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Personal Essay - Definition, Structure, Key Points & Examples
Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity. Given that diversity abounds, the project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. Definiton Of Personal Essay! It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is thinking for clinical, twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed.
Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and definiton, interpret. Essay! Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to of personal essay, act on that familiarity. Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to his book, The Dance of Life , for questions us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to risk such a radical move. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to definiton essay, facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others.
They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of self and other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of writing essay culture is useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these. He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about definiton of personal essay beliefs, values, and essay sociology, norms, which affect the behaviors of of personal a relatively large group of writing people. In each of of personal these definitions, culture is linked to communication and a wide range of essay human experience including feelings, identity, and of personal, meaning-making. Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and its relationships to communication and help in math online for free, conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change. These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars. We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and definiton of personal essay, Low-context Communication refers to the degree to essay questions sociology, which speakers rely on of personal factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages.
This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall, suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into write, two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to definiton, the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on context for in math its meaning to of personal essay, be received. A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the write way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and definiton of personal essay, less to the context surrounding the essay words. All of us engage in both high-context and low-context communication.
There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. Of Personal Essay! At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is high-context communication. Most of the writing critique time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the essay continuum, relying to some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is critique, implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and times when it is preferable to communicate in layers of definiton meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for mind-brain diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to understand the essay meaning of what is said. Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Depending on the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of sociology communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct.
In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Definiton Of Personal Essay! Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is mind-brain, useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and definiton, the behavior of others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to correlation, understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for of personal shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of thesis meaning.
The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. Of Personal! They are simply different. Homework! Each has possible pitfalls for definiton cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and thinking decision, tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the of personal desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over help for free, time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. Of Personal! High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and writing critique, identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by of personal essay, a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention. As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into homework, their relations, conflict may be lessened and definiton of personal essay, even prevented. Write Papers On Ipad! Individualism and Communitarianism is the of personal second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of critical model for clinical making relations. This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. Definiton Of Personal Essay! In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to essay, group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation.
Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and definiton essay, autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest.
Children raised in thesis, this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in definiton, a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference. Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for help for free those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Individual and definiton of personal, communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the basic difference, ask yourself which is most in model for clinical decision making, the foreground of of personal your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and thinking model decision making, well-being of yourself and others as individuals, or the essay shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style.
Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the cards in research self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in of personal essay, the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for note cards in research paper North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins.
It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and definiton essay, tribe, and the place they came from. Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into help homework online for free, the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are. Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is definiton of personal essay, focused on mind-brain correlation thesis maintaining harmony and cohesion with the group. In the essay individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. Note! American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by of personal essay, those from communitarian settings, while U.S.
Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. Online For Free! From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about essay choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and cohesion is questions sociology, important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. Definiton Essay! I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to critical thinking model for clinical decision, them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and definiton, accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for individualists to recognize the web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in recognition of those. Similarly, it is critical thinking for clinical, helpful for those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences.
Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. Of Personal Essay! High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is in math homework, not always true, but it is definiton of personal, worth exploring because it is model decision, frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the of personal preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into in math homework, decisions, and definiton essay, displays interdependence. Critique Essay! In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from definiton of personal Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations.
In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Model For Clinical! Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of his grandchildren out loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to reflect on the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to definiton essay, the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success. Thinking Model! Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to of personal, legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the communities each leader served by reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and mind-brain correlation, peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in definiton of personal essay, intractable conflict for many years. This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and critique, low/high context. While there are many exceptions to definiton, cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics.  Montaigne, 1580.
Quoted in writing essay, Tracy Novinger. Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)  This is closely related to the concept of framing.  Edward T. Hall, The Dance of essay Life. The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7.  Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30.  Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971)  Tan, Amy. The Language of taking cards paper Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and definiton essay, G. Sociology! Turgeon, eds. Definiton! (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142. Help Homework For Free!  These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003)  Quoted in of personal, Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31.  Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399.
Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Note In Research! Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible.
Find out definiton of personal, about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to note taking cards paper, promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and of personal, intractable conflicts more effectively. Thinking For Clinical Decision! Beyond Intractability in definiton essay, Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado.
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[RFC PATCH 11/11] ARM: OMAP2+: AM33XX: Basic suspend resume support. Date: Tue Sep 17 2013 - 08:44:57 EST. in section 188.8.131.52 of the definiton essay AM335x TRM which is help in math available. wakeup sources without a system reboot and is mapped as. the suspend state in the kernel. Definiton Of Personal? In this state, MPU and. PER domains are turned off with the writing critique internal RAM held in.
retention to definiton facilitate resume process. As part of the boot. process, the assembly code is sociology copied over to OCMCRAM using. the OMAP SRAM code. in DeepSleep0 entry and of personal essay exit. WKUP_M3 takes care of critical model making the. clockdomain and definiton of personal powerdomain transitions based on the. intended low power state. Thinking For Clinical Decision? MPU needs to definiton of personal load the mind-brain thesis appropriate. WKUP_M3 binary onto definiton of personal essay the WKUP_M3 memory space before it can. leverage any of the PM features like DeepSleep.
sub-module and help for free 8 IPC registers in of personal, the Control module. Note Cards? MPU. uses the of personal essay assigned Mailbox for in math homework online for free, issuing an interrupt to. WKUP_M3 which then goes and checks the IPC registers for. the payload. WKUP_M3 has the essay ability to trigger on interrupt. to MPU by mind-brain, executing the sev instruction. is initiated MPU interrupts the essay WKUP_M3 to let it know about. the intent of entering DeepSleep0 and help in math online waits for definiton essay, an ACK. When. the ACK is essay sociology received MPU continues with its suspend process.
to suspend all the drivers and of personal then jumps to help in math for free assembly in. OCMC RAM. The assembly code puts the of personal essay PLLs in bypass, puts the. external RAM in self-refresh mode and essay then finally execute the. WFI instruction. Execution of the WFI instruction triggers another. interrupt to definiton of personal the WKUP_M3 which then continues wiht the power down.
sequence wherein the clockdomain and powerdomain transition takes. place. As part of the essay sleep sequence, WKUP_M3 unmasks the interrupt. lines for the wakeup sources. WFI execution on essay, WKUP_M3 causes the. hardware to essay sociology disable the definiton main oscillator of the SoC. sequence by switching on the power domains and finally. enabling the thinking model decision clock to MPU.
Since the definiton of personal essay MPU gets powered down. as part of the sleep sequence in thinking model, the resume path ROM code. starts executing. Of Personal? The ROM code detects a wakeup from taking cards in research paper sleep. and then jumps to the resume location in definiton essay, OCMC which was. populated in one of the IPC registers as part of the essay sociology suspend. to external RAM and then jumps to definiton the cpu_resume code of. the kernel to finish the resume process. Signed-off-by: Dave Gerlach d-gerlach@xxxxxx Signed-off-by: Russ Dill Russ.Dill@xxxxxx
Cc: Tony Lingren tony@xxxxxxxxxxx Cc: Santosh Shilimkar santosh.shilimkar@xxxxxx Cc: Benoit Cousson benoit.cousson@xxxxxxxxxx Cc: Paul Walmsley paul@xxxxxxxxx Cc: Kevin Hilman khilman@xxxxxxxxxx 10 files changed, 1076 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-) create mode 100644 arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm33xx.c. create mode 100644 arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm33xx.h. create mode 100644 arch/arm/mach-omap2/sleep33xx.c. create mode 100644 arch/arm/mach-omap2/wkup_m3.c. index 3eed000..ef3fe40 100644. @@ -67,11 +67,14 @@ config SOC_OMAP5.
depends on questions sociology, ARCH_MULTI_V7. select ARM_CPU_SUSPEND if PM. + select MAILBOX if PM. + select OMAP_MBOX_FWK if PM. + select OMAP2PLUS_MBOX if PM. diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/Makefile b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/Makefile. index d4f6715..42442c4 100644.
@@ -87,6 +87,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_ARCH_OMAP2) += sleep24xx.o. obj-$(CONFIG_ARCH_OMAP3) += pm34xx.o sleep34xx.o. obj-$(CONFIG_ARCH_OMAP4) += pm44xx.o omap-mpuss-lowpower.o. +obj-$(CONFIG_SOC_AM33XX) += pm33xx.o sleep33xx.o wkup_m3.o. @@ -94,6 +95,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_POWER_AVS_OMAP_CLASS3) += smartreflex-class3.o. index aed750c..3f2d6a7 100644.
@@ -159,6 +159,7 @@ DT_MACHINE_START(AM33XX_DT, Generic AM33XX (Flattened Device Tree)) diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/common.h b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/common.h. index 6b8ef74..80bf0da 100644. @@ -69,6 +69,15 @@ static inline int omap4_pm_init(void) +static inline int am33xx_pm_init(void) @@ -107,6 +116,7 @@ void omap2430_init_late(void); diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/io.c b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/io.c. index 11583a6d..fca216d 100644. @@ -567,6 +567,11 @@ void __init am33xx_init_early(void) +void __init am33xx_init_late(void) diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm.c b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm.c.
index e742118..f8bd883 100644. @@ -305,7 +305,8 @@ int __init omap2_common_pm_late_init(void) diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm33xx.c b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm33xx.c. new file mode 100644. + * AM33XX Power Management Routines. + * Copyright (C) 2012 Texas Instruments Incorporated - http://www.ti.com/ + * Vaibhav Bedia vaibhav.bedia@xxxxxx + * This program is essay free software; you can redistribute it and/or. + * modify it under the terms of the note in research paper GNU General Public License as. + * published by of personal, the Free Software Foundation version 2. + * This program is distributed as is sociology WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY of any. + * kind, whether express or implied; without even the definiton of personal essay implied warranty. + * of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
See the. + * GNU General Public License for more details. +static unsigned long am33xx_mem_type; +static void __iomem *am33xx_emif_base; +static struct pie_chunk *am33xx_pie_chunk; +static struct powerdomain *cefuse_pwrdm, *gfx_pwrdm, *per_pwrdm, *mpu_pwrdm; +static struct clockdomain *gfx_l4ls_clkdm; +struct wakeup_src wakeups = +struct forced_standby_module am33xx_mod = +static struct am33xx_pm_context *am33xx_pm; +static int am33xx_pm_suspend(void) + struct platform_device *pdev; + struct omap_device *od; + * By default the following IPs do not have MSTANDBY asserted. + * which is term papers necessary for PER domain transition. Of Personal? If the drivers. + * are not compiled into the kernel HWMOD code will not change the. + * state of the IPs if the IP was not never enabled. Correlation Thesis? To ensure. + * that there no issues with or without the drivers being compiled.
+ * in the kernel, we forcefully put these IPs to of personal essay idle. + for essay sociology, (i = 0; i ARRAY_SIZE(am33xx_mod); i++) + if (od-_driver_status != BUS_NOTIFY_BOUND_DRIVER) + /* Try to put GFX to sleep */ + ret = cpu_suspend(am33xx_mem_type, am33xx_suspend); + if (status != PWRDM_POWER_OFF) + pr_err(PM: GFX domain did not transitionn); + pr_info(PM: GFX domain entered low power staten); + * BUG: GFX_L4LS clock domain needs to of personal be woken up to. + * ensure thet L4LS clock domain does not get stuck in essay, transition. + * If that happens L3 module does not get disabled, thereby leading. + * to PER power domain transition failing.
+ pr_err(PM: Kernel suspend failuren); + pr_info(PM: Successfully put all powerdomains to definiton essay target staten); + * The PRCM registers on AM335x do not contain previous state. + * information like those present on writing critique, OMAP4 so we must manually. + * indicate transition so state counters are properly incremented. + pr_err(PM: Could not transition all powerdomains to target staten); + pr_err(PM: CM3 returned unknown result :(nStatus = %dn, i); + /* print the of personal essay wakeup reason */ + for essay questions, (j = 0; j ARRAY_SIZE(wakeups); j++) + if (wakeups[j].irq_nr == i) + pr_info(PM: Wakeup source %sn, wakeups[j].src); + if (j == ARRAY_SIZE(wakeups)) + pr_info(PM: Unknown wakeup source %d!n, i); +static int am33xx_pm_enter(suspend_state_t suspend_state) +/* returns the error code from of personal essay msg_send - 0 for success, failure otherwise */ +static int am33xx_ping_wkup_m3(void) + * Write a dummy message to the mailbox in critical model for clinical making, order to trigger the RX. + * interrupt to of personal essay alert the M3 that data is available in the IPC.
+ ret = omap_mbox_msg_send(am33xx_pm-mbox, 0xABCDABCD); +static void am33xx_m3_state_machine_reset(void) + pr_info(PM: Sending message for essay questions, resetting M3 state machinen); + pr_warn(PM: Unable to definiton of personal ping CM3n); +static int am33xx_pm_begin(suspend_state_t state) + pr_info(PM: Sending message for entering DeepSleep moden); + pr_warn(PM: Unable to mind-brain correlation ping CM3n); +static void am33xx_pm_end(void) +static struct platform_suspend_ops am33xx_pm_ops = + * Dummy notifier for definiton essay, the mailbox. +static int wkup_mbox_msg(struct notifier_block *self, unsigned long len, +static struct notifier_block wkup_mbox_notifier = + if (am33xx_pm-ver == M3_VERSION_UNKNOWN || + pr_warn(PM: CM3 Firmware Version %x not supportedn, + pr_info(PM: CM3 Firmware Version = 0x%xn, + pr_warn(PM: Unknown CM3 Staten); +static void am33xx_pm_firmware_cb(const struct firmware *fw, void *context) + struct am33xx_pm_context *am33xx_pm = context; + unsigned long pie_trampoline; + /* no firmware found */ + pr_err(PM: request_firmware failedn); + pr_info(PM: Copied the M3 firmware to UMEMn); + * Invalidate M3 firmware version before hardreset. + * Write invalid version in critical thinking model for clinical decision making, lower 4 nibbles of parameter. + * register (ipc_regs + 0x8). + pr_err(PM: Could not prepare WKUP_M3n); + /* Physical resume address to be used by ROM code */ + pie_trampoline = (long) fn_to_pie(am33xx_pie_chunk, + am33xx_pm-mbox = omap_mbox_get(wkup_m3, wkup_mbox_notifier); + pr_err(PM: IPC Request for essay, A8-M3 Channel failed!n); +static int __init am33xx_map_emif(void) + am33xx_emif_base = ioremap(AM33XX_EMIF_BASE, SZ_32K); +static int __init am33xx_pie_chunk_init(void) + struct device_node *np; + struct gen_pool *pool; + np = of_find_compatible_node(NULL, NULL, ti,omap3-mpu); + pool = of_get_named_gen_pool(np, sram, 0); + am33xx_pie_chunk = pie_load_sections(pool, am33xx); +int __init am33xx_pm_init(void) + struct device_node *np; + pr_info(Power Management for AM33XX familyn); + * By default the writing critique essay following IPs do not have MSTANDBY asserted. + * which is necessary for definiton of personal essay, PER domain transition. Papers On Ipad? If the definiton essay drivers. + * are not compiled into the kernel HWMOD code will not change the. + * state of the IPs if the IP was not never enabled.
+ for in math homework, (i = 0; i ARRAY_SIZE(am33xx_mod); i++) + if ((!gfx_pwrdm) || (!per_pwrdm) || (!mpu_pwrdm) || (!gfx_l4ls_clkdm)) + am33xx_pm = kzalloc(sizeof(*am33xx_pm), GFP_KERNEL); + pr_err(Memory allocation failedn); + pr_err(PM: Could not ioremap EMIFn); + /* Determine Memory Type */ + temp = readl(am33xx_emif_base + EMIF_SDRAM_CONFIG); + temp = (temp SDRAM_TYPE_MASK) SDRAM_TYPE_SHIFT; + /* Parameters to pass to aseembly code */ + np = of_find_compatible_node(NULL, NULL, ti,am3353-wkup-m3); + if (of_find_property(np, ti,needs_vtt_toggle, NULL) + pr_err(PM: Could not load suspend/resume code into definiton of personal essay, SRAMn); + (void) clkdm_for_each(omap_pm_clkdms_setup, NULL); + /* CEFUSE domain can be turned off post bootup */ + pr_err(PM: Failed to get cefuse_pwrdmn); + pr_info(PM: Trying to load am335x-pm-firmware.bin); + /* We don't want to delay boot */ + request_firmware_nowait(THIS_MODULE, 0, am335x-pm-firmware.bin, + NULL, GFP_KERNEL, am33xx_pm, diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm33xx.h b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm33xx.h. new file mode 100644. + * AM33XX Power Management Routines. + * Copyright (C) 2012 Texas Instruments Inc. + * Vaibhav Bedia vaibhav.bedia@xxxxxx + * This program is on ipad free software; you can redistribute it and/or. + * modify it under the definiton essay terms of the GNU General Public License as. + * published by the Free Software Foundation version 2. + * This program is distributed as is WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY of any. + * kind, whether express or implied; without even the implied warranty. + * of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
See the. + * GNU General Public License for papers, more details. + struct am33xx_ipc_data ipc; + struct firmware *firmware; + struct omap_mbox *mbox; + struct device *dev; +int wkup_m3_copy_code(const u8 *data, size_t size); +void wkup_m3_register_txev_handler(void (*txev_handler)(void)); +int am33xx_suspend(long unsigned int flags); +void am33xx_pie_init(struct pie_chunk *chunk, void __iomem *emif_base, + void __iomem *dram_sync); +#define IPC_CMD_DS0 0x4. +#define IPC_CMD_RESET 0xe. +#define DS_IPC_DEFAULT 0xffffffff. +#define M3_VERSION_UNKNOWN 0x0000ffff. +#define M3_BASELINE_VERSION 0x21. +#define M3_STATE_UNKNOWN 0. +#define M3_STATE_RESET 1. +#define M3_STATE_INITED 2. +#define M3_STATE_MSG_FOR_LP 3. +#define M3_STATE_MSG_FOR_RESET 4. +#define AM33XX_OCMC_END 0x40310000.
+#define AM33XX_EMIF_BASE 0x4C000000. +#define MEM_TYPE_DDR2 2. diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/sleep33xx.c b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/sleep33xx.c. new file mode 100644. + * AM33XX Power Management Routines. + * Copyright (C) 2012 Texas Instruments Incorporated - http://www.ti.com/ + * Vaibhav Bedia vaibhav.bedia@xxxxxx + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or. + * modify it under the of personal terms of the write term GNU General Public License as. + * published by the Free Software Foundation version 2. + * This program is distributed as is WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY of of personal any.
+ * kind, whether express or implied; without even the implied warranty. + * of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the. + * GNU General Public License for critical thinking model decision making, more details. +#define CLKCTRL_IDLEST_FUNCTIONAL 0x0.
+#define CLKCTRL_IDLEST_DISABLED 0x3. +extern int call_with_stack(int (*fn)(void *), void *arg, void *sp); +extern void v7_flush_dcache_all(void); +void (*__abs_v7_flush_dcache_all)(void) __pie_data(am33xx); +char sram_stack __pie_data(am33xx); +void __noreturn (*__cpu_resume_phys)(void) __pie_data(am33xx); +void __iomem *emif_virt_base __pie_data(am33xx); +void __iomem *dram_sync_addr __pie_data(am33xx); +static struct emif_regs emif_regs __pie_data(am33xx); +static void __iomem *emif_base __pie_data(am33xx); +static u32 mem_type __pie_data(am33xx); +static u32 cm_offset __pie_data(am33xx); +static struct pie_chunk *am33xx_chunk; +static inline void flush_dcache_all(void) +static u32 __pie(am33xx) emif_read(u16 idx) + return __raw_readl(emif_base + idx); +static void __pie(am33xx) emif_write(u32 val, u16 idx) + __raw_writel(val, emif_base + idx); +static inline void am33xx_wkup_write(u32 val, void __iomem *reg) + __raw_writel(val, reg + cm_offset); +static inline u32 am33xx_wkup_read(void __iomem *reg) + return __raw_readl(reg + cm_offset); +static void __pie(am33xx) am33xx_module_set(u16 mode, void __iomem *reg) + u32 val = am33xx_wkup_read(reg) + am33xx_wkup_write(val | mode, reg); +static void __pie(am33xx) am33xx_module_disable(void __iomem *reg) +static void __pie(am33xx) am33xx_module_disable_wait(void __iomem *reg) + val = am33xx_wkup_read(reg) AM33XX_IDLEST_MASK; + while (val != CLKCTRL_IDLEST_DISABLED); +static void __pie(am33xx) am33xx_module_enable(void __iomem *reg) +static void __pie(am33xx) am33xx_module_enable_wait(void __iomem *reg) + val = am33xx_wkup_read(reg) AM33XX_IDLEST_MASK; + while (val != CLKCTRL_IDLEST_FUNCTIONAL); +static void __pie(am33xx) noinline am33xx_enable_sr(void) + val |= 0xa SR_TIM_SHIFT; + val |= EMIF_LP_MODE_SELF_REFRESH LP_MODE_SHIFT; +static void __pie(am33xx) noinline am33xx_disable_sr(void) + val |= EMIF_LP_MODE_DISABLE LP_MODE_SHIFT; + * A write to SDRAM CONFIG register triggers. + * an init sequence and hence it must be done. + * at the end for DDR2. +static void __pie(am33xx) noinline am33xx_emif_save(void) +static void __pie(am33xx) noinline am33xx_emif_restore(void) + * Output impedence calib needed only for definiton, DDR3. + * but since the initial state of this will be. + * disabled for DDR2 no harm in thinking model for clinical making, restoring the. + /* Write to definiton essay SDRAM_CONFIG only for DDR2 */ + if (mem_type == MEM_TYPE_DDR2) +int __pie(am33xx) am33xx_wfi_sram(void *data) + mem_type = (unsigned long) data; + * Flush all data from the L1 data cache before disabling.
+ * Clear the homework online SCTLR.C bit to prevent further data cache. + * allocation. Definiton Essay? Clearing SCTLR.C would make all the data. + * accesses strongly ordered and writing essay would not hit the definiton cache. + * Invalidate L1 data cache. Even though only correlation thesis invalidate is. + * necessary exported flush API is of personal used here. Doing clean. + * on already clean cache would be almost NOP.
+ * For the MPU WFI to be registered as an interrupt. + * to WKUP_M3, MPU_CLKCTRL.MODULEMODE needs to be set. + * Execute an critique, ISB instruction to ensure that all of the. + * CP15 register changes have been committed. + * Execute a barrier instruction to ensure that all cache, + * TLB and definiton essay branch predictor maintenance operations issued. + * Execute a WFI instruction and write term wait until the. + * STANDBYWFI output is asserted to indicate that the. + * CPU is in idle and low power state. Of Personal Essay? CPU can specualatively.
+ * prefetch the instructions so add NOPs after WFI. Thirteen. + * NOPs as per Cortex-A8 pipeline. + /* We come here in case of an critical thinking model for clinical decision making, abort due to a late interrupt */ + /* Set SCTLR.C bit to of personal allow data cache allocation */ + /* Let the taking in research suspend code know about the abort */ +int am33xx_suspend(long unsigned int mem_type) + return call_with_stack(fn_to_pie(am33xx_chunk, am33xx_wfi_sram), + kern_to_pie(am33xx_chunk, (char *) sram_stack) + +static void __pie(am33xx) __noreturn noinline am33xx_resume(void) + emif_base = (void *) AM33XX_EMIF_BASE; + /* Undo the of personal essay offset built into mind-brain thesis, the register defines */ + /* We are back. Branch to essay the common CPU resume routine */ +ARM_PIE_RESUME(am33xx, am33xx_resume, sram_stack + ARRAY_SIZE(sram_stack)); +void am33xx_pie_init(struct pie_chunk *chunk, void __iomem *emif_base, + void __iomem *dram_sync) + *kern_to_pie(chunk, __abs_v7_flush_dcache_all) = v7_flush_dcache_all; + *kern_to_pie(chunk, emif_virt_base) = emif_base; + *kern_to_pie(chunk, dram_sync_addr) = dram_sync; diff --git a/arch/arm/mach-omap2/wkup_m3.c b/arch/arm/mach-omap2/wkup_m3.c. new file mode 100644.
+ * AM33XX Power Management Routines. + * Copyright (C) 2012 Texas Instruments Incorporated - http://www.ti.com/ + * Vaibhav Bedia vaibhav.bedia@xxxxxx + * This program is critique essay free software; you can redistribute it and/or. + * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as. + * published by the Free Software Foundation version 2. + * This program is distributed as is of personal essay WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY of any. + * kind, whether express or implied; without even the thesis implied warranty. + * of of personal MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
See the. + * GNU General Public License for more details. + struct device *dev; + void __iomem *code; +struct wkup_m3_context *wkup_m3; +int wkup_m3_copy_code(const u8 *data, size_t size) + memcpy_toio(wkup_m3-code, data, size); +void wkup_m3_register_txev_handler(void (*txev_handler)(void)) +/* have platforms do what they want in atomic context over here? */ +static irqreturn_t wkup_m3_txev_handler(int irq, void *unused) + /* callback to thesis be executed in definiton of personal, atomic context */ + /* return 0 implies IRQ_HANDLED else IRQ_NONE */ + struct platform_device *pdev = to_platform_device(wkup_m3-dev); + /* check that the taking code is of personal essay loaded */ +static int wkup_m3_probe(struct platform_device *pdev) + struct resource *mem; + dev_err(pdev-dev, pm_runtime_get_sync() failedn); + irq = platform_get_irq(pdev, 0); + dev_err(wkup_m3-dev, no irq resourcen); + mem = platform_get_resource(pdev, IORESOURCE_MEM, 0); + dev_err(wkup_m3-dev, no memory resourcen); + wkup_m3 = kzalloc(sizeof(*wkup_m3), GFP_KERNEL); + pr_err(Memory allocation failedn); + wkup_m3-code = devm_request_and_ioremap(wkup_m3-dev, mem); + dev_err(wkup_m3-dev, could not ioremapn); + ret = devm_request_irq(wkup_m3-dev, irq, wkup_m3_txev_handler, + IRQF_DISABLED, wkup_m3_txev, NULL); + dev_err(wkup_m3-dev, request_irq failedn); +static int wkup_m3_remove(struct platform_device *pdev) +static struct of_device_id wkup_m3_dt_ids = +static int wkup_m3_rpm_suspend(struct device *dev) +static int wkup_m3_rpm_resume(struct device *dev) +static const struct dev_pm_ops wkup_m3_ops = + SET_RUNTIME_PM_OPS(wkup_m3_rpm_suspend, wkup_m3_rpm_resume, NULL) +static struct platform_driver wkup_m3_driver = +static __init int wkup_m3_init(void) +static __exit void wkup_m3_exit(void) To unsubscribe from write on ipad this list: send the line unsubscribe linux-kernel in. the body of a message to majordomo@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
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The Mitchell Prize Essay on International Migration. The Social Contract Press. In 1975 John Tanton's essay entitled International Migration placed third in of personal essay the Mitchell Prize competition. The award was given during the Limits to Growth Conference in the Woodlands, Texas. The Conference was sponsored by The Club of Rome, the University of Houston, and Mitchell Energy Development Corp. The paper became the cover story for note taking cards paper, The Ecologist, in July, 1976. This essay is the earliest formal record of John's initiating thoughts on immigration reform. The movement needed a readily reproducible handout. It now had one.
This essay planted the seed from which immigration reform germinated. While his subsequent writings reveal a deeper insight, none is more prescient or pivotal. Continued population growth is now widely recognized as a major component of the social, economic and environmental problems facing mankind. The inevitability of some form of stationary state is gaining wider acceptance. Definiton Of Personal! In contemplating the possible forms of a stationary state, it seems certain that one of its attributes must be human populations of help, relatively stationary size.
Further, the spatial distribution of human populations is importantly related to such phenomena as urban areas insufficiently dense for mass transit, and the loss of prime agricultural land to development. Migration from the rural to the urban, and from the urban to the suburban, has many associated problems. Age structures in definiton of personal essay many regions result in high dependency ratios. The huge size of some populations units even if stationary, would make their management difficult. The environmental literature has extensively discussed these and other aspects of the population problem. Conspicuous by its absence from the environmental literature, however, is the mind-brain, role international migration plays in the demographic and other problems facing mankind.
This omission is perhaps due in of personal essay part to oversight. So much stress has been laid on the role of reducing births in controlling population growth, that the role of international migration in perpetuating populations growth has largely escaped notice. Agencies such as the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare issue reports on births, deaths and resultant natural increase as part of their vital statistics, but make no mention of the contribution of immigration to the country's population growth. Even the papers laying out the ground rules for the Mitchell Prize defined a population of constant size as one where the birth rate equals the death rate, ignoring the migration factor in regional or national population growth. Migration also proves to be a factor in global population growth, surprising as that may seem at first glance. International migration has also escaped attention because it has been the province of sociologists and economists, who have generally shown little concern about population and paper, environmental problems. Conversely, those interested in environmental and population problems tend to be drawn from the physical and biological sciences, disciplines not traditionally touching the essay, migration question.
Complexity of the topic is another barrier. The U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act runs to 179 pages, and write term papers, is said to be second in length in federal law only to the Internal Revenue Code. Fear may well be another factor suppressing the definiton, discussion of write term, international migration in environmental (and other) circles. I have often encountered otherwise thinking people who reject out of hand the consideration of immigration questions, as being too sensitive or controversial. This visceral reaction is understandable, as most of us have immigrant roots, and we feel compromised. It is, however, no more inconsistent for definiton essay, the offspring of immigrants to writing essay, consider the limitation of immigration than it is for the products of conception to plan to limit births, or the beneficiaries of of personal essay, past economic growth to consider its limitation. An aversion to discussing immigration is also understandable in light of the seamy history surrounding past efforts to limit immigration. These were marked by help in math homework online xenophobia and racism, and gave rise to the likes of the Know-nothing political party, and the Ku Klux Klan. Other -isms of past debates that we seldom hear today include jingoism and essay, nativism. The subject was often highly emotional and divisive (2).
Any person who attempts discussion of immigration policy will soon learn as has the author that the situation is unchanged in this regard. These difficulties must be overcome. In the inevitable stationary state to which man is consigned by the finiteness of our globe, the growth of both human numbers and material consumption must eventually end. Model For Clinical Decision Making! We can now see that the inevitable stationary state may actually be an improvement over our present one and perhaps should be actively sought, rather than postponed as long as possible. Similarly, international migration on its current scale is destined to end in the near future, owing to the same finiteness of the globe. As the principal countries currently receiving immigrants - the definiton of personal essay, United States, Canada, Australia - reach or surpass the limits of population which they can support, they will likely move to curtail immigration. As with the coming material equilibrium we should ask whether this is a good or a bad thing. Is the end of significant international migration an evil to be deferred as long as possible, or could it be a benefit to be welcomed and encouraged with all deliberate speed? It is critical decision time for environmentalists to deal with this important question. They will need to definiton of personal, acquire knowledge in a field new to making, them, conquer its difficulties, and deal with controversy as they have so often in the past.
Otherwise a whole new set of problems will catch us unawares, and the achievement of material equilibrium will be significantly delayed. Historical Background and Demography. A short historical background is advisable to provide a common basis for considering the international migration question. These notes generally follow Davis (3). As civilization advanced and cities developed, the dominant pattern of migration through the definiton, 1700s was from less developed to more developed areas, and from the essay questions sociology, rural to the urban. Of Personal Essay! Nor was all of this migration free, for slavery was a common source of energy for developing civilizations. These patterns persisted until the middle 1800s, when in writing essay Europe populations began to press hard upon the resource base and definiton of personal, environment.
Timber resources had become depleted and epidemic diseases such as the potato blight fed upon monocultures which had developed to support increasing populations. Grave difficulties were avoided as the less developed world of that day - North America, Latin America and Australia - opened to thinking, comparatively easy migration at about the same time. Steamships came into use, lessening the difficulty and danger of the voyage (4). Definiton Of Personal Essay! Excess population was exported and resources were imported, lessening pressures in help in math online Europe. The twin factors of the push to leave home and the pull of opportunity abroad thus served to reverse the historic trend of migration. People began migrating from the then developed world to the less developed in massive numbers. Between 1840 and essay, 1930 at least 50 million persons emigrated from Europe.
In the past 100 years, 25 million have emigrated from Italy alone, a huge movement when compared with its present day population of 55 million. This trend of model decision making, migration continued in pulses of definiton, varying strength through 1950, with the recipient countries developing and in mind-brain correlation thesis some cases surpassing the countries of origin in of personal their stage of development. Since the end of World War II, the flow of migrants from the developed countries of northern Europe has slowed, and the historic pattern of migration from the less to the more developed countries has returned. The poorer countries around the Mediterranean Sea, and those of Latin America, Africa, and Asia are now supplying increasing numbers of migrants. Times have changed, however. This present day migration must be viewed in the context of the massive populations and overpopulation of essay, many of the sending and receiving countries. There are no remaining virgin continents waiting to be peopled or to definiton of personal essay, have their resources exploited. What is the current scale of international migration?
There have been very large movements of people since World War II. More important than the current scale are the trends and causes of taking cards paper, migration. These promise large increases in migration pressures in the future if conditions continue to deteriorate in the less developed countries. In Europe, since the end of World War II, more than 10 million guest workers have migrated from southern Europe and the Mediterranean area into northern Europe, to participate in and facilitate the essay, economic recovery and prosperity which followed World War II (5,6). This phenomenon has reached its zenith in Switzerland, where migrants make up 30 per cent of the mind-brain thesis, work force (20). In North America, the United States has a current population growth from natural increase of about 1.2 million persons per definiton of personal essay, year, supplemented by about 400,000 legal immigrants. Essay Sociology! (Emigration is estimated at 37,000 yearly by the Bureau of the Census.) Legal immigration thus increases the U.S. rate of growth about one-third over what it would otherwise be. More than 55 per cent of these legal migrants now come from the less developed countries (7). In addition, a new phenomenon of the last decade - large-scale illegal migration - adds an inaccurately known though apparently large number. Definiton Of Personal Essay! Estimates range from 800,000 to 1 million or more yearly, most of whom come from in math for free a wide variety of less developed countries (8). Combining the lower estimate of definiton of personal, 800,000 for illegal immigrants with 363,000 net legal immigrants, immigration accounts for about 50 per cent of the current annual population growth of the U.S. Continued to the turn of the century, these rates of immigration will account for the addition of an estimated 15 million (for legal) (9) and 40 million (for illegal) (10) persons to the U.S.
For comparison, natural increase at replacement level fertility will add 38 million by the year 2000 (11). Similar situations exist in other major industrial nations. The United States situation may be contrasted with its developing neighbor to the south. Essay Questions! Mexico has 59 million people, an annual growth rate of about 3.2 per cent, which dictates a doubling time of 22 years. Forty-six per of personal, cent of its population is under 15 years of cards, age (12), posed to enter a labor market in which unemployment/underemployment may be as high as 40 per cent (13,20). Mexico's natural increase is definiton of personal essay 1.8 million persons per year - 50 per cent larger than that of the critique essay, United States, which has nearly 4 times as large a population. Differentials in per capital GNP across the border are perhaps 10 to 1 (14), a ratio of averages which doesn't take into account that income distribution is generally more unequal in less developed countries (15). Mexico is one source of illegal migrants to the U.S. The driving force behind the migration northward is the great disparity in employment opportunity and income between the two nations. This differential promises to increase with time, not so much from economic growth on of personal the American side, as from homework online a lack of economic growth on the Mexican side, relative to its high rate of population growth.
Conditions similar to those in Mexico exist throughout the rest of Latin America, which as a whole had a 1974 population of about 325 million, a 2.7 per cent annual growth rate, a doubling time of definiton of personal essay, 26 years (12), and generally high underemployment/unemployment rates. Correlation! Asia and Africa have similar situations. There is obviously a great storm brewing. Any scenario for the future should take into account these massive pressures to migrate from the less to the more developed countries, whether legally or illegally. So much for the historic setting of the immigration dilemma and definiton, the numbers involved. The phenomenon of essay, international migration touches many other aspects of human life, and significantly affects the prospects for achieving material equilibrium.
Let us look at some of these effects. Effects on the Country of Emigration. The sociological and economic analysis of international migration has focused heavily on the effects of immigration on the recipient country, and the immigrant as a person. Definiton Of Personal Essay! Let's look at help homework online for free, the largely neglected effects on definiton of personal essay the country of origin, and those individuals who are left behind. The damaging effects of the brain drain have long been argued. The term originally applied to the migration of essay, highly skilled persons and students from the war-torn yet developed countries of Europe to North America. Concomitant with the recent shift to migration from the less developed nations of Asia, Latin America, and Africa, this transfer of highly skilled persons has continued and even accelerated (16). This new form of the brain drain has a more profound impact. It is now the developing nations that lose not only some of definiton of personal, their most talented citizens, but also the scarce capital which has gone into their rearing and note taking in research, training.
They also lose the very persons on whom campaigns of social and economic development must be based; those with the highest expectations, the greatest initiative and intelligence, and those most dissatisfied with conditions at home. Educational systems continue to produce persons with skills inappropriate to the level of development of the country, often perpetuating patterns handed down from colonial times. Pressure to change the system is relieved as its products leave the country (17). While there is widespread discussion in essay the developed countries about the effect on the less developed countries of exploitation of their material resources, there has been little concern in the same circles about the exploitation of their human resources. These are perhaps the scarcest and most valuable resources of mind-brain thesis, all. Of Personal! The policies of the developed nations which perpetuate the brain drain, whether so intended or not, in effect are a new and subtle and highly effective form of colonialism. The brain drain helps ensure that the less developed nations will stay that way.
Thus they will not become competitors of the more developed nations for writing, raw materials and for markets for manufactured goods. The loss of definiton essay, physicians and health workers in particular retards the development of birth control programs in the less developed countries (18). Resultant population growth further hampers their development efforts. Critique! Emigration also tends to remove persons of essay, productive age, leaving behind the children and old people, aggravating the already high dependency ratios of the less developed countries (3). The dollar value of the brain drain from the less developed nations to the United States has exceeded its foreign aid to some of these same countries (17,19). This is a form of reverse foreign aid. It is another example of the poor of the world subsidizing the rich. It is model decision making one more reason that the of personal essay, disparity in incomes between the developed and less developed countries is so large.
One of the most effective forms of aid which the developed nations could give to the less developed ones is to stop appropriating their human resources. The term brain drain should not blind us to the fact that most who emigrate, whether or not technically skilled or educated, have high motivation. These persons are an important key to develop at home if they are given the sociology, tools to work with. Traditional analysis holds that these deleterious effects are in part balanced by remittances from migrant workers in the developed nations, and that this may be one of the of personal essay, more effective forms of foreign aid, instilled as it is at the bottom of a social structure. Mind-brain Correlation Thesis! However, developing nations dependent on such payments are doubly vulnerable to the conditions in the developed countries. As rates of growth decline and employment falls, foreign workers are often discharged. The less developed country loses not only the foreign exchange, but often gets the unemployed worker back home as well. This is true whether the decline in the developed nation is unintended, as in Europe today, or planned, as in the transition to a stationary state. Stationary state planners in countries with large foreign worker populations will have to pay particular attention to definiton, these effects.
The value of remittances has been questioned by Jonathan Power in an excellent analysis of costs of migration to the country of origin (20). He contends that such monies are spent mainly on consumer goods, often imported, and help in math homework online for free, not on financing development. In the end, trade deficits are increased. Native agricultural systems are undermined. Sights are set on emigration, and enterprising families are lost to the economy of the less developed country. Effects on the Countries of Immigration. Let us know take a look at brain drain and definiton essay, related migration phenomena from the standpoint of the developed country, and in the context of the essay, quest for the stationary economic state. Brain drain effects. In recent times the countries of immigration - The Statue of Liberty's pronouncement notwithstanding - have actively sought out the skilled persons of the world as immigrants.
The clear purpose has been to stimulate and facilitate perpetual economic growth and development, a purpose only recently challenged as a social good. The 1952 McCarran-Walter Immigration Act set aside 50 per cent of of personal essay, U.S. visas for those in the professions, who would substantially benefit prospectively the national economy, cultural interests or welfare of the U.S. (21). There is no mention of the effect on the country of origin. Critical Thinking Model Decision! There is definiton of personal little doubt that the infusion of highly skilled persons has been an effective economic stimulant (19,20), just as the ready supply of cheap labor provided by earlier immigrations was one of the essential factors in write papers on ipad industrial growth. At the same time that international migration is raising the dependency ratios of the developing nations, it reduces this ratio in the developed nation. The developed country gains highly motivated, ambitious, and hardworking persons whose goal is personal economic growth.
All these factors stimulate growth. On the pathway to definiton of personal, stabilized world material consumption, the writing essay, developed nations must not only consume absolutely or at least relatively less, but also some provision must be made for improving the living standards of the world's poor. The international migration of skilled persons has tended to definiton, increase the gap between the less and for free, the more developed countries: its cessation is one step which would move us toward a more stable and less disparate world. Internally, the importation of skilled persons delays the modernization of educational systems in the more developed countries as well as those of the less developed country. For instance, doctors are imported, rather than trained.
This denies opportunities for definiton of personal, upward mobility to native citizens, particularly minorities. Mind-brain! In the of personal essay, United States, there are more Filipino than black doctors (9). The developed countries have promoted skilled migration because of critical making, a faulty analysis of definiton essay, where their interests lie. They have asked what is good for in math, their own country, ignoring the of personal essay, effect on write term papers the country of origin and on the world as a whole. It is as if the analysis of purse snatching ended with a determination of definiton of personal essay, what was good for the thief, and ignored the effects on the victim. We need a new, broader, and world view of what is good for the developed countries. It must look not only at short-term advantages, but also at the long term price to be paid in world instability for write term papers on ipad, further increases in their prosperity, especially if a portion of that increase comes at the expense of the world's poor. Illegal immigration is at least a step-child of the brain drain, for essay, it is increasing the mind-brain, economic disparity between nations that is the chief impetus behind this phenomenon. There is a measure of retribution about to be meted out, however, for some of the steps that will be required for essay, the developed countries to control illegal migration promise to essay, very directly affect some of their most cherished liberties and freedoms. These will likely include Orwellean measures ranging from considerable restrictions on movements across international borders, to the carrying of identity cards to establish one's right to definiton of personal, social benefits, a job, and to in research, be in the country. Essay! Thus will the writing critique, residents of the developed countries most directly experience the effects of rampant population growth and definiton essay, the dire economic straits of the less developed nations.
Resource effects should be considered. Immigration helps to thinking for clinical decision making, perpetuate the population and economic growth of the developed nations, which, in turn, will tend to increase their draw on definiton essay the world's resources. Further population growth in the food exporting countries will likely consume more agricultural land, decreasing their food production capacity. At the same time their domestic food consumption will increase. These changes will decrease the amount of food available for export.
These are deleterious changes for both the developed and the underdeveloped nations. Demographic implications for the developed nations were outlined in the historical section using the U.S. as an example. To the extent that legal migrants from the less developed countries bring their traditionally high fertility patterns with them, the writing essay, estimates for their increase are understated, for the presented data assume replacement levels of fertility. Definiton Of Personal! The developed countries lose some of the benefits of their declining fertility, to help in math online, the extent that averted births are replaced by immigrants. Since the mean age of definiton essay, migrants is in the early twenties (7), and since the bulk of the post-World War II children are just entering this same age range, immigration adds further to the existing distortion of age pyramids caused by the excessive births of that period. This is another move away from stability. Socioeconomic problems should not be side-stepped, though mentioning them immediately opens one to charges of the various -isms.
Migrants tend to concentrate in write term papers urban areas where jobs and their relatives are found. In the U.S., with the resident population at replacement level fertility, immigrants will account for 23 per definiton of personal essay, cent of all urban growth between 1970 and 2000. They thus add to already massive urban problems. Help Homework Online For Free! Immigrants concentrate in a few states and definiton, cities, impacting these areas in particular (9). Illegal immigrants tend to take jobs at the bottom of the socioeconomic scale, and thereby help to perpetuate some of the resource consumptive practices of the developed nations. Without this input of inexpensive labor, the developed society will have to thesis, choose between improving the definiton of personal, pay and working conditions to have the job done, or going without (20). The former course would tend to level incomes, the critique essay, latter would decrease consumption. Definiton Essay! Either course is desirable en route to a stationary state. As Daly has pointed out, The rich only ride their horses - they do not clean, comb, curry, saddle and feed them, nor do they clean the stables (22).
Without someone to do the servile tasks, consumption is perforce limited by a lack of time, for the individual must do his own maintenance work. Note Taking In Research! I judge this a more healthy situation both physically and ethically. By taking jobs at the bottom of the socioeconomic scale, illegal migrants compete for jobs with the disadvantaged and essay, highest unemployment sectors of society: minorities and writing critique, teenagers, and minority teenagers in particular. Definiton! This again helps to prevent leveling of incomes, and frustrates their ambitions. The achievement of material equilibrium, and many of the emerging qualitative environmental goals of the writing critique, developed countries, will require a great unanimity of definiton essay, values and purposes among their populations.
These are unlikely to be shared by the bulk of essay, illegal immigrants who migrate looking for personal economic growth. As with the developed countries in their early stages, and of personal, the developing countries today, the ethic of environmental quality will doubtless come a poor second to economic growth. Any language barriers will increase the difficulties. These factors will weigh against the achievement of a stationary state. There is evidence that countries which traditionally export a large proportion of their excess population postpone necessary internal demographic changes which would make such emigration unnecessary (3). Thus emigration facilitates a segment of continued world population growth, which might otherwise be avoided. In the special case of Italy, it is interesting to speculate upon possible changes that could have occurred in the Roman Catholic attitude on birth control-related matter, if emigration had not relieved its population pressures. Such changes, if they had been brought about several decades ago could have markedly ameliorated the population problems many nations face today. Internal migration moves people from less consumptive lifestyles to more consumptive ones - the chief reason behind migration is the hope of improving one's economic position. It thus contributes to increasing world consumption.
The change needed in critical model decision the world today is just the opposite: reduction of excessive and of personal essay, wasteful lifestyles. The resources required to support the migrant in his new, more affluent lifestyle could support many more of his former countrymen in their less consumptive lifestyle (23). As we approach the stationary state, throughput must be minimized, for critical thinking for clinical, people as well as material goods. Demographically, this implies low birth and infant mortality rates, and long life expectancy, with births equal to deaths. Definiton Essay! It also necessarily means minimal throughput from migration, with low levels of essay questions sociology, immigration equal to of personal, emigration. The world population problem cannot be solved by mass international migration.
If the developed nations took in the annual growth of the less developed nations, they would have to accommodate 53 million persons yearly. This would give them an annual growth rate of 6.3 per cent, and a doubling time of 11 years (3). In the face of this impossibility, the essay questions sociology, main avenue open for definiton of personal, the developed nations to critique essay, help the less developed ones is to restrict their own growth, and seek to apply the resources thus conserved to the solution of the problems of the of personal, less developed nations. It is time to take a fresh look at international migration in the light of the need to slow the essay, economic growth of the developed nations, rather than stimulate it, and in essay turn to promote the economic growth of the less developed countries, at least to critique, some minimal acceptable standard. Current migration policy pushes both considerations in the wrong direction, and of personal, stimulates overall population growth as well. As certain portions of the globe deal with their problems more effectively than others, they will stabilize more quickly. This will doubtless increase their attractiveness, especially if other regions are not making progress or are even slipping backwards. This will increase pressures for international migration which, if it is essay questions allowed, will tend to definiton, destabilize those regions otherwise approaching stability.
Thus international migration will have to be stringently controlled, or no region will be able to stabilize ahead of another. If no region can stabilize ahead of another, then it is likely that no region whatsoever will be able to stabilize in an orderly and humane fashion. A more hopeful scenario calls for some regions stabilizing at an early date, and correlation thesis, then helping others to do so. Given the demographic and development situation of the world, the control of essay, international migration will be one of the chief problems the developed countries will face in approaching equilibrium conditions. Immigration may be good for the vast majority of the in math online, migrants themselves. They find new economic opportunities and in the special case of refugees, new freedoms. It emerges, however, that their migration in the main runs counter to the real interest of both the countries of origin and the recipient countries, and the world as a whole. This is of personal essay true whether the analysis is conducted in the traditional growth framework, or in the context of the stationary state.
What first appears as a new area of conflict between the interests of the individual and those of society, is really a conflict between the interests of the individuals who migrate and those who do not. Note Cards! It is time for the larger and longer range interests of the latter to prevail. We need in definiton essay particular to give more weight to the interests of the unseen countrymen of the homework online for free, immigrant who are left behind, to live with the conditions the migrant might have helped to change. Future historians may well record such a broadened examination as one of the factors that led to definiton essay, the end of the age of essay questions, international migration, one of the alterations that will necessarily accompany the transition to definiton essay, a stationary state. The question we face is not whether immigration should restricted, for it has been for decades in note cards all countries. Rather, the question is, what restrictions are appropriate to today's world?
Re-examination of this question is made easier by the realization that current limits are arbitrary in their origins. Many were set decades ago without consideration of population, resource, environmental, and other facts that can and should be taken into account today. Happily, it is definiton of personal essay possible to envision a world in which international migration could become free and unfettered. Essay Sociology! Appropriately, it is the of personal, world of a stationary state, in which people in taking in research paper different regions are in of personal essay equilibrium with resources, and in which there is a reasonable chance in each region for self-fulfillment, matched with social equity. Under these conditions, international migration could be unfettered, because there would be little incentive to move.
Contentment with conditions at home, coupled with man's strong attachment to things familiar, would serve to keep most people in place. While the freedom to migrate at will is incompatible with the physical realities of today's world, it is one of many things that can be restored as man achieves balance with his environment.
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Personal Essay: Definition, Format & Examples - Video & Lesson
american music essay By Kyle Gann for definiton of personal American Public Media. William Billings was the only person in 18th-century Boston to list his profession as Singing Master. Yet like so many American musicians of model for clinical centuries to come, music was not his primary income source; he had a day job. Definiton Of Personal Essay? He was a tanner, and tanned hides for a living. The description that comes down to homework for free us of William Billings is not prepossessing. Definiton? He is essay questions sociology said to have had only one eye, one leg shorter than the other, a withered arm, an definiton alarming snuff habit, and an uncommon negligence of dress. However, in 1770 - six years before the Declaration of Independence was signed, and the same year that Ludwig Van Beethoven was born in Germany - Billings published a book of write papers 120 hymns and choral pieces that he had composed himself in a collection called The New England Psalm Singer. (American patriot Paul Revere engraved the frontispiece for the collection.) Even for a European such a collection would have been an exceptional feat. For a self-taught Boston tanner, it was unimaginable. Before that collection, there had been fewer than a dozen published choral pieces written by Americans. With one stroke Billings increased that number tenfold. Of Personal? Billings' anthems and so called fuging tunes, such as Be Glad, then, America and Lamentation over Boston, spoke of the American Revolutionary experience in critique, terms of Biblical grandeur.
The Billings hymn that would become most famous was Chester, a stirring Revolutionary War tune that would still be included in children's school books well into the 20th century: Let tyrants shake their iron rods. And slavery clank its galling chains. We fear them not, we trust in God. New England's God forever reigns. The glory of Billings' music is definiton its irrepressible tunefulness, matched with a liveliness of rhythm unafraid to essay questions shift gears as the text requires. The fact that European standards of counterpoint were sometimes violated did not bother him. In the introduction to The New-England Psalm-Singer, Billings wrote the archetypal declaration of American music's independence from Europe: . all the definiton, hard, dry, studied rules that ever was prescribed, will not enable any person to form an air. I don't think myself confin'd to any Rules for essay composition, laid down by any that went before me, neither should I think (were I to pretend to lay down Rules) that any who came after me were any ways obligated to of personal essay adhere to them. For Free? I think it is best for essay every Composer to be his own Carver. Billings music wasn't always appreciated by note his contemporaries.
In response to a complaint that his music was too consonant, he wrote a song called Jargon completely in dissonances. Of Personal? And rive the nerves asunder; Let hateful discord greet the ear. As terrible as thunder. In response, some local boys tied two cats together by the tails and hung them from the sign of Billings' tannery shop to let them howl. The fault lines and tensions of American music were ordained in the earliest years of our national history. On one side was nature, spontaneity, and the freedom from civilization that the in math for free, American wilderness offered. On the other was Europe, and definiton essay, those in write, the growing East-coast metropolitan centers who felt that European civilization should be transplanted to these shores lock, stock, and barrel. On one hand were composers like Billings, Anthony Philip Heinrich, and Louis Moreau Gottschalk who believed that Americans could create their own national music from local materials, the inspiration of nature, and sheer Yankee inventiveness. On the other were critics like John Sullivan Dwight, hymn writers like Lowell Mason, and music professors like Horatio Parker who insisted that American music should be subject to the standards and definiton of personal, rules developed by the great European masters like Haydn and Mozart. These two types have been transformed, but they have never ceased to exist, and our national music history has been a tug of war between them.
Billings' choral music, along with that of Supply Belcher, Daniel Read, and other fuging tune writers from the New England tradition, dominated American choral music in the first decades of the 19th century. But in term, the 1830s and '40s, new winds began blowing across America. In 1822 a banker in Savannah, Georgia, named Lowell Mason published his first hymn book. Mason had studied music with a German named Frederick L. Abel, and had come to believe that hymn arrangements should be done according to scientifically correct European standards. His hymn settings were partly taken from Mozart, Haydn, and other European composers.
Further hymn collections followed in essay, 1829 and 1831, with songs like When I survey the Wondrous Cross, Joy to the World, and write papers on ipad, Nearer My God to Thee.In 1837 Mason became superintendent of music in the Boston schools. Through his educational activities and widely reproduced hymn books, Mason had a tremendous impact across America, replacing the of personal, indigenous New England tradition of fuging tunes with hymns based on mind-brain correlation thesis, allegedly correct European models. Even the British Grove Dictionary of Music refers to Mason's revolution as a mixed blessing. Then, in 1840 virtuosos like violinist Ole Bull began to concertize across America. Essay? In 1843, Ureli Corelli Hill and members of the fledgeling New York Philharmonic presented the first string quartet series. Before 1840, America had considered the fiddle the lowliest of musical instruments, meant only to accompany jigs in bars.
After 1840, violins were suddenly represented as bearers of high culture. Mind-brain Correlation Thesis? John Sullivan Dwight, known as the dean of Boston music critics, championed Beethoven and described the definiton of personal essay, glories of European music in terms of religious ecstasy. Dwight was a part of the Transcendentalist movement centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson and note cards in research, Henry David Thoreau; Dwight had joined Bronson Alcott, Louisa May Alcott's father, in an ill-fated communal living experiment at a place called Brook Farm. The Transcendentalists threw their weight on the side of essay European culture. Margaret Fuller, one of the movement's leading intellectuals, went so far as to write an imaginary letter to Beethoven, who at the time had been dead for 16 years: . oh blessed master!, she wrote.
Like a humble wife to essay questions the sage, or poet, it is my triumph that I can understand and cherish thee. The infinite Shakespeare, the stern [Michel] Angelo, Dante, - bittersweet like thee, - are no longer seen in essay, thy presence. . beside these names, there are none that could vibrate in note taking paper, thy crystal sphere. There is none greater than Shakespeare; he, too, is a god; but his creations are successive; thy fiat comprehends them all. Nevertheless, Charles Ives, seeing a different side of Transcendentalism, would write many years later: Thoreau was a great musician, not because he played the flute, but because he did not have to go to Boston to hear 'The Symphony.' Against this roaring wind of European aesthetics, joined as it was to pious morality and upper-class pretentions, certain American composers still campaigned for definiton of personal an indigenous tradition, an critical thinking for clinical American music that had something American about it. The most unusual of these was Anthony Philip Heinrich, who won for himself the nickname, The Beethoven of America. Essay? Though born into a merchant family in Bohemia in 1781, Heinrich emigrated to America after his family business was destroyed by the Napoleonic Wars. Thesis? Once in America, he decided to make a living through music, in which he had previously been only an amateur. He pushed inland to Lexington, Kentucky, where, in 1817, he put together the first American performance of a Beethoven symphony, No. 1. Essay? Convalescing in a log cabin in the Kentucky wilderness in 1818, Heinrich had a vision that he should compose music, and so at critical model decision the age of 37, he taught himself theory and became a composer. Today Heinrich's bizarre works, with titles like Barbecue Divertimento, Hail to Kentucky, and The Yankee Doodleiad, seem humorous, but he was tremendously successful in his lifetime, even making tours of Europe. His greatest work, he felt, was a grand symphony entitled The Ornithological Combat of Kings: or The Condor of the Andes and the Eagle of the definiton, Cordilleras.
With its energetic bursts of writing essay timpani in the opening measures, it was certainly unlike anything being done in Europe in the 1840s. Definiton Essay? Today, perhaps the best-known 19th-century American composer is Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Born in New Orleans in 1829, Gottschalk was exposed early to African, Creole, and West Indian influences, and was a pioneer at incorporating them into his music. He also studied in Europe, but in France with Hector Berlioz, a figure considered scandalous by critique American standards. Works such as his Night in the Tropics incorporated Carribbean syncopations into concert music for the first time. Following Berlioz's example, Gottschalk presented monster concerts of ten pianos or 900 musicians, and definiton of personal essay, played over papers a thousand concerts between 1862 and '65 alone. Such activities were antithetical to sober New England sensibilities, and John Sullivan Dwight criticized Gottschalk harshly. At one concert, however, Gottschalk took a delicious revenge on Dwight on behalf of American composers everywhere. He played a work of definiton of personal essay his own and attributed it to essay sociology Beethoven in the program, also playing a Beethoven work identified as his own; Dwight, predictably, praised the Beethoven composition and lambasted Gottschalk's music for its amateurish inanities. Afterwards, Gottschalk wrote to Dwight to apologize for the unfortunate printing error. American music had a European character stamped on it by the American academic musical establishment, which itself was a product of the late 19th century.
Before 1870, there was no such thing as a college music course; universities were meant for of personal essay academic courses in science, history, and languages. Music was a mere extracurricular amusement. In 1873, however, John Knowles Paine convinced Harvard to appoint him America's first university music professor. Cards Paper? In 1882 George Whitefield Chadwick joined the faculty at Boston's New England Conservatory. In 1894 Horatio Parker took a teaching position at Yale, where his most famous and most recalcitrant student would be Charles Ives. Paine, Chadwick, and definiton of personal, Parker were all trained in Europe: Paine had studied in Berlin, Chadwick at Leipzig Conservatory, and Parker in mind-brain correlation, Munich. Along with John Sullivan Dwight, Paine championed what he called the modern Romantic movement, meaning Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, and Mendelssohn, as well as Handel, Mozart, Beethoven, and of personal, Bach.
Together Paine, Chadwick, and critical thinking model for clinical making, Parker formed a cultural triumverate of East Coast academicians who excersized an definiton of personal enormous power in imposing on American musicians an exaggerated awe of European musical standards and practices. Today the music of these European-trained professors is of only mind-brain specialist interest. Parker was known for his sacred choral work Hora Novissima, Chadwick for his Brahmsian Second Symphony, Paine for his Mass in D and essay, two symphonies. By contrast, the papers, music of our 19th-century mavericks remains popular. The choral music of essay Billings has continued to note taking in research be sung in the South and definiton essay, Appalachia as part of the rural tradition of shaped-note singing. Gottschalk's virtuoso piano works such as The Banjo, Bamboula, and Souvenir de Porto Rico have always remained popular as the pianistic analogue to the homespun songs of Stephen Foster. If we listen to this example from Paine's Mass in D, we'll hear how closely the American academics hewed to their European models.On the other hand, this piece by Gottschalk called The Banjo is as American as baseball, hot dogs, and the Fourth of July. There were also American symphonists who didn't study in Europe, like William Henry Fry, George Bristow, and our first important woman composer Amy Beach. Fry's Santa Claus Symphony and Bristow's Arcadian Symphony may not have the Continental polish of taking works by Paine and Chadwick, but they are livelier and essay, more individual.
The Arcadian Symphony is subtitled The Pioneer, and Bristow opened it with an unusual gesture for essay sociology a symphony: a long, lonely, unaccompanied violin solo. Both Fry and Bristow campaigned as critics for an indigenous American music, and in 1854 Bristow temporarily quit his job as violinist in the New York Philharmonic to definiton of personal essay protest the correlation thesis, orchestra's treatment of American composers. Amy Beach turned to composition partly because her husband discourageed her from a public career as a pianist. Nevertheless, after his death she resumed concertizing, and became, in of personal essay, 1911 our first native composer to travel to Europe, not to study, but to promote her own music. Mind-brain Correlation Thesis? In 1983, the Czech composer Antonin Dvorak sparked a controversy about what made American music American. Unlike other European composers who came through America to tour and make money, leaving as quickly as possible, Dvorak came to essay stay, temporarily, as dirctor of New York's National Conservatory of online Music from 1892 to '95. In 1983 he was completing his now-famous New World Symphony supposedly based on Negro themes such as Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. Dvorak made a statement to the press which was quoted in the New York Herald: I am now satisfied. Definiton Of Personal? he said, that the future music of write papers this country must be founded upon what are called negro melodies. There is nothing in definiton of personal, the whole range of composition that cannot be supplied with themes from this source. The following week, the Boston Herald printed indignant replies by American composers, including Paine, Chadwick, and questions sociology, Beach.
Paine, taking an essay internationalist viewpoint, disagreed that American music need differ in any way from in math European music. Dr. Dvorak. Definiton Of Personal Essay? he wrote, greatly overestimates the mind-brain thesis, influence that national melodies and folk-songs have exercised on the higher forms of musical art. In the case of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, and definiton of personal essay, other German masters, the old folk-songs have been used to a limited extent as motives; but movements founded on such themes are exceptional in comparison with the taking cards paper, immense amount of entirely original thematic material that constitutes the bulk of of personal their music. Term On Ipad? Amy Beach, on the other hand, sympathized with the attempt to definiton of personal create a national music, but felt that Negro melodies need not be the entire basis for it. The African population of the United States, she wrote, is far too small for its songs to be considered 'American.' It represents only one factor in the composition of our nation. We of the north should be far more likely to be influenced by the old English, Scotch, or Irish songs, inherited. from our ancestors.
In response, Beach wrote the work for in math online which she is best-known today, her Gaelic Symphony, based on Irish folksongs. This was the most public exposition yet of an essay eternal American musical conflict. What is America's folk music? African-American, Appalachian, songs from Ireland, pop music? And what role should it serve for American composers? As a melting pot the United States has been in a unique position, the only major nation whose music was not allowed to grow naturally, but with a wealth of conspicuous and often contentious soul-searching. Throughout America's history the writing, conflict between European training and indigenous folk sources has resonated, coming back over and over of personal again in different guises. From the beginning the American composer labored under an mind-brain assumption that crippled his or her creativity: any innovation, any departure from European precedent, might be interpreted as a technical deficiency.
Europeans like Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner were free to definiton essay ignore the help in math homework for free, past and create their own rules, but American symphonists such as Bristow, Chadwick, and Beach dared not transgress beyond precedents set by even the of personal essay, more conservative Europeans like Mendelssohn, Brahms, Dvorak. As Henry Cowell wrote, “Transplanted to write the United States, the of personal essay, rules of harmony and help in math homework online, composition took on a doctrinaire authority that was the more dogmatic for being second hand.” For decades American composers struggled under mutually contradictory mandates. On one hand, they were expected to definiton essay demonstrate a level of formal and thesis, technical polish equal Schumann, Brahms, and the other familiar European masters. Definiton? On another, they were expected to keep pace with Europe's latest trends. As if that were not enough, they were also challenged by the critical press to make their music sound distinctly American - whatever that meant. Composer Henry Gilbert stated the problem in sharp terms: American music. he wrote in cards in research, 1915, has this problem to face: that it can only essay become ultimately distinctive by leaving the paths of imitation, and that by leaving the paths of imitation it must temporarily sacrifice both immediate success and the respect. of write term papers both public and academician.Decade by decade we can chart the great divide between those American composers who sought to be original and those who sought to live up to definiton European standards. In the 1920s, there was the essay sociology, Pan American Association organization versus the League of Composers. The Pan American Association was founded by maverick composer Edgard Varèse, and was dedicated to performing music by composers of the Western hemisphere. Its members included Charles Ives, Henry Cowell, Carl Ruggles, the Mexican Carlos Chavez, Roy Harris, and Wallingford Riegger, most of essay whom had not studied in critical thinking model, Europe. Typical of the Pan American Association was Varèse's hair-raising 1931 work for percussion orchestra called Ionisation, the first work written in of personal essay, the Western world entirely for percussion, and his riotous work for orchestra, Arcana.
The League of Composers, on the other hand, included mostly composers who had studied in Paris or Fontainbleau, the most important being Aaron Copland. Heavily influenced by essay sociology the aggressive new works of definiton essay Igor Stravinsky, the Europhilic League composers supported the new French style of neoclassicism, and performed primarily European music. The League of Composers might have been more typified by the Piano Variations of correlation Aaron Copland, which flirted with the trends of dissonance and definiton of personal essay, abstraction being championed in Europe at questions sociology the time. The League had wealthier patrons, and were backed by two important conductors, Serge Koussevitsky of the definiton essay, Boston Symphony Orchestra and Leopold Stokowski of the Philadelphia Orchestra. The Pan Americans, meanwhile, kept going primarily through the generous financial backing of Charles Ives, who used the fortune he had made in the insurance business to support performance and publication of American music. After World War II the fight surfaced again in a new form.
Composers such as Milton Babbitt, Roger Sessions, George Perle, and others felt that the future of music lay with the 12-tone language developed by Arnold Schönberg, who had emigrated to America in 1933. Their music was typified by Sessions, who famously stated, I have no sympathy for consciously sought originality. Sociology? The tremendous influx of European emigre composers before and during World War II, including Schönberg, Stravinsky, Bartok, Hindemith, Kurt Weill, Krenek, and definiton, many others, represented a deluge of European influence that temporarily buried American trends during the 1950s and much of the '60s. Note Cards In Research Paper? As one composer of the period, Edward T. Cone, put it, the definiton of personal essay, American past is the term, European past and. the foundation provided by the great line [meaning Beethoven, Brahms, and so on] is basic to the development of music in the United States as well as Europe. Opposed to this overwhelming trend were a number of maverick American composers who continued working in non-European idioms during the 1950s with very little support: John Cage, Lou Harrison, Harry Partch, Conlon Nancarrow. Scorning 12-tone technique as a dead end, and as an expression of post-War angst that meant little or nothing to American audiences, these composers embraced world music influences and technology, as Cage did in his Credo in US, the first piece to use the of personal essay, turntable as a musical instrument. One would have thought that by the late 20th century, Europe's psychological claims on critique essay, American composers would have relaxed. Definiton Of Personal Essay? But in the 1980s, the dichotomy returned again in writing, full force, with different philosophies, different protagonists. On one side, many of the composers writing for orchestra had abandoned 12-tone music and returned to a newly ironic approach to essay the rhetoric of 19th-century romanticism. Questions? Composers like George Rochberg, Jacob Druckman, John Corigliano, David Del Tredici, William Bolcom, and John Harbison developed what became known as the New Romanticism, a return to the harmonies, timbres, and forms of 19th-century European music, although with elements of pastiche and rhythmic fragmentation.
At the very same time, beginning in the late 1970s, there was a move among the maverick composers to appropriate the materials of rock and pop music. Music, so the philosophy went, should derive from the vernacular music of the people, and by the late 1970s, most people's vernacular music was rock. Rhys Chatham and Glenn Branca started writing symphonies for electric guitars. Robert Ashley wrote an opera, Perfect Lives, with a rock beat. Laurie Anderson came out of the avant-garde and actually had a hit single, O Superman, hit number two on of personal, the pop charts in England in 1981. Even those composers who didn't go so far as to use a propulsive backbeat were writing a simple, accessible music growing from the avant-garde movement that had taken off in the 1960s: minimalism. One of the best of these was William Duckworth, whose Time Curve Preludes brought together bluegrass and minimalist influences, in much the same way that Gottschalk's The Banjo had fused 19th-century banjo playing with romanticism. Two hundred years of history should be enough to suggest that this rift in questions sociology, American music may be permanent. There are two streams of American music both claiming to definiton occupy the writing, same position. For some musicians, America is simply Europe's western branch, and our musical tradition is a linear continuation of the same tradition that grew from definiton Bach through Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, and writing critique, Schönberg.
These composers tend to write for orchestra whenever possible; they write symphonies, concertos, string quartets. For other composers - the mavericks - the dominance of European music represents an imperialism we've been waiting for definiton essay decades to escape. Correlation Thesis? A new continent, they feel, requires its own music, its own practice, its own sounds, techniques, forms, and procedures. Its music should be drawn from the local enviornment, the sounds of home; its forms should be relevant to American society, not to a 19th-century European aristocracy that no longer exists. These two viewpoints have never been reconciled.
It is definiton unlikely that either will disappear in the forseeable future. In future essays, we'll explore many of the critique, ways American composers have drawn the music from American life: by imitating the of personal, rhythmic style of jazz, by using American electronic technology, by writing symphonic works for electric guitars. Art is a transformation of the help in math for free, world around us - at least, that's the standpoint of the American Mavericks.
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College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. Part A – Write an essay of mind-brain thesis no more than 1500 words. What constitutes a good physical environment for care and support and why is it so . important? Illustrate your answer by definiton of personal analysing least two Block 4 care settings. There are a number of different care settings, however I have decided to discuss and analyse Home and Hospital care, its environments and critical for clinical decision how the physical environments affect people giving and receiving care. Healthcare is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness.
Environment , Geriatrics , Health care 1584 Words | 5 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Essay! Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Help In Math Homework For Free! Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages.
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Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree or disagree . with an issue, using reasons to support your opinion. Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is right. Argumentation is a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to think on definiton of personal essay their own: They have to thinking for clinical decision take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the definiton essay, TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages.
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Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and questions context of your article. Definiton! Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for in math homework online for free, standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on definiton of personal the Definition of essay sociology Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the of personal essay, most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages.
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Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. and solution: writer’s block The main problem that I face right now and that I feel secure enough to talk about is having writer’s . block . For those who don’t know what this is; writer’s block is help homework online when you can’t write and definiton of personal essay remain in writing essay, a slump without being able to finish anything you were writing. This problem has made me frustrated and stressed. It has led to my assignments being late and leaves me uncertain about essay whether they’re done properly or not. Taking Cards! Unfortunately writer’s block is a problem I often. Creative writing , Essay , Not Enough Time 804 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Of Personal! Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to papers on ipad say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for definiton of personal essay, his conservative views that can be attributed in part to write his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though.
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Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of definiton discovery . consists not in essay, seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by essay seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in essay, Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the of personal essay, decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is described by many different people in taking cards in research paper, various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and definiton Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages.
as a group of individuals who are driven by in math homework for free a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin making comparisons with other groups of definiton essay individuals and notice . Note In Research! a great deal of similarities. For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization , and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by a common goal congregated and bonded to birth their club. Just like veterans, all the different club members experience a. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages. of view European Lebanese School Extra Sheet Subject: English Grade: 10 Teacher: Rana Chehade Section: A Term: I Date: Name of of personal student: . WRITING ESSAYS OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST Essays of comparison and contrast discuss differences and critique similarities between two ideas, subjects, or issues. ? Model essay 1: Gender Differences The battle between the sexes started with Adam and Eve, and will probably continue forever. The opinion that men are superior to women has long. Brain , Difference , Female 980 Words | 6 Pages.
What is a comparative essay ? A comparative essay asks that you compare at definiton of personal essay least two (possibly more) items. These items will . Online For Free! differ depending on the assignment. You might be asked to compare positions on an issue (e.g., responses to midwifery in Canada and the United States) theories (e.g., capitalism and essay communism) figures (e.g., GDP in the United States and Britain) texts (e.g., Shakespeare’s Hamletand Macbeth) events (e.g., the Great Depression and the global financial crisis of 2008–9) . Communism , Comparison , Essay 980 Words | 4 Pages. motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other hand, Amoo . gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the essay sociology, exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to definiton write the later. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of sociology administrative positions, I feel in definiton of personal essay, many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of thesis a field that is of personal brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in critical thinking for clinical decision, my own.
Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ?Contrast Essay Write a five- or six-paragraph contrast essay on one of the topics below. Topic 1: Contrast the life of the . typical young adult and the typical middle-aged adult. Definiton! Topic 2: Contrast being an mind-brain, only child with having siblings. Topic 3: Contrast driving in two different places (e.g. your hometown and Dallas). Topic 4: Contrast ways in which people interact with each other in of personal, two different cultures (e.g. your culture and U.S. culture). Topic 5: Contrast being a child today with. Addition , Coca-Cola , Culture 497 Words | 3 Pages.
Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to provide examples about something. Writing an exemplification essay . typically involves offering many examples to critical thinking for clinical making support a generalization about something. In this type of essay , examples act as supporting material to explain or clarify the generalization. An exemplification essay (or illustrative essay ) uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point or argument (the essay thesis). The key to a good exemplification essay is to use enough detailed. Automobile , Essay , Essays 1268 Words | 6 Pages.
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Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Characteristics of Expository Essays. these essays expository? Both essays use evidence, examples , or facts to explain a concept or to inform about . Definiton Of Personal Essay! their topics with a thesis as its base; the information is presented fairly and in a non-biased manner. Identify the type of organization each author used to develop the writing critique, essay (topic, time order, space order, or informative process). Definiton Of Personal Essay! The type of critical model decision making organization the author used for the essay “Setting the Table” was the Informative Process. Definiton! Informative Process: An expository essay developed. Essay , Essays , Writing 578 Words | 3 Pages.
ORGANIZATION GROUP FLOW In an organization , communication flows in 5 main directions- 1. Downward 2. Upward 3. . Lateral 4. Diagonal 5. Critique Essay! External 6. Laissez-faire 1. Downward Flow of Communication: Communication that flows from a higher level in an organization to of personal essay a lower level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from superiors to correlation subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This communication flow is essay used by the managers to. Communication , Leader , Leadership 1233 Words | 5 Pages. ?Brianna Simpson Mr. Bernstein English 101 16 October 2013 Essay #2: Profile . Never Wild Those who wish to pet and baby wild animals, love them. But those who respect their natures and wish to let them live normal lives, love them more. ? Edwin Way Teale Nearly two miles up a rocky washboard dirt road in Phelan, California is Forever Wild Exotic Animal Sanctuary at 8545 Buttemere Road. Driving.
Animal , Doing It , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of a . Questions! person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in of personal essay, ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and mind-brain thesis ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and definiton thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. security measures than there are currently in schools today. Indubitably, most schools have emergency drills and term practices for protection; however, that is . not always enough, for definiton of personal essay, people in a school can still be harmed, or even worse, executed. For example , a student could walk into a school with a concealed weapon and easily start firing off into a crowd of note taking cards students; therefore, law-enforcement officers alone may not be able to reach the situation fast enough. Furthermore, if each teacher were allowed.
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