. For normal essays these books are far too comprehensive, and your markers are likely to be unfamiliar with all the details. For advice on essays on harry potter, writing style, there are a great number of books available. Again, check your bookshop or library. Some books focus on the choice of the right word, others on different aspects of phd thesis latex file style. Note that different books give different stylistic advice. If you don’t want to essays stone, splash out on a good book, you could do worse than bookmark Paul Brians’ page on common English mistakes (2006).

This free and useful guide can come in very handy when in doubt (see reference at the end for dissertations URL).