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Self-Introduction Essay Examples, Samples
biography or resume One of the highlights of her fitness career was volunteering with her husband Tom at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Whistler, BC. 2012 Northwest Rehabilitation Associates Continuing Education Certificate: Cognitive Rehabilitation: Evidence Based Interventions for Older Adults. 2011 Master Senior Programs Instructor Exerstride ®Nordic Walking. 2010 Zumba Gold® Instructor Certification. 2008 Wellcoaches®, Wellness Coach Training completed. 2003 FallProof Certification in balance mobility training. 1999 Fitness Specialist for introduction of yourself essay Older Adults, Cooper institute for Aerobics Research.
1999 Certified and Registered Pool and Spa Operator (CPO), National Swimming Pool Association. On Sexuality? 1987 Master of Arts, Physical Education/Exercise Physiology, California State University at Northridge, California. 1971 - 1992 Bachelor of Science, Standard Lifetime Teaching Credential, University of California at Santa Barbara. Introduction? Academic Major: Ergonomics, Minor emphasis: Pre-Physical Therapy. 1968 - 1971 Bachelor of Arts, undergraduate work San Diego State University in essay student Physical Education major/Dance minor.
2005 - present Senior Fitness spokesperson for IDEA, the international association for fitness Professionals. Of Yourself Essay? 2001 - present Corporate Fitness Wellness Program Coordinator for Front Porch, the largest non-profit senior service agency in pearson essay scorer student southern California. Introduction? 1997 - present Director of Fitness, Aquatics and Physical Therapy, Vista del Monte Retirement Community, Santa Barbara, California. 1986 - present Private practice, fitness/nutritional counseling for individuals, private organizations, corporations and fitness facilities. 1985 - present Health and fitness private consultant, elementary school districts for the purpose of revamping, developing and implementing sound physical education/nutritional programs. Movie? 1985 - 1988 Lecturer/instructor for best selling author, Covert Bailey, M.S. 1980 - present International lecturer for the continuing education of essay, 5,000+ franchised Jazzercise® instructors in exercise physiology, kinesiology, motivation, and teaching techniques. Consumer education lectures for Jazzercise students (400,000 worldwide).
1980 - 1986 Jazzercise® instructor/trainer, nationally and internationally. 1980 - 1987 Jazzercise® Area Director, Santa Barbara and Ventura counties, California. 1979 - 2012 Certified Jazzercise® franchise owner, Santa Barbara, California, International jazz dance fitness program created by Judi Sheppard Misset. 1975 - 1978 Physical education teacher and coach, Santa Barbara High School, Santa Barbara, California. 1973 - 1975 Physical education teacher and coach, San Marcos High School, Santa Barbara, California. Women’s track, field, and cross country. 1972 Physical education teacher, Dos Pueblos High School, Goleta, California.
2009-2012 ICAA Visionary Board. 2010-2011 NuStep, Inc. Pinnacle Award Advisory Board. 2001-present Corporate member International Council on Active Aging (ICAA) 2005 Appointed “Official IDEA Corporate Spokesperson on segment reporting essay, Older Adult Fitness.” 2004 AASA (American Association of essay, Homes Services). Best Practices Award for Senior Fitness, Aquatics and essays Physical Therapy Clinic. 2003 Santa Barbara City Parks and essay Recreation Department “Russ Hargreaves Award” for community service in Health, Sports and on sexuality Fitness. 2002 “IDEA International Program Director of the Year” award , (International Association of Fitness Professionals).
2001 Presenter/Lecturer for of yourself AAUSA (American Association for Homes and segment Services for the Aging). Introduction? 2001 National Pinnacle Award , “Best Senior Fitness and Wellness Program.” 2000 Selected member of IDEA Exercise and Aging Committee. 2000 FEOAA “Educator of the Year Award”, National Association of Fitness Educators of Older Adults. 1999 - 2009 Advisory Board member, Keiser Institute on Aging. 1999 Cooper Clinic Certification in Exercise for essays on sexuality Older Adults. 1999 “Senior Fitness Program of the Year, Santa Barbara Agency Services. 1998 Keynote Speaker, Santa Barbara Health Celebration. 1998 Presenter/Lecturer for introduction of yourself CAHSA (California Association for and Homes for the Aging). 1998 Selected committee member of the essays on sexuality State of California Physical Activity and Health Initiative for the Over Fifty, Sacramento.
1998 Member and introduction of yourself essay certification, Senior Fitness Association and Fitness Instructor, Association for Older Americans. 1997 IDEA “International Fitness Instructor of the benefits writing in schools Year ” (International Association of Fitness Professionals). 1997 Author of Movin’ and Groovin’ (The Learning Works), a children’s home fitness nutrition book. 1996 to present Annual Event Co-Coordinator, National Senior Health and Fitness Day, Santa Barbara, California. 1996 Personal Training Certificate - International Sports Sciences Association, Master of introduction essay, Fitness Level. 1996 IDEA “International Fitness Instructor of the Year Award,” and “Make Fitness Happen. Award” finalist, (only finalist ever in both categories in the same year), Orlando, Florida international convention.
1996 Keynote Speaker, Aquatic Exercise Association, San Diego, California. 1996 Keynote Speaker for Santa Barbara National Senior Health and reporting Fitness Celebration Awards ceremony. 1995 Program Director/Developer for the “Fitness over Forty” fitness facility in Santa Barbara, California. 1995 Creator/Developer of essay, Musical Chairs™, a total fitness program by Jazzercise®Corporation. Example? 1995 IDEA Five Star Presenter’s Award , the highest honor awarded to introduction of yourself, a fitness professional for pearson online student speaking and essay presenting on an international level. 1994 Extra Mile Club Award for volunteer project supporting the George “Ben” Page Youth Sports Center, Santa Barbara, California.
1993 - 1994 Keynote Speaker, Sara’s City Workout, Orlando, Florida and example Atlanta, Georgia. 1991 - 1993 Member of IDEA Lifetime Achievement and Instructor of the Year Award Selection Committees. 1993 Jazzercise® Presidents Award (first recipient), the highest honor awarded to one outstanding Jazzercise instructor for overall career achievement. 1993 Member of the Aquatic Exercise Association Research Committee. Introduction Of Yourself Essay? 1992 Keynote Speaker, FACT instructor conference, Chicago, Illinois. 1992 - 1993 Approved Continuing Education Credit (CEC) Provider, American Council on Exercise (ACE), Aerobic Fitness Association of America (AFAA/, Aquatic Exercise Association (AEA), and segment Jazzercise®, Inc. 1992 - 1998 Member of the Association for Fitness Professionals (IDEA), practical performance review committee. 1990 - 1992 Member of the annual Shape Magazine video review panel. 1990 - 1992 Lecturer for IDEA Link international Aerobic instructor workshop. 1990 - 1991 Workshop leader, International Aquatic Exercise Association. 1989 Member of introduction of yourself essay, Jazzercise® delegation to segment reporting essay, Exotic Expo, Japan.
1989 Creator/co-author and Program Director of the Know More Diet™, a weight management program incorporating the of yourself first exercise/food plan for international marketing through the Jazzercise® network. 1988 Member of the first American Health and Fitness Delegation (sponsored by the Unite States People to reporting essay, People Ambassador Program) to essay, enter the People’s Republic of general format, China. 1985 - 1991 Creator/Instructor/Trainer of Aquamotion®, a water fitness program taught in the United States and many foreign countries. 1984 - 1991 Co-creator/Program Director, Target Fitness, Inc., corporate and personal fitness testing, evaluation and programming. Introduction? 1980 - 1984 Local KEYT TV hostess, daily exercise program, Santa Barbara, California. 1984 Member/Convention speaker, (IDEA) the association for fitness professionals. 1984 to present Convention Speaker/Presenter/Master Teacher for international fitness professionals, including USA, Canada, Europe, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China and the Caribbean. 1983 - 1990 Member, American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). 1983 Member, Aerobics Fitness Association of America (AFAA). 1983 - 1987 Exercise/Nutrition lecturer for Covert Bailey, best selling author of pearson online essay student, Fit or Fat?
1983 Co-author, original Jazzercise® Physiology Newsletter and of yourself Instructor’s Manual. 1980 to present - Charity fund raiser. Planned and executed major fund raising events for benefits writing in schools the following non-profit organizations; Leukemia Society of America, American Lung Association, American Heart Association, Special Olympics, Council of Christmas Cheer, Senior Citizen nutritional program, Cottage Hospital wellness program, Santa Barbara Shelter Services for Women. Essay? 1980 Assisted in essay structuring a physiologically sound class format to help position Jazzercise® as the essay largest dance fitness program in the world. Keynote Speaker for annual Jazzercise® worldwide conferences.
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Sample Harvard Business School "Introduce Yourself" Essay - The Art
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Taip cm gini mesti dpat byak maklumat. spm cm sy boleh k pnglaman bekerja mngajar skolah tahfiz jer slama 4 tahun. tpi company di mna. Jawatan untuk krew pemasaran masih ada ke? Company apa? ka xdak nama? gila apa iklan xletak nama company?? gila? Ada lagi tak yang kosong.
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A Comprehensive Guide to of yourself essay, APA Citations and segment reporting essay Format. Introduction Of Yourself Essay? This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Of Introduction? Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. Introduction Of Yourself? See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism.
The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over online scorer student the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project.
Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. Introduction Essay? There are two types of APA citations. Benefits Of Creative? The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from introduction of yourself essay, another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to segment essay, add an in-text citation.
The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in introduction of yourself essay, the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to of introduction, help develop your research. Of Yourself Essay? These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the freud source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the introduction essay name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations?
Including APA citations into your research projects is example, a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to introduction, find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into freud your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for of yourself individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and ratings research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to introduction, create citations. This citation format is used by ratings site individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and introduction of yourself essay social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information.
APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of format, information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to essay, include the freud date that an essay, electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information.
Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the segment reporting city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an of yourself essay, international publisher, is included in the citation. Movie Ratings Site? In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to essay, the increase in the amount of segment essay, technology advances and resources. There are two types of introduction of yourself essay, citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of on sexuality freud, a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the introduction of yourself next section below to learn more about movie ratings site how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project.
So, full citations for all of the essay in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and segment scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for introduction of yourself essay the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for ratings site the source you’re trying to introduction, cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. Segment? In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.
Quite often, researchers and of yourself essay scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the of introduction author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into essay your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in scorer student, your own words. When simply referring to another piece of essay, information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it.
In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the online scorer student page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave.
And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in introduction of yourself, the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.
The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of in report, a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to introduction of yourself, help you understand and online essay develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. Introduction Essay? As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the essay format in-text citations found in of yourself, the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in site, alphabetical order by the author’s last names.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. Of Yourself? (Date published). Title . Retrieved from of introduction in report, URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the of yourself essay initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period.
When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on segment reporting essay, the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Of Yourself Essay? M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Example In Report? Kent, A. G., Giles, R. Of Yourself? M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. Ratings Site? S. If you plan on introduction of yourself essay, using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the segment essay names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the introduction of yourself source was published. Include the example in report full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically.
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and introduction essay chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Online Essay Scorer? Wake up the introduction of yourself nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.
For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. Example Of Introduction In Report? A common question is whether to of yourself essay, underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Of Creative In Schools? They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and introduction articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines.
Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the in schools title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Essay? Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Essay Format? (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). Introduction? (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture].
USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for on sexuality freud you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the introduction of yourself city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the essay entire state name, use the introduction proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Segment Reporting Essay? Type out the introduction entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.
After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is pearson essay student, not necessary to introduction of yourself essay, include the entire name of the writing publisher. It is acceptable to introduction of yourself essay, use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the example in report publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in of yourself essay, an APA citation.
The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Pearson Scorer Student? Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on introduction essay, the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is movie site, a college or university, and the location name matches part of the introduction essay school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and on sexuality freud publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson.
New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for essay journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of of introduction, broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is introduction, assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.
When a DOI number is segment reporting essay, not available, include the of yourself source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and writing write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at essay, the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the segment reporting essay source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for introduction you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of work . Of Introduction? Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Of Yourself Essay? Location: Publisher.
Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. Movie Site? (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Essay? Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in segment reporting, an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. Of Yourself? APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. Online? 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Introduction? Last name of segment, Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com.
If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the introduction essay generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007).
The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to essay format, its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. Introduction Of Yourself Essay? (Year Published). Title of on sexuality freud, work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007).
Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Introduction Essay? Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Essay Format? R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is introduction of yourself, found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. Essay Format? A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the introduction source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used.
Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and general essay format phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an of yourself, APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an format, article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma.
Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Introduction Of Yourself Essay? Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of example of introduction in report, article . Title of Newspaper.
Retrieved from of yourself, newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. Writing In Schools? I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Introduction Of Yourself? Title of essays on sexuality freud, Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Introduction Of Yourself Essay? Quammen, D. (2008, December).
The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Of Creative In Schools? Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Introduction Essay? Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode].
In Producer Last Name, F. I. Segment Essay? (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. Essay? (Director). (2014). Segment? Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. Introduction Of Yourself? I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Essays? Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Essay? Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax.
There is the option to pearson student, automatically cite films found online, in introduction essay, film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to of introduction in report, use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name].
Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Of Yourself? Personal Interview. Format? If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the essay name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. General Format? Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial.
Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Introduction Of Yourself? Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia].
On Until Now [Audio file]. General Essay Format? Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and introduction easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of essay, database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation).
Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Introduction Of Yourself Essay? Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11).
History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the pearson online essay student “Blog/Podcast,” form to of yourself essay, cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL.
Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at in report, the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page?
Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on introduction, a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. Movie Site? A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.
A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. Introduction Essay? A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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Custom The Arab League essay paper writing service. The Arab League is a weak organization with no notable success but rather status quo and failures in of yourself, many occasions. The league was formed in 1945 with the main aim of giving political expression to the Arab nations. According to Sayegh (1958), The original drive behind the league was given by the British in 1942 who hoped to segment rally the Arab nations against the Axis powers; however the league did not form until the final months of World War II. The original charter members were Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen.
Although not an original signatory of the introduction essay, charter because he represented no official government, a representative of Palestinian Arabs was given full status and a vote in on sexuality freud, the Arab League (Sayegh 1958). The league was a brain child of colonial powers. This makes it a prone to foreign interference in its operation and decision making. This paper takes a critical analysis of Arab league as a weak organization and essay the influence of Nasser, Saddam, UN and international community in the affaires of Arab league. This paper further analyzes the league instability to strike a decisive action on its member states. Organization of the league and its weaknesses.
Arab league is organized in a council, committees, and a permanent secretariat; the secretariat currently has its headquarters in movie, Cairo (Sayegh 1958). Each member country has got one vote which hold similar weight. The Arab league has got constitution spells out provides coordination among the of yourself essay, signatory nations in the areas of online essay scorer student education, finance, law, trade, and foreign policy, and it forbids the use of force to settle disputes among members (Sayegh 1958). It should be noted that the Arab League has failed to take a realistic position on the reconstruction of Iraq. It has not discussed any humanitarian aid plan and has not discussed what role the Arabs would play in reconstruction. Furthermore, no member-state has dared discuss democracy in debating the new Iraqi government's future (Go, and Davis, 2009). Introduction Essay. It has even become a taboo for Middle Eastern journalists to propose that their may be beneficial outcomes to the war. Pearson Essay Student. Hala Mustafa, an analyst at the Al Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies in of yourself essay, Cairo said she was struck by the Arabs' unwillingness to debate What next? and their failure to offer creative responses to the opportunities and dangers presented by Hussein's overthrow (Nash, 2010). Emad Shahin, an online scorer student, Arab specialist at essay, the American University in Cairo said the current crisis offers the 22-member Arab League an opportunity to regain relevancy by formulating a common strategy on Iraq . Unfortunately, the Arab League has failed to take advantage of this bid for legitimacy by failing to address the pertinent issues (Go, and Davis, 2009). Nasser manipulated Arab league to help him further his political ambitions in the region rather than fighting for the whole organization and Arab community.
This is evidenced by a number of benefits of creative writing in schools his behaviors and how he governed Egypt affairs with the backing of Arab league. It was Suez that made Nasser a magnet of Arabism by making him the dominant leader in the Arab world and his leadership was not based on any constitutional or institutional foundations(Toffolo, 2008). Introduction Essay. It was based on the consent of the Arab masses through the traditional cultural practice of bay'a (acclamation) when choosing a tribal sheikh or a Caliph with a unique exception, there was not any processions or formalities involved. The strong reactions of the Arab people to writing Nasser's Campaign against Baghdad Pact made Nasser more convinced to foster links between Egypt and the Arabs. The Egyptian Constitution of January 1956 identified Egypt as an Arab country. The preamble reads: We the Egyptian People who recognize our existence within the great Arab world, we appreciate our responsibilities and commitment to join forces with our Arab fellows to achieve dignity and glory of Arab nation .The First article stated that Egypt is an Arab sovereign state , and of yourself essay the Egyptian people are part of the Arab nation. Essays On Sexuality Freud. The constitution marked a turning point in Egypt's previous affiliation to a territorial nationalism, a departure from Egyptianism to Arabism.
This closer linking of the Egyptians and Arabs was an asset of Nasser's leadership of Arab people (Toffolo, 2008).Suez brought Egypt and other Arab countries closer together in two ways. It confirmed Nasser's belief that Arab solidarity was an indispensable part of introduction of yourself essay Egyptian national security, not only for defense against Israel, but also because of the deterrent effort on essays on sexuality the West of Arab control of introduction of yourself essay oil-fields and pipelines. Toffolo,(2008) states, there is no evidence that Arab solidarity made him think about its value as a decisive military asset against Israel, because there was not any indication of military confrontation with Israel in his statements or actions other than calling for commitment to UN resolutions regarding Palestine. The sympathies aroused by Suez and essays the admiration for of yourself, Nasser's success in essay, handling the crisis had created a new emotional bond between Egyptians and introduction of yourself essay other Arabs, especially in reporting, Syria. Introduction Essay. Nasser has been encouraged by his Suez success to widen the dimensions of his Arab role taking advantage of the weakness and instability of the pearson online essay scorer student, other Arab states through an active Arab policy (Toffolo, 2008). His main target was to strengthen Arab position on international political arena and prevent any attempts to of yourself essay drag the region into movie ratings site the spheres of influence of great Powers. Saddam Hussein positioned himself as a powerful member of the Arab league and constantly held the organization at ransom. This is because he furthered his political ambition as well as economical ambition with then help of the league. Being seen as powerful in Arab community, Iraq through the leadership of Saddam ensured that Arab league followed its interests through manipulation and threats (Nash, 2010). The league being weak and toothless could not take any decisive action against rebellious behaviors by Iraq for instance during Iraq Iran war. This significantly shows the introduction, extend to which this Arab league is held ransom by a few member states yet in the chatter which created it, each member state has got one vote which has got similar weight.
Arab League Failed plans in Israel. Toffolo, (2008) illustrates that, During the inception year of the Arab league, it took a position supporting Syria and format Lebanon in their disputes with France and also demanded an independent Libya. Later, in introduction of yourself essay, 1961, it supported Tunisia in a conflict with France. From the beginning years the league made public its opposition to essays freud Israel and offered its support towards the formation of introduction a Palestinian States with a majority Arab population (Toffolo, 2008). Shortly after the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 the league countries jointly attacked it, but Israel resisted the multi-faced attack successfully (Toffolo, 2008). The league continued to maintain a boycott of Israel and of companies trading with Israel. The summit conferences of 1964-65 established a joint Arab military command, which has failed to provide a unified strategy towards the formation of movie site a State of Palestine (Toffolo, 2008). Egypt's membership in the League was suspended from 1979 to essay 1989 because of its treaty with Israel, and writing in schools the league's headquarters were temporarily moved to essay Tunis (Toffolo, 2008). In 1988, the benefits of creative, league endorsed the PLO's plan for a negotiated settlement with Israel, and therefore returned its headquarters to Cairo in 1991.
After much debate, the league ultimately supported Iraq in the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88). However the league remained divided over the Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and the ensuing Persian Gulf War. However Kuwait, instead of welcoming this apology and joining forces with Iraq as Saddam had hoped, instead labeled the apology as efforts to create disorder amongst the leadership and people of Kuwait. Arab League chief Moussa declined any involvement in the Iraq Kuwait issue, responding to questions about the confrontation by stating: It is not obliged for the Arab League to introduction of yourself essay make any statement on what Saddam is of introduction talking about. My stance is clear that it is imperative for Iraq to comply with the of yourself, UN Security Council resolutions. This example illustrates the hesitation that the ratings site, Arab League had shown in attempting to introduction essay resolve any conflict within its member nations. Essays On Sexuality. By completely avoiding the issue, the Arab League let the hostility between the introduction, nations grow which led to further complications as the war approached (Toffolo, 2008). In the weeks prior to the war, Kuwaiti and example of introduction in report Iraqi delegates were openly insulting one another at of yourself essay, Arab League meetings.
Nash, (2010) illustrates that, The Iraqi delegate at one point even went as far as publicly stating, Shut up, you monkey and curse upon your mustache [honor], you traitor. Certainly when one is invoking primates and benefits speaking of another delegate's mustache, things have gotten far out of essay hand. An additional factor creating tensions and mistrust within the Arab League in the months leading up to the war was the situation in the Middle East between the Israelis and example of introduction in report the Palestinians. According to columnist Liu Yunfei, as quoted by (Nash, 2010) The negative factors to the Mideast peace process caused a heavy blow to confidence on the side of the Arabs, and consequently channels criticism to essay the Arab League. Sayed Eliwa, political science professor of the Egyptian Helwan University, further explains that Many Arabs are getting much more disappointed that a host of resolutions and statements could not be translated into actions(Nash, 2010). This mounting disappointment could clearly be seen in the actions of the member countries in the months leading up to benefits of creative writing in schools the war. For example, on October 24 th , 2003, Libya informed the Arab League of its intentions to quit the league because of the displayed inefficiency in dealing with Arab issues, especially the Palesinian-Israeli conflict and the Iraqi Crisis. Libyan leader Omar Muammar Ghaddafi states, Why should we remain as a member of an ineffective organization? Reports later surfaced that Qatar intended to follow Libya's example and leave the introduction essay, league as well. However, in November Libya reversed its position and decided to remain a member of the league. The Libyans concluded that in the time of pearson crisis leading up to the Iraqi war, that despite some limits, the Arab League is introduction required to essays on sexuality freud play an even more effective role at a time when the Arab nation is facing dangers (Nash, 2010)
However Libya was not done creating rifts within the Arab League. In an ironically named Unity Summit in the beginning of March, Libyan President Muammar Ghaddafi blamed Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others for of yourself, involving the general, US in of yourself essay, the area twelve years prior in the Gulf War, which he claimed was the source of the current Iraqi conflict. Gadhafi had previously accused Saudi Arabia of entering into a pact with the devil by inviting US troops to defend its territory in 1990. Gadhafi's comments at the summit prompted the Saudi, Iraqi, and Syrian leaders to in schools immediately leave the room and introduction essay respond harshly to the comments, accusing the Libyan leader of ignorance. The Saudi representative further called Libya an agent for colonizers. This series of insults prevented anything constructive from happening for the day at the conference, as the major issues were forgotten in a series of insults. Furthermore, the conference was broadcast live on Arab satellite television, making the disunity and arguments within the Arab League public for the whole Arab world to witness. In Saudi Arabia, Khaled al-Maeena, editor of the Arab News, as quoted by movie ratings (Nash, 2010) said he was shocked, appalled and introduction saddened by the news.
I felt embarrassed, he said. In front of the world we've become a laughing stock. The Arab people are disappointed and confused. The spat took the steam off the main thrust, which was the Iraq issue (Nash, 2010) Furthermore, The United Arab Emirates caused an additional stir at general format, the same summit when it called for Saddam Hussein to surrender power and leave Iraq. Introduction Of Yourself Essay. The proposal requested that The Arab League, in cooperation with the U.N. secretary-general, should supervise the situation in Iraq for an interim period during which all necessary measures are taken in order to return the situation to pearson student its normal situation according to the will of the brotherly Iraqi people (Nash, 2010). While many in the Arab world were calling for a unified front against the incursion by the Western powers, others were advocating surrender to the demands of the West. Moussa responded to this proposal by stating that it was not considered an official request and it was excluded from the consideration of the council (Nash, 2010). The proposal was generally publicly ignored at the conference, in spite of the fact that it was well known such ideas had been floated around several of the countries individually for introduction, several weeks.
In response to this, the reporting essay, Emirati information minister grumbled that the Arab League didn't have the courage to respond to the proposal. However the of yourself essay, Iraqis responded to this proposal angrily. In New York, Mohammed Aldouri, Iraq's Ambassador to the United nations, as quoted by Nash, (2010) said Saddam's relinquishing power was not at all likely. He further called the proposal by the UAE silly . At the general essay format, summit, an angry Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri said that the proposal was not discussed because the summit does not discuss silly, dirty, trivial ideas. This clearly showed the inability of Arab league in handling its own affairs as a regional block. Arab League and Hamas of Palestine. Arab league relation and of yourself essay full support of Hamas of Palestine is a great violation of the organization constitution. This is because the league should use member country as actor but not a group in member country. Movie Site. Towards this, the of yourself, group has gained a lot of confidence in its sordid operation in Palestine and abroad. The result of this relation is that it has become difficult for the Arab league to decisively take action and example of introduction stop Hamas from negative operations in Palestine.
It is on this ground that the league has immensely failed and introduction essay publicly showed that it is a weak organization which cannot take action against its members to freud solve a problem. Arab League and member state sovereignty. The organization charter and constitution spells out that the league must respect member states sovereignty. In this case of Somalia and Yemen, the of yourself, two countries have great political problems which began long time ago. But since the league could not directly involve in the situation to prevent further problems, they have fallen in the abyss of statelessness and of creative in schools lack of the essay, rule of law. Reporting. This further has opened the wounds in the league's inability to solve problems in its member state. This raises question on the importance of the league to in the Arab community and the value of of yourself essay its existence is questionable. The UN interference in the Arab League. Toffolo, (2008), United Nation contribution and interference in Arab League is evidenced in many ways for instance, reconstruction of Iraq began following the segment reporting essay, war, the previous U.N. oil- for-food program was awash in introduction, accusations of Hussein's corruption as well as corruption on the part of the U.N.
The oil-for-food program was designed to offset civilian suffering under the economic sanctions the U.N. imposed after the 1990 Iraq invasion of Kuwait (Toffolo, 2008). According to essays on sexuality freud Toffolo, (2008), more than 90 percent of Iraqis survived on introduction the U.N. food basket and medical supplies. Sixty percent used to sell part of their rations to pay for other essential needs, because it was their only source of income. Movie. The program was suspended March 17 th and the U.S. led assault began on March 20 th . (Lederer) After the introduction essay, war, while some parties called for essay format, an expansion of the role of oil-for-food to achieve a reconstruction like that which followed the introduction, bloody East Timor revolutions, others (namely the U.S. administration) called for a lifting of U.N sanctions upon which oil-for food depended. In an effort to get aid to Iraq quickly, on movie April 24 th , the Security Council voted unanimously to extend U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan's authority to speed additional food and introduction of yourself essay medicine to pearson essay student the Iraqi people till June 3 rd . On May 22nd, after pressure from the U.S. and negotiations between the U.S. and introduction of yourself essay opposing powers within the Security Council, such as Russia and Germany, the U.N. lifted 12 years of sanctions on essay Iraq (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Lifting the sanctions provoked extreme responses, as could be expected. While Iraqis and most Arabs declare the institution of the sanctions after the Gulf War unjust, their suspension gave cause for another outrage (Toffolo, 2008). U.S. Secretary of the Treasury John Snow gave a press conference to announce the U.S.'s lifting of the sanctions declaring Today marks a new beginning for a liberated Iraq. Saddam Hussein's regime and the command economy that he forced upon the Iraqi people is now merely a painful memory (Federal News Service).
One glaring discrepancy is evident in Secretary Snow's statement. While a sanction-free Iraq will create free-trade and support a liberated Iraq , the sanctions were imposed by the U.N. with the U.S.'s overwhelming support, and introduction these sanctions were the foremost barrier to trade, not Hussein's command economy. As a further example, Snow went on to say As other nations follow the lead of the United States, and implement, as we have today, the resolution passed by the U.N. (Brian, and segment essay Steidle, 2007). Security Council last Thursday, the people of Iraq can look forward to introduction essay an end to the crippling economic deprivations they have suffered under the online essay student, Saddam Hussein regime. In Secretary Snow's statement, he attempts to of yourself conflate Hussein's regime and the sanctions themselves, in effect making them synonymous. That Snow even begins the first quote from above with today, that is, the day that the U.S. lifted sanctions, as opposed to the day that the U.N. approved sanctions, or the day when all sanctions on of creative writing Iraq had been lifted the world over, is telling. It is a complicit allowance that the U.S. Essay. played a large role in keeping Iraq out of the world economy, and is now playing a large role in pearson scorer student, re-introducing Iraq, albeit on the U.S.'s terms.
Brian, S. and Steidle, (2007), While the essay, world fights over Iraq's future, the future of the Arab League and Arab relations with the rest of the essay, world are, as could be predicted, in a state of flux stemming from mistrust on all sides and disagreement from of yourself essay, within the essay scorer student, Arab League as well as the Western powers. In an interview from April 1, 2003, Arab League Secretary- General, Amr Moussa questioned the League's future after divisions over Iraq. The interview took place with a London-based Arabic paper, Al Sharq al-Awsat (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). During the essay, interview Moussa expressed the belief that war would not have broken out had the Arabs adopted a unified position. The war had brought out such deep divisions that Moussa himself expressed apathy over whether or not the Arab League would survive. Segment Essay. He stated, Arab states wanted the war and I do not care if the Arab League remains or goes. Moussa as quoted by Brian, and Steidle, (2007), went further to make a distinction between the administration's positions and essay the desires of the people (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Benefits. As he said The Arab [nations] are not united, the people are. All Arab people reject the war. Responding to queries on the Arab league's future, Moussa Moussa as quoted by Brian, and Steidle, (2007) declared that the Arab League could be reorganized in another form. He made a comparison with the League of Nations' dissolution with World War II that led to the formation of the United Nations.
According to introduction essay Moussa, the current goal of the Arab League should be to protect the regional and strategic interests of the Arab states which could potentially be more effectively achieved under the benefits writing, auspices of a different organization. However, this sentiment never saw the light of the of yourself essay, day the league failed in its mandate and responsibility. He pointed to the two big shakes that have jolted the Arab system, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the failure there, and the Iraqi events. Now that simultaneous seeming solutions, or at least respites from the two big shakes have occurred-- reconstruction of movie Iraq has begun and Sharon has approved the formation of a new Palestinian state-- initiation of the reform process for the Arab League has also been declared. On May 29th, Agence France Presse reported a meeting to take place in Cairo on June 15-16 to begin a six month study of reforms aimed at saving the Arab League.
The committee's task is to draft a consensus formula on introduction of yourself the development of the organization using proposals floated from Syria, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia among others. The article noted that several of the proposals posited the European Union's structure as a model. Two plausible obstacles to the successful implementation of these reforms immediately come to mind. Firstly, within the charter of the Arab League, Article VII states that Unanimous decisions of the Council shall be binding upon all member-states of the League; majority decisions shall be binding only upon those states which have accepted them [see appendix]. Thus, to accept the reforms, the Arab League must be unanimously in favor of them, which given the on sexuality freud, disunity within the League, seems unlikely.
Second and introduction of yourself essay a less direct impediment, but as confounding, is the discrepancy between proposed models based on the European Union and the preexisting Arab League and general essay member states' governments. European governments, have by in large settled on some form of socialist-democracy which enables more equality for introduction of yourself, the citizens as well as transparency between the administrations and the citizens (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Although this may be a generalization, it can be stated that Arab nations in general have not enjoyed as many rights in site, alignment with democracy as those of of yourself essay European nations. Arab league is toothless dog with no notable and glaring success to pride itself of. The league has been taken by benefits in schools a few powerful member states to use as a buffer zone in furthering their national interest instead of fighting for the entire Arab community. It is therefore as good as nothing to have the league dismantled.
The foreigners' interest and continuous interference has further compounded the league's inability to handle its affairs. Buy The Arab League essay paper online. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.
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Essay about my self: Introducing Yourself to Your Instructor
Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value, Time Value of Money. Definitions, Meaning Explained, Usage, Calculated Examples. Updated 2017-10-05 © 2017 Solution Matrix Ltd. Discounted Cash Flow DCF is a cash flow summary adjusted to reflect the time value of money. With DCF, funds that will flow in introduction, or flow out at some time in the future are viewed as having less value, today, than an equal amount that flows today. Time value of money concepts are the cornerstone of modern finance. What are Discounted Cash Flow and the Time Value of Money? Discounted cash flow DCF is an application of the freud, time value of money conceptthe idea that money to be received or paid at some time in the future has less value , today, than an equal amount actually received or paid today. The DCF calculation finds the value appropriate todaythe present value for the future cash flow. The term discounting applies because the of yourself, DCF present value is always lower than the cash flow future value.
In modern finance, time value of money concepts play a central role in decision support and planning. Pearson Online Essay Scorer. When investment projections or business case results extend more than a year into the future, professionals trained in finance usually want to see cash flows presented in two forms, with discounting and without discounting. Introduction Of Yourself. Financial specialists, that is, want to segment reporting, see the time value of money impact on long-term projections. Two Central Terms: Present Value and of yourself essay Future Value. In discounted cash flow analysis DCF, two time value of money terms are central: Present value ( PV) is what the future cash flow is worth today. Format. Future value ( FV ) is the value that actually flows in introduction of yourself, or out at the future time. A $100 cash inflow that will arrive two years from of creative in schools, now could, for example, have a present value today of about $95, while its future value is by definition $100. For each cash flow event, the present value is discounted below the future value, except for cash flow events occurring today, in which case PV = FV ). The longer the essay, time period before an actual cash flow event occurs, the greater the benefits of creative writing, present value of future money is introduction essay, discounted below its future value. The total discounted value (present value) for a series of cash flow events across a time period extending into benefits of creative in schools, the future is the of yourself, net present value ( NPV ) of a cash flow stream . DCF can be an important factor when evaluating or comparing investments, action proposals, or purchases. Looking forward in time, the analyst projects cash inflows and outflows (cash flow stream) expected to follow from each of these.
Other things being equal, the action or investment with the of introduction, larger cash flow NPV is introduction of yourself essay, recommended as the essay, better decision. Explaining Time Value of Money in Context. Time value of money concepts are easier to understand when explained together. Sections below therefore explain and illustrate discounted cash flow and other time value of money terms in context with related terms from the introduction of yourself, fields of general essay format business analysis, banking, and finance. Defining, explaining, and measuring cash flow: See the introduction of yourself, article Cash Flow.
Financial metrics for cash flow analysis: See the article Financial Metrics. Is Time Value of Money Real Value? Why is in report, Time Value Important in Finance? When first hearing the definition of of yourself discounted cash flow, many people understandably react with comments like these: It sounds like fiction or The time value of money cannot refer to real value because DCF does not measure real cash flow or It's an interesting calculation, but there's no tangible value involved. However, business professionals recognize that the results of discounting calculations do represent real tangible value, readily seen if the time value of money concept is segment, stated like this:
Having the use of money for a specific period of time has value that is tangible, measurable, and real. Discounted cash flow (DCF) is one application of this concept, while interest paid for introduction, a loan is another. With DCF, the discounting lowers the example in report, present value PV of future funds below the future value FV of the funds for at introduction least three reasons: Opportunity . Money you have now could (in principle) be invested now, and gain return or interest between now and the future time. Example Of Introduction In Report. Money you will not have until a future time cannot be used now.
Risk . Introduction Essay. Money you have now is not at risk. Money expected in the future is less certain. A well known proverb states this principle more colorfully: A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. Of Introduction In Report. Inflation : A sum you have today will very likely buy more than an equal sum you will not have until years in introduction of yourself, future. Inflation over time reduces the buying power of money. Value, and Net Present Value.
What future money is worth today is called its present value (PV) and what it will be worth in the future when it finally arrives is called not surprisingly its future value (FV). The right to receive a $100 payment one year from essays, now (the future value) might be worth to us today $95 (its present value). Present value in other words, is discounted below future value. Present Values for a Cash Flow Stream. When the analysis concerns a series of cash inflows or outflows coming at different future times, the series is called a cash flow stream . Each future cash flow has its own value today (its own present value). The sum of these present values is the net present value for the cash flow stream. Consider an introduction investment today of $100, that brings net gains of site $100 each year for 6 years. Introduction Of Yourself. The future values and present values of segment reporting these cash flow events might look like this: One 6-Year cash flow stream, as Future Values (FV), and Present Values (PV) at two different discount rates.
All three sets of of yourself essay bars represent the same investment cash flow stream. Black bars stand for cash flow figures in the currency units when they actually appear in the future (future values). Green and Blue bars are values of the same cash flows now , in present value terms. The net values in the legend show that after five years, the net cash flow expected is $500, but the format, Net present value ( NPV) today is introduction essay, discounted to something less. The next section explains the role of discount rate (a percentage) and time periods in determining NPV. Interest Rates and Time Periods in Discounting. The size of the discounting effect depends on segment reporting essay, two things: the amount of time between now and each future payment (the number of discounting periods) and introduction essay an interest rate called the discount rate. The example shows that: As the example, number of introduction essay discounting periods between now and the cash arrival increases, the present value decreases. As the discount rate (interest rate) in the present value calculations increases, the present value decreases.
Whether you will or will not calculate present values yourself, your ability to use and interpret NPV / DCF figures will benefit from benefits in schools, a simple understanding of the way that interest rates and discounting periods work together in discounting. If you wish to skip the next section on periods work mathematics, however, click here to essay, go directly to Choosing a Discount Rate. Calculations for FV, PV, and NPV. Many if not most business people outside of finance, are unfamiliar with time value of money terms and calculations. The subject becomes approachable, however, if the explanation begins by noting that DCF mathematics are very closely related to a subject that is familiar to essay, most people: calculations for introduction, interest growth and compounding. Remember briefly how interest calculations work. The FV formula looks into the future and might ask, for instance: What is the future value (FV) in one year, of $100 invested today (the PV), at an annual interest rate of of creative 5%? When the FV is more than one period into the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Of Yourself Essay. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on benefits of creative writing, itself, in addition to of yourself, interest on the original PV. Compound interest growth is delivered by reporting essay, the exponent in the FV formula, showing the of yourself, number of periods.
What is the future value in general format, five years of $100 invested today at an annual interest rate of 5%?. The same formula can be rearranged to deliver a present value given at the future value and interest rate for introduction of yourself, input, as shown at left. Now, the formula starts in the future and looks backwards in time, to today. The formula now asks: What is the value today of a $100 payment arriving in one year, using a discount rate of 5%? You should be able to see why PV will decrease if we either (a) increase the example of introduction, interest rate, or (b) increase the introduction essay, number of periods before the FV arrives. What is the present value of $100 we will receive in 5 years, using a 5% discount rate? When the in schools, FV is more than one period into of yourself essay, the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on itself, in addition to interest on the original PV.
Compound interest growth is of creative writing in schools, delivered by essay, the exponent in the FV formula, showing the number of periods. What is the future value in five years of $100 invested today at an annual interest rate of 5%?. When discounting is applied to a series of cash flow events, a cash flow stream, as illustrated in the graph example above, net present value for the stream is the example, sum of PVs for each FV: Year-end discounting for a stream of n future cash flow events (FVs). Should You Use Mid-Period (or Mid-Year) Discounting?
What Difference Does it Make? Finally, note two commonly used variations on the examples shown thus far. The examples above and most textbooks present first the Period-end (or Year-end) discounting. Period-end discounting is the more frequently used DCF approach. The approach, moreover, usually turns up as the default approach for spreadsheet and calculator DCF functions. With the period-end approach, all discounting for a period is applied as though all cash flow occurs on the last day of the period.
When periods are one year in length, of course, the period-end approach is also known as the year-end approach. With year-end discounting, all of the period's cash flow is introduction, assumed to occur on day 365 of the year. Some financial analysts, however, prefer to assume that cash flows are distributed more or less evenly throughout the period. For them, discounting should therefore be applied when the example of introduction, cash actually flows during the period. Calculating present values this way is mathematically equivalent to saying that all cash flow occurs at essay mid-period. For this reason, this approach is called mid-period discounting. And, of course, the name mid-year discounting applies when periods are one year in length. What Are the site, Differences Between the Two Approaches? Period-end discounting is of yourself, more severe (has a greater discount effect) than mid-period. This is because discounts all of the period's cash flow for the full period. You can see how this works mathematically from the formulas in the next section.
Under period-end discounting, each FV value in essay, the cash flow stream is divided by a larger discount factor. Formulas for Mid-Period Discounting. The formulas below show NPV calculations for mid-year discounting (upper formula) and for discounting with periods other than one year (lower formula). The upper NPV formula shows how the present value formula applies for mid-year discounting. And, the of yourself, lower NPV formula shows the calculation for writing in schools, periods other than one-year. In any case, the business analyst will want to of yourself, find out which of the above discount methods is preferred by the organization's financial specialists, and why, and follow their practice (unless there is justification for doing otherwise). Working examples of ratings these formulas, along with guidance for spreadsheet implementation and good-practice usage are available in the spreadsheet-based tool Financial Metrics Pro.
Choosing the Discount (Interest) Rate. For Discounted Cash Flow Analysis. The analyst will also want to find out from the organization's financial specialists which discount rate the organization uses for discounted cash flow analysis. Of Yourself Essay. Financial officers who have been with an organization for some time, usually develop good reasons for choosing one rate or another as the most appropriate rate for the organization. In private industry, many companies use their own cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital) as the preferred discount rate. Government organizations typically prescribe a discount rate for use in general format, the organization's planning and decision support calculations. In the United States, for instance, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) publishes a quarterly circular with prescribed discount rates for Federal Government use. Financial officers may use a higher discount rate for investments or decisions viewed as risky, and a lower discount rate when expected returns from a proposed action are seen as less risky.
The higher rate is viewed as a hedge against risk, because it puts relatively more emphasis (weight) on near-term returns compared to distant future returns. Competing Investment Proposals. Consider two competing investments in computer equipment. Each calls for an initial cash outlay of essay $100, and each returns a total a $200 over the next 5 years making net gain of $100. But the timing of the returns is movie site, different, as shown in the table below (Case Alpha and introduction of yourself essay Case Beta), and segment reporting therefore the present value of each year’s return is introduction, different. The sum of each investment’s present values is called the discounted cash flow(DCF) or net present value (NPV). Of Introduction. Using a 10% discount rate again, we find:
Comparing the two investments, the larger early returns in of yourself, Case Alpha lead to a better net present value (NPV) than the later large return in Case Beta. Note especially the Total line for each present value column in the table. This total is the net present value (NPV) of each cash flow stream. When choosing alternative investments or actions, other things being equal, the one with the essay format, higher NPV is the better investment. Used in Business Case Analysis? In brief, an NPV / DCF view of the cash flow stream should probably appear with a business case summary when: The business case deals with an of yourself essay investment scenario of any kind, in segment, which different uses for money are being compared. The business case covers long periods of essay time (two or more years). Example Of Introduction In Report. Inflows and outflows change differently over time (e.g., the largest inflows come at a different time from the introduction, largest outflows). Two or more alternative cases are being compared and they differ with respect to cash flow timing within the segment, analysis period.
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